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is, in extending our commercial relations, to liare with them as little POLITICAL connection as pollible. So far as we have already formed engagements, let them be fulfilled with perfect good faith.Here let us stop.

27. Europe has a set of primary interests, which to us have none,or a very remote relation. Hence the muft be engaged in frequent controversies, the causes of which are essentially foreign to our concerns. Hence, therefore, it must be unwise in us to implicate ourselves by artificial ties, in the ordinary vicissitudes of her politics, or the one dinary combinations and collisions of her friendships, or enmities. Our detached and distanţ situation invites and enables us to pursue a different..course. If we remain one people, under an efficient government, the period is not far off, when we may defy material injury from external annoyance ; when we may take such an attitude as will cause the neutrality, we may at any time resolve upon, to be scrupuously relpected; when belligerent nations, under the impoflibility of making acquisitions upon us, will not lightly hazard the giving us provocation-; when we may choose peace or war, as our interest, guided by jufa tice, shall counsel.

28. Why forego- the advantages of so peculiar a fit : nation? Why quit our own to stand upon foreign ground? Why, by interweaving our destiny with that of any part of Europe, entangle our peace and profperity in the toils : of European ambition, rivalship, interest, humor or caprice ? 'Tis our true policy to steer clear of permanent alliances, with any portion of the foreign world ; so far, I mean as we are now at liberty to do it"; for let mne nos be understood as capable of patronising infidelity to existe : ing engagements. I hold the maxim no less applicable to publie than to private affairs, that honesty is always the belt policy. Crepeat it, therefore, let those engagements be observed in their genuine sense. But, in my opinion, it is unneceffary, and would be unwise, to extend them. Taking care always to keep ourselves, by suitable eitab-lishments, on a respectable defensive posture, we may safe. lý trust to temporary alliances for extraordinary enietgencies.

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29. Harmony, liberal intercourse with all nations, are recommended by policy, humanity, and interest, But even our commercial policy should hold an equal and impartial hand; neither seeking nor granting exclusive favors or preferences; consulting the natural course of things ; diffusing and diversifying by gentle means the streams of commerce, but forcing nothing ; establishing, with powers, fo disposed, in order to give trade a stable courfe, to define the rights of our merchants, and to enaa ble the government io support them, conventional rules. of intercourse, the best that present circumstances and mutual opinion will permit, but temporary, and liable : to be from time to time abandoned or varied, as expe. rience and circumstances fhall dietate ; constantly keeping in view, that 'tis folly in one nation to look for disinterested favors from another; that it must pay with a portion of its independence for whatever it may accept under that character ; that by such acceptance, it may place itself in the condition of having given equivalents for noe. minal favors, and yet of being reproached with ingrati, tude for not giving more. There can be no greater era Tor than to expect, or calculate upon real favors from na.. tion to nation. Tis an illusion which experience must cure, which a just pride ought to discard.

30. In offering to you, my countrymen, these coun.. fels of an old and affectionate friend, I dare not hope they will make the strong and lasting impression I could wish : that they will controul the usual current of the paflions, or prevent our nation from running the course which has hitherto marked the destiny of nations : But, if I may even flatrer myself, that they may be productive of fome partial benefit, fome occasional good ; that they may now and then recur to moderate the fury of party fpirit, to warn against the mischiefs of foreign intrigues, and guard against the impostures of pretended patriotism; this hope will be a full recompence for the folicitude for Tour welfare, by which they have been dictated. How fär, in the discharge of my official duties, I have been guided by the principles which have been delineated, the

public records and other evidences of my conduct witness to you and to the world. To myself, tha allur'ance of my own conscience is, that I have at least belia eved myself to be guided by them. ..

31. In relation to the still sublifting war in Europe, my proclamation of the 22d of April, 1793, is the index to my plan. Sanctioned by your approving voice and by that of your reprefentatives in both houses of congress, the spirit of that measure has continually governed me; uninfluenced by any attempt to deter or divert me from it. After deliberate examination, with the aid of the best lights I could obtain, I was well satisfied that our country, under all the circumstances of the case, had a right to take, and was bound in duty and interest, to take a neu. tral position. Having taken it, I determined, as far should depend upon me, to maintain it, with moder , perseverance and firmness.

. 82 v 32. The consideration which respects the right 86 the conduct, it is not necessary on this occasion to w will only observe, that according to my undeetais of the matter, that right, so far from being deniead: of the belligerent powers, has been virtually admitere all. The duty of holding a neutral conduct may ferred, without any thing more, from the obligation wa justice and humanity impose upon every nation, in ca* in which it is free to act, to maintain inviolate the relations of peace and amity towards other nations. The inducements of interest for observing that conduct will best he referred to your own reflections and experience, With me, a predominant motive has been to endeavor

to gain time to our country to settle and mature its yet · recent institutions, and to progress without interruption,

to that degree of strength and consistency, which is necessary to give it, humanly speaking, the command of its own fortunes.

33. Tho in reviewing the incidents of my administra. tion, I am unconscious of intentional error : I am nevertheless too sensible of my defects not to think it proba. ble that I may have committed many eriors. Whatever

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w may be, I fervently beseech the Almighty to avert. or mitigate the evils to which they may, tend. I shall also carry with me the hope that my country will never ceale to view them with indulgence, and that after fortyfive years of my life dedicated to its service, with an upright sral, the fáults of incompetent abilities will be configned to oblivion, as myself must soon be to the mansions of rest. Relying on its kindness in this as in other things, and actuated by that fervent love towards it, which is so natural to a man, who views in it the native foil of himself and his progenitors for several generations ;, I anticipate with plealing expectation that retreat, in which I promise myself to realize, without alloy, the sweet enjoyment of partaking, in the midst of my fellow citizens, I benign influence of good laws under a free govern.. elted the ever favourite object of my heart, and the of its; reward, as I trust, of our mutual cares, labors:

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Miftory of the Revolution in America, commencing
with its remote caufes.

General Description of the United States, and
the Climate.


. . . . . . .
Vegetable Productions. . . . .




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Present condition of the several Stales, including

their fituation, extent, population, produ&tions,
commerce, manufactures, and civil constitution.

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An account of the Malilippi territory, Indiana and
: Misbigan. . . . . . . 189


A history and defcription of Louifana
Constitution of the United States. i ;.
General Views of the Inhabitants of the United

States. . . . . .
Washington's Farewell Addrefs. .


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