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The bridge-equipage, on which I reckoned column'arrived on the 13th at Usagre, in order to cross the Tagus, not having where was the 5th corps; I advanced upon yet arrived from Madrid, my march was Los Santos, where I found myself in the delayed; in the mean time, its arrival was midst of the establishments of the enemy's a matter of urgency, for all the reports army. On the 15th I took a position at announced that Badajoz was attacked with Fuente del Maestre ; on the 17th at Algreat vigour; that three breaches had mendralejo, from whence on the 18th I been made; that two assaults had been communicated with the imperial army of already given, and that the enemy wished, Portugal, of which the advanced guard cost what it would, to make themselves had arrived at Merida; and the same day masters of that important city. Whatever I concerted with Marshal the Duke of Ra. were the obstacles which arose from cir- gusa the ulterior movements of the two cumstances, we used so much diligence, armies.-On the 19th we were informed that my advanced guard arrived at Merida that the siege of Badajoz was raised, and on the evening of the 17th, where it joined that the enemy bad abandoned his posithe posts of the army of the south. On tion at Albuera, evacuated Olivenza, and the morning of the 13th, the duke of Dal was withdrawing his troops to the right matia and myself concerted the necessary bank of the Guadiana, on the side of Elvas. measures for driving the enemy from his In the afternoon of the same day the army entrenched positions at Albuera, and re made a movement in advance, and I relieving Badajoz; but the enemy retired in ceived a letter from General Philippon, all haste, re-crossed the Gụadiana, and re. Governor of Badajoz, which confirmed the entered Portugal, without its being in our retreat of the enemy; ou the 20th our power to come up with him. It is vexa. troops arrived on the Guadiana, before tious that he did not dare to await us, for Olivenza, and at Badajoz; the army of a signal victory would have infallibly Portugal manæuvred by the right bank, marked our arrival in these regions. We and took the road of Talavera; the army entered Badajoz yesterday, where, we of the South defiled by Santa Martha and were able to perceive with our own eyes, the Albuera, while a column advanced what vigour General Philippon the Go- along the mountains upon the left. The vernor, and his brave garrison, had exerted cavalry of the two armies is to day in rein the defence of that fortress, and how connaissance upon Villaviciosa, Elvas, and moch their conduct was worthy of praise. in front of Campo Mayor, in order to as- I cannot refrain from praising the ex- certain the movements and dispositions of cellent spirit which has animated the army the enemy. Upon the report which they during a long and painful march, under a shall give, I shall decide, with the Duke burning sun and amidst inany privations : 1 of Ragusa, as to the ulterior operations but it would be difficult to expect too which the army of Portugal and that of many proofs of zeal for the service of his the South will attempt. — The junction of Majesty, from the brave regiments which the two armies on the banks of the Guacompose the army of Portugal.- have diana is one of the most marked events of the honour, &c.

the war of Spain; it will be in its conseThe Marshal Duke of RAGUSA.

quences of the greatest effect for the beneBadnjoz, June 21.

fit of the service of the Einperor; its first

result has been the preservation of Bada. To his Highness the Prince of Neufchatel, joz; the southern provinces of Spain are Major General, &c.

also entirely relieved on the side of PortuMonseigneur, - I hasten to inform your gal, and tranquillity, which was for a moHighness, that the fortress of Badajoz is ment disturbed on several points, is re-esrelieved, and that the troops which be- tablishing. The Duke of Ragusa and my. sieged it bave retired into the interior of self meant to give battle to the enemy; Portugal

, to join the rest of the Anglo- but Lord Wellington has prudently retired Portuguese and Spanish army, command before we could come up with him: yet ed by Lord Wellington, who has taken the his forces amounted to 60,000 men ; of same direction-On the 12th inst. I set out whom 30,000 were English, comprehendfrom Llerena with the troops of the army ing the two divisions of General Spencer, of the South, which I had caused to be which he had withdrawn from the north, united ; General Count D'Erlon, who, 1 14.000 Portuguese, and 16,000 Spaniards: knew, must join me two days after, fol. he had in this number 5,000 cavalry.lowed the movement; the head of his It is vexatious that a general affair has not

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taken place; the event would not have measure was perfectly understood, the been uncertain; but it is to be hoped, that enemy made only a false attack on this an opportunity will offer itself. I must point.At Fort San Christoval there was now give your Highness an account of the only one practicable breach in the night situation in which we found Badajoz, and of the 7th : 1,500 English threw them. of the glorious defence of its brave garri- selves into the ditch of the fort, applied son. The General of Brigade, Philippon, their ladders, and attempted the assault; who commanded as Governor, has had the thrice they returned to the charge; 75 rare merit of creating for bimself means, brave fellows, commanded by Captain and of rendering serviceable for its defence Chauvin, of the 88th, steadily repulsed all that there were of Frenchmen in Bada- them, and inflicted on them very great joz; while with a vigorous hand he kept los$ ; we had some soldiers wounded with down the inhabitants, and employed them thrusts of the bayonet on the height of even on the works of the fortifications, the breach; the success was complete; which were incessantly improving.

the dead, the wounded, and the ladders, shall soon have the honour of sending your remained in the ditch. On the following Highness a copy of the journal of the days, the enemy continued his fire on the siege; at present I can only notice the fort, and endeavoured to enlarge the principal transactions, and by you to re breach. In the night of the 10th, 2,000 present to the Emperor, General Philippon English presented themselves anew, to as deserving the fruits of his good opinion. give the assault. Capt. Jondiou, of the I have the honour to ask for him the title 21st regiment of light-infantry, commandof Count, and a suitable endowment; I ed at San Christoval : his garrison con. shall also solicit rewards for other military sisted of 140 men, every soldier had four men of all ranks, who have distinguished loaded muskets by his side; General themselves by brilliant exploits. On the Philippon had ordered to be placed a great 16th of May, the day of the battle which quantity of charged bombs on the paraI fought with the allied army, at Albuera, pets, of which Serjeant Brette, of the 5th nine days had already expired since the regiment of artillery, had the direction; trenches were opened by the enemy be- (this soldier had before distinguished himfore Badajoz, and six days since the fire self at the first assault of San Christoval.) against the place had commenced.-On Already the enemy had applied 40 ladthe evening of the 15th the besiegers ders, the head of their column had reached withdrew ail their troops, and united them the height of the breach ; Serjeant Brette to their other force at Albuera; they did calls out “ Captain, shall we blow up the not re-appear till the 19th. During their first mine?” The bombs and grenades absence, General Philippon rased the descend, exploding they break the ladwhole of the works which they had con- ders, and spread death and dismay among structed, and brought within the fortress the enemy; while, with the bayonet, the the platforms and fascines which he found garrison drive them down to the bottom of there; he even took some convoys from the breach; in an instant the ditches were the enemy, who were, arranging matters filled with dead and wounded, among for restoring the works of the siege ; but whom were several English officers ; in they did not, the second time, open the this confusion some English officers de. trenches till the night of the 30th of May: manded succour; the brave Jondiou or The fire against the place recommenced dered them to refit a ladder, and ascend on the 3d of June, and continued without into the fort, where they should surrender interruption till the raising of the siege. as prisoners. This was accordingly done. On the 6th, three breaches were already At' day-breaking the enemy's General made, one in the body of the place, and wrote to General Philippon, demanding a two in Fort San Christoval; the first in truce of three hours, in order to carry off front of the Castle, between Trinity bas- the wounded, who remained in the ditch tion and the Guadiana, to the left of the or under the fire of the fort. The demand half-moon San Roque ; but General Philip was acceded to. The loss of the English pon immediately set to work to escarp it, in this affair exceeded 600 men; we had and ordered an entrenchment to be made not 10 men rendered unfit for service. in the solid ground of the Castle; this last

(To be continued.)

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Published by R. BAGSHAW, Brydges-Street, Covent - Garden :-Sold also by J. BUDD, Pall-Mall,


LONDON - Printed by T: C. Hansard, Peterborougla-Court, Floet-Street,

VOL. XX. No. 5.]


[Price is.



" The true way of convincing your enemy, that his war upon your finances will be us:less, is, to “ state explicitly to the world, that you are not at all afraid of the coosequences of a national bank" ruptcy ; for, while you endeavour to make people believe, that such an event cannot possibly huppen, " they will certainly think, that you regard it, if it should happen, as irretrievable ruin and destruction; " and, therefore, as you never can quite overcome their apprehensions, the best way is to be silent " apou the subject, or to set the terrific bugbear at defiance.". -POLITICAL Register, 18th June, 1903. 129)


the dividends shall be paid upon the inter

est of that Debt. BEING AN EXAMINATION

Now, if I have shown tliis to your satis

faction, the question, and the only quesReport of the Bullion Committee :

tion, that remains to be discussed, is, what


sation in the payment of the dividends;

that is to say, the total destruction of the TRADESMEN AND FARMERS national Debt; the total breaking up of IN AND NEAR SALISBURY,

the Funds and the Bank Note system. This is the only question that now remains to be discussed ; but a very impor

tant question it is, and one which, I hope, Letter XXIX.

will receive your patient attention. What is to be the end of all this?-PaperMoney is not the cause of Sunshine and To hear the greater part of people talk Showers - We may erist without Paper

upon this subject, one would imagine, that Moncy, England did very well before

the Bank Notes were the meat, drink, and Paper-Money was heard of-What is to clothing of the inhabitants of this island; become of the Fundholders - The Sale of the and, indeed, that they gave us sun-shine Royal Plate and of the Church Property in

and showers and every thing necessary to Austria - Let what will happen in England our existence. One would really suppose, the Jacobins and Levellers will not merit

that the general creed was, that the Bank any Share of the Blame--Conclusion,

Directors were the Gods of the country, that they were our

ustainers if not actuGENTLEMEN,

ally our Makers, that from them we de. What, then, is to be the end of all this? rived the breath in our nostrils, that in and What are to be the ultimate effects pro through them we lived, moved, and had duced upon the nation by this depreciation our being. No wonder, then, that there of the paper money? The Pittite party should be an apprehension and even a horror tell us, that there is not gold to be had; inspired by the idea of a total destruction that the Bank cannot pay in gold ; and of the paper-money; no wonder, that, that the matter must be left to better times when I' began, about eight years and a and to better fortune. The other party tell half ago, to write against the Funding us, that, if they had the power of adopting System, I should have been regarded as what measures they pleased, they would guilty of blasphemy, and should have cause the Bank to pay agnin in gold ; that been accused thereof by that devout man, they would restore the paper to its former MR. Sheridan; no wonder that some estimation; and, in short, retrieve the men's knees should knock together and whole system. I have, I think, shown their teeth chatter in their head upon you very clearly, that, to cause the Bank being told, that the day is, probably, not to pay again in gold is impossible ; and far distant, when a guinea, a real golden that, let what will happen, let what will guinea, will buy a hundred pound's worth, take place as to commerce, or as to war, of three per cents. the Bink Paper will never regain any part of what it has lost, as long as the na But, Gentlemen, is there any ground for tional debt shall crist; or, rather, as long as these apprehensions? Are such apprehen


sions to be entertained by rational men? of these effects ? Why should it destroy No: the corn and the grass and the trees all property; why produce bloodshed; why will grow without paper-money; the destioy our holy religion? I have before Banks may all break in a day, and the told you, that the paper-money was unsun will rise the next day, and the Jambs known in England, till within about 107 will gambol and the birds will sing and years. England did very well before that the carters and country girls will grin at time. The people of England were brave each other and all will go on just as if no and free, happy at home and dreaded thing had happened.

abroad, long before paper-money was

heard of. Why, then, should they now Yes,” says some besotted Pittite, believe, that, without paper-money, they we do not suppose, that the destruction would be reduced 10 a state of barbarism “ of the paper-system would put out the and slavery? The Church, as it is now es

light of the sun, prevent vegetation, or tablished, existed long before paper"disable men and women to propagate money was thought of, and so did all those “ their species: we are not fools enough lurus, which we yet boast of as the great "'10 suppose that.”

Pray, then, what are bulwarks of our freedom; and, what is you fools enough to suppose ? What are more, I defy any man to shew me one you fools enough to be afraid of? For, if single law, in favour of the liberties of the the destruction of the paper produces, and people, which has been passed since the esis calculated to produce, none of these ef- tablishment of the Paper-Money System, fects, how can it be a thing to excite any while numerous laws have been passed very general apprehension? Who would it hostile to those liberties. Before the hurt ? “Oh! it would create universal existence of the National Debt and the

uproar and confusion : it would destroy Bank, the House of Commons used fre“all property; it would introduce anar quently to refuse to grant the money

chy and bloodshed, and would annihilate called for by the Crown ; since they have

regular government, social order, and our existed, no grant of the kind has ever been holy religion.” These are the words that refused by that House. Before the Paper JOHN Bowles, the Dutch Commissioner, System existed, there was no standing used to make use of. This is the decla. army in England ; before the Paper Sysmatory cant, by the means of which the tem existed, there were not more than people of this country have been deceived two hundred thousand paupers in England and deluded along from one stage of ruin and Wales : there are now twelve hundred to another, till, at last, they have arrived thousand. at what_they now taste of. If, when Johnny Bowles, or any of his tribe, had Why, then, should we alarm ourselves been writing in this way, a plain trades- at what appears to indicate the approach. man, who gets his living by fair dealing ing destruction of this System?' “Oh, and who has no desire to share in the but,” says the Minister (Perceval), plunder of the public, had gone to the “ without the Paper System we could not writer, and, taking him fast by the button, " have had the victories recently won in had said to him : « Come, come! tell me, Spain and Portugal:" to which he might “in definite terms, what you mean, and have added the achievements at Quiberon, “show me how I should be a loser by this at Dunkirk, at the Helder, at Ferrol, at “thing that you appear so much to dread. Buenos Ayres, in Hanover, in Leon and “ None of your rant ; none of your horri- Gallicia, at Corunna, at Walcheren, &c. &c. fying descriptions; but, come, John, tell &c. The list might be swelled out to “me HOW I should be made worse off in three times this length; but this is long " this world, and HOW I should be more enough. If what the Minister calls the

exposed to go to hell, if that which “ recent victories" are the fruit of the

you appear to dread weré actually to Paper System, so are all the achievements “ take place:" if any such man had so to which I have here called your

recoladdressed this Treasury scribe, the scribe lection. Indeed they were so; for, the would have been puzzled much more than wars themselves proceeded from the same he was by his per cents about the Dutch The American war grew out of Commission.

the Paper System; and so did the Anti

jacobin war, which began in 1793, and Why, Gentlemen, should the total de which has finally produced the state of struction of the paper-money produce any things which we now have before us. So


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that, as to the use of the Paper System in |tain a compensation for them. The Emthis way, there can, I think, be very little peror, therefore, like an honest man, has, doubt.

as the news papers tell us, sent all his

plate, all his gold and silver, in whatever “Well, but, after all,” some one will shape, to the mint to be melted down and say, " what

to become of the Fundholder ? | turned into coin for the payment of the " How is he to get re-paid ?” My answer people who have lent him and his governto this is, that, it does not appear to be a ment their money. And, besides this, the matter in which the people, I mean the mass Clergy, animated by a zeal for their soveof the nation, have much to do or to say. reign truly worthy of example, have given For, what is the Fundholder or Stockholder ? up their estates to be sold for the same honest Why, he is a man, who, choosing a large purpose, which, doubtless, they have been rather than a small interest for his money, the more disposed to do, when they rehas lent it to some persons in power, flected, that the debts of the government under an agreement, that he shall be paid were incurred in carrying on a war for interest upon

it out of the taxes raised regular government, social order, and upon the people. A man, who lends mo their holy religion,” and in the producney, knows, of course, or, at least, he ought ing and prolonging of which war they to know, the sufficiency of the borrower; or, themselves had so great a hand, as well as if he does not know that, he, of course, in persecuting all those who were opposed takes the risk into his calculation; and he to the system. Accordingly, we see accan have no right to complain if the counts in the public prints of the SALES chances should happen to turn up against OF CHURCH LANDS going on in Aushim. Upon this principle Sir John Mit- tria. They are said to sell remarkably FORD (now Lord Redesdale) went in de well*; and, it is stated, that, these sales fending the first Bank Restriction Bill, together with the meltings of the Royal when, in answer to those who contended, Plate will yield enough to satisfy al the that it would be a breach of faith to compel Government Creditors; or, at least, to afthe Fundholder to take paymentin paper, ford them the means of living beyond the he said, that the Fundholder, when he lent his reach of misery. money, knew that a case like this might happen, and that, therefore, he had no reason to complain. Till I read this, I thought that tier on one side of me and a Parson on the

But, methinks, I see start forth a Cour. I was the only one who had held the doc- other, and, with claws distended ready to trine, so that my satisfaction at seeing my lay hold of my cheeks, exclaim: “Whal, opinions corroborated by such high legal

“ cold-blooded wretch, are these, then, authority was somewhat diminished by ihe reflection, that I had lost what I had

" your means of compensation for the deemed

English - Fundholder ?" Softly! softly! undivided claim to originality. Give me time to speak. Do not tear my

my I do not, however, see any reason why eyes out before you hear what I have to

you what the Fundholders, or, at least, that part of say. Stop a little, and I will tell them, who have been compelled to suffer

I mean. their property to be thus vested, should not, in any case, hade a just compensation. * VIENNA, JULY 6.-" A second sale And how? Whence is this compensation" of ecclesiastical estates will soon take to come? In Austria, our old and faithful" place. On the 230 will be sold, the and august ally, the Emperor, is acting the "estate of Keixendorf; and on the 24th, part of a very honest man.

" those of St. George and Baumgarten, money in Austria has fallen to a fourteenth “ As there are many competitors, the sums part of its nominal value, in spite of severul - produced by these sales has greatly surEdicts prohibiting the passing of it for less “ passed what the lands were estimated at. than its nominal value. A hundred florins in The body of merchants in this city pubsilver was worth fourteen hundred and fifty “ lished, some days since, a memoir in three florins in paper when the last advices “ their defence, against the charges obcame away; and, perhaps, one florin in " jected to them, of having contributed to silver, is, by this time, worth fifty florins “the depreciation of the paper money. Of course the government cre

- The memoir has been transmitted to the ditors

, or Austrian Fundholders, must be " Minister of Finance, and presented to ruined, unless something be done to ob “ his Majesty the Emperor.”.

The paper

in paper.

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