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his doctrine and example, and by the addition of other moral precepts and councils, that the order of nature might be preserved in all human things, and that his grace might assist man to discharge their natural duties. This is the excellent philosophy which he brought from Heaven, and introduced into the world, that he might form men to be useful and beneficial one to another, and obedient to the commands of the Divine Being.
These are the unanimous Decisions of this University, after a mature deliberation, in a full assembly of the Doctors, the serenteenth day of March, in the year of our Lord 1789.
A Decision concerning the Three underwritten Propositions
laid before the University of Valladolid, in the Kingdom
of Spain, by the English Catholics. 1st. Has the Roman Pontiff, or the Cardinals of the Holy Roman
Church, or any Council, or any individual of the Catholic Church, by virtue of their communion with that Church, any civil authority, civil power, jurisdiction, or pre-eminence in
the Kingdom of Great Britain ? 2d. Can the Roman Pontiff, the Cardinals of the Holy Roman
Church, or any Council or individual of the Catholic Church, absolve the subjects of his Britannic Majesty from their oath
of allegiance, or dispense with its obligations ? 3d. Among the Articles of the Catholic Faith, is there any which
teaches, That Catholics are not bound to keep faith with Heretics, or any other persons who dissent from them in malters of religion?
Answer to the First Question. The University of Valladolid, in the Roman Pontiff, in the Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church, in any Council, even in a General Council legally assembled, much less in any individual, acknowledges no civil authority, civil power, jurisdiction, or preeminence, by virtue of their Communion with that Church, neither directly nor indirectly, in the kingdom of Great Britain, nor in other kingdoins or provinces, whether Catholic or not, over which they possess no temporal dominion, in consequence of any Spiritual Power granted by Christ our Lord, either to the Univer sal Church or to its head, or to its members, however exalted in dignity and rank.
Answer to the Second Question. Neither the Roman Pontiff, nor the Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church, nor any Council, not even a General Council lawfully assembled, nor any individual of the Catholic Church, can any way absolve the Subjects of the King of Great Britain, or any other persons, whether Catholics or not, over whom they hold no temporal dominion, from their oath of allegiance, nor dispense with its obligations,
This is the unanimous determination of the University of Valladolid respecting the first and second proposition: a Determination founded on a variety of arguments drawn from the Sacred Writings and ancierít monuments, and not only the University of Valladolid, but all the Universities in the Spanish dominions are even commanded by Royal Authority to maintain this doctrine. For the Professors of the Spanish Universities, in order to quality themselves for any Academical Degree, or for obtaining any Professor's Chair, are obliged to take the following oath before the Supreme Council of the State :-“ I, N. call Gud to witness, and
swear by the Cross which I now touch, that I will never directe “.ly nor indirectly promote, defend, or teach any opinions coule “ trary to civil authority and the King's Regalia Moreover, neither can the Rector, the Chancellor (who is a Bishop of this city and diocese) the Deputies nor Counsellors, be on any pretext admitted to perform their respective offices till they have taken a solemn oath, binding them to the observance of the aforesaid academical law.
Answer to the Third Question. Among the Articles of the Catholic Faith, there is none which teaches, that Catholics may lawfully break their faith with heretics, or any other persons whatever, who dissent from them in matters of religion. The obligation of keeping faith is grounded on the natural law, which binds all men equally, without regard to their religious opinions; and with respect to Catholics it has still greater force, being confirmed by the precepts of the Catholic religion.
This is the decision of the University of Valladolid, signed by all and each of the Professors on the 17th day of February, in the
year of our Lord 1789.
A Determination relating to the Concerns of the English Ca
tholics, which, being consulted by his majesty, the University of Salamanca offers and presents to the most puissant Charles the Fourth, King of Spain.
CONSULTATION. The Catholics of England being desirous to enjoy the privileges, and to be admitted to discharge those offices in the state to which every member of a commonwealth possesses a kind of inherent right, and from which they will ever be excluded, unless they make a public declaration that they will never be induced to withdraw themselves from their allegiance to the civil and established power and jurisdiction of the Kings of Great Britain by any motives coloured over by a pretended regard for the interests of religion, by any pretext, or any dispensation,-convene tho University of Salamanca by the favour and under the patronage
of his most puissant Majesty our Sovereign Lord Charles the l'ourth, King of Spain, that they may learn our sentiments, and obtain our decision with respect to certain questions which they will propose to us; therefore, all the Doctors and Professors being in Council assembled, as is customary for the discussion of any important matters; and the questions having been for some time weighed and considered, Six Members of the University, chosen out of the Faculties of Divinity and Canon Law, were appointed to draw up the Answers: and they, with minds wholly divested of prejudices, as far as is compatible with the condition of human beings, consulting together in private, framed distinct Austvers to each question ; which answers were afterwards approyed and confirmed by the suffrages of the rest of their fellowMembers in another full Assembly.
Question the First. Has the Roman Pontiff, or the Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church, or any Council, or any individual of the Catholic Church, in consequence of their communion with that Church, any civil authority, civil power, jurisdiction or preminence in the kingdom of Great Britain?
