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the French army assumed by Junot.-Distress of the Zaragozans.
-Heroism of the women.--Palafox seized with fever.—The city
given up.

Remonstrance of the Court of Vienna.-Effects of the Peninsu-
lar campaign.-Services of Sir Robert Wilson.-Reinforcement of
the Portuguese army.—Romana defeated at Monterrey.--Atroci-
ties of the French on the capture of Oporto.-Conduct of the
British government.--Battle of Ciudad Real.-Battle of Medellin :

Its consequences.

Landing of Sir Arthur Wellesley at Lisbon.—He is appointed to
the supreme commandin Portugal - New era in the war.-Bridge of
Amarante carried by the French.—Plan of Sir Arthur Wellesley.
-He crosses the Douro.—The French driven from Oporto.
Movements of Soult-Soult escapes by the mountain-paths.-Ob-

Successes in Gallicia.-Capture of Vigo.--Romana enters Aus-
turias. -Movements of the French armies.--Ney and Soult aban-
don Gallicia. Occurrences in Catalonia.-Movements of Reding.
-Battle of Valls.-Death of Reding.--He is succeeded by Blake.
-Early successes of Blake.--He is defeated at Belchite.-Advance
of SuchetOrigin of the Guerillas.-Guerilla warfare and leaders.

Distribution of the hostile armies.-Description of the country be-
tween the Douro and the Tagus.-The British advance to Placentia
and Majadas.—Repulse of Cuesta by Victor.—Cuesta falls back on
the British army :-Its danger.—The French determine to attack.
- Relative positions of the armies.-Battle of Talavera. The
French under Soult retire to Placentia.—Sir Arthur Wellesley ado -
vances to attack Soult.-Cuesta follows.-The British cross the .


Recapitulation.-Speech of Napoleon to the Senate.—Prepara-
tions of France.--Gloomy prospects of the allies.--Hopes of Lord
Wellington_His policy-Moves his head-quarters to Vizeu.-
Soult enters Andalusia—Forces the mountain passes and enters
Seville.-Cadiz saved by the Duke del Albuquerque.- Deposition
of the Supreme Junta, and appointment of a Council of Regency.
The French in Andalusia annoyed by Guerillas.- Description of
the Isla de Leon and of Cadiz :-Their defences.--Matagorda a-
bandoned.—Dissensions in Cadiz. Albuquerque retires in disgust.
-Preparations of Sir Thomas Graham for the defence of Cadiz.

Atrocious proclamation of Soult, and consequent decree of the

Spanish government.-Character of Joseph Buonaparte.-Opera-

tions of Suchet.State of Aragon and Navarre.-Suchet advances

against Valencia :-Retreats.-Blake appointed governor of Ca.

diz. Affairs in Catalonia.—Siege and fall of Hostalrich.-Fall of

Lerida and Mequinenza.--Siege and capture of Astorga.--Move-

ments of Romana.


State of public feeling in England. The French armies rein-
forced.-Movements of Lord Wellington.-Massena prepares to
invade Portugal. --Strength and character of the hostile armies.-

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Position of Lord Wellington in Lower Beiria.-Siege of Ciudad
Rodrigo :-Its gallant defence, and surrender.-Massena enters
Portugal.His proclamation.-Almeida invested by the French.-
Combat on the Coa.-Proclamation of Lord Wellington.-Move-
ment of the British army.-Siege and surrender of Almeida.-
Massena violates the terms of capitulation.-Boasting of the
French bulletins. Fears in England._Firmness of Lord Wel-
lington.-Massena advances into Portugal. Description of the
country north of the Mondego.--The British halt at Busaco,
and prepare for battle.—Distribution of the armies.-Battle of
Busaco.--Consequences of the victory of the British.-Massena
turns the British position.—The British retire on Lisbon, and
enter the lines of Torres Vedras.-Massena goes into position.-
Description and observations.—Retrospect of the campaign.-Co-
imbra taken.-Massena retires on Santarem..Is followed by Lord
Wellington.-State of Lisbon.--Observations.

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On the liberation of Portugal, by the Conven- CHAP. I. tion of Cintra, it was determined by the British

1808. government to despatch an expedition to the

October. north of Spain. Preparations for this purpose were immediately set on foot by Sir Hew Dalrymple, and continued by Sir Harry Burrard, without any considerable progress being made in the equipment of the army for active service. It was not till the sixth of October that Sir



CHAP. I. John Moore received official information of his

being appointed to command the troops des1808. October.

tined for this service. The despatch stated, that the officer commanding the forces of his Majesty in Portugal, was directed to detach a corps of twenty thousand infantry, with two regiments of German light cavalry, and a suitable body of artillery, to be placed under his orders, and that this force would be joined by a corps of above ten thousand men, then assembling at Falmouth, under command of Sir David Baird.

Sir John Moore was directed to proceed, with the troops under his more immediate command, without any avoidable delay; and was instructed to fix on some place of rendezvous for the whole army, either in Gallicia or on the borders of Leon. The specific plan of operations to be subsequently adopted, he was to concert with the commanders of the Spanish armies.

Sir John Moore had no sooner assumed the command, than be found he had considerable difficulties to overcome. Few effective preparations had been made for the equipment of the troops by his predecessors in command. Magazines were to be formed, and

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