In order to resolve this Question in a clear and methodical mana ner; we must have recourse to first principles, and enquire what kind of power has been delegated by Christ to the Church ; since the Christian Republic cannot possess by native and original right, any thing beyond that which was granted to it by our Redeemer and its Founder, Christ Jesus. In what manner then did our Saviour express himself when he spoke of kingdoms, and of the power and jurisdiction of his Church ? that he might silenec the Jews, who were perpetually calumniating him, as one who set himself up for King, in opposition to Casar, he answered Pilate, “Niy kingdom is not of this world, otherwise my servants would certainly strive that I should not be delivered up to the Jews; but now my kingdom is not from hence.” Now, the same power, and no other, was given by Christ to Peter, to his successors the Bishops of Rome, and to the Universal Church, which to himself, as man, had been given by his Father. 6 As the living Father,” saith he, “ hath sent me, I also send you.” But he invariably denies that he had received any temporal power, by declaring that his kingdom is not of this world; by betaking himself to flight when some persons had conceived a design of making him. King; by replying to one who said to him,--"Masier, speak to my brother, that he divide the inheritance with me”"Who hath made me a Judge or a Divider over you ?”. And, in fine, by decreeing that tribute should be paid to Casar, though at that time it was an unquestionable truth that the Romans were tyrants and most cruel oppressors of him, of all the Jews, and of the whole country of Palestine. If ever he had taken occasion to mention any, tem
poral power as belonging to himself, it would have been when he foretold that the time would come in which Princes would abuse their authority, by persecuting the Divine Messengers of Salvation, by inflicting on them the most excruciating tortures; and by opposing with all their power the propagation of his religion. Whereas, even then, so far was he from giving them any authority to stir up wars, and to defend his religion by hostile measures, that he frequently inculcated to them, that they must behave like sheep among wolves; that, like simple doves, they must contend only by their sighs, their patience, and their meekness. This is the character of the Christian Religion; these are its lovely features, which, if men were but to view them with unprejudiced minds, could not fail to make it the object of their adoration and fondest affection. Certainly, he who came not to be ministered unto, but to minister, and to save that which was lost; he who neither dispossessed Octavian nor Tiberius of their empire, nor Herod of the sovereignty of Judea, nor Pilate of the Prætorium, wished earnestly to impress on the minds of all who desire to walk in his footsteps, and to whom is committed the government of the Church, and the care of souls, this admonition, That they should by no means interfere with the concerns of the earth; and that his Disciples should not think it justifiable in them, or that it ever would be allowed them, to exercise an authority which their master formally disclaimed, and always refused to exercise ; for “the Disciple is not above his master, nor the servant greater than his lord.” It is, moreover, most certain and indisputable, that these examples and precepts apply with equal force to the infant days of the Christian Church, to the subsequent ages of persecutions, and to the period after peace was restored to it, and it arrived to the attainment of great strength and riches; unless it b.: adınitted that we are to degenerate from the sentiments of those true followers of Christ in the first ages, who with incredible fidelity continued to hold allegiance to Nero, Trajan, Dioclesian, and other most inhuman Emperors, who harrassed the Christian Republic with insatiable cruelty. As early as the second century, if credit can be given to Tertullian in his Apology, the Christians abounded in every quarter of the Roman empire; they filled the cities, the fortresses, the islands, the very camps, the Palace, the Senate, the Forum, and had left to the Pagans the exclusive possession of only their idolatrous temples; and nevertheless, we nowhere find that, in the cause of religion, they ever endeavoured to throw off the yoke of their allegiance to any of the Emperors. These are facts which no rational man can call in question; but if they were even fictious, it surely cannot be said that Christ had enjoined us to meekness, patience, and forbearance, as only suitable to a state of imbecility and impotence; but had commanded us on the increase of our strength no longer to practise submission, but fiercely to resist the civil powers, and to dethrone, or imprison, or reduce to the condition of private citizens those very Princes who are constituted by the Lord, and to whom we are bound to be subject and obedient, not only for wrath, but also for conscience sake. It were
impious to assert that the Apostles, and Christ himself, in giving us such forcible precepts and striking examples of obedience and patience, only yielded to the exigencies and circumstances of the times, but did not establish a fixed and permanent law, which in all the course and fluctuation of future ages should never be annulled. Therefore, since the rights of the Kings of England, whether they persecute or tolerate the Catholics, are founded on the same principles with those of all other Sovereign Princes under Heaven, we are firmly of opinion, That neither the Roman Pontiff, nor the Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church, nor any Council, nor any individual in the Catholic Church, by virtue of their communion with that Church, has any.civil authority, power, jurisdiction, or pre-eminence in the kingdom of Great Britain.
Question the Second.
Can the Roman Pontiff, the Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church, any Council or individual of the Catholic Church, absolve the subjects of his Britannic Majesty from their oath of allegiance, or dispense with its obligations?
The solution of this second difficulty spontaneously arises from the principles laid down in the foregoing answer.- We have no inclination to spend our time here in exposing the emptiness of the visions (rather than reasons) of some persons, who have asserted, That by the coming of Christ all earthly thrones were subverted; and that after the Establishmeni of the Papal Dignity, botha the temporal and spiritual sword was put into the hands of the Bishop of Rome; that all Kings are only his vicegerents, and that their dominion is so completely transferred to him, that he can of right depose even idolatrous princes, and confer their domains on any of the faithful at his pleasure. This absurdity, which we cannot think on without the utmost astonishment, has been defended by a very few individuals; but by the body of Divines and Canonists it is universally exploded, and completely refuted. It is certain, that Christ never possessed, neither by inheritance nor by delegated power from God, nor by any other means, any temporal dignity which he could transmit to Peter, to his successors, and to the other Bishops : and from the idea that he bequeathed such dignity, this monstrous consequence would follow :-That the Pope is, by Divine Right, Supreme Lord over all the earth; that Bishops are the Princes of their cities and districts; that Kings are not really Kings; that they are not illustrated by nature and inherent majesty, but a precarious adventitious dignity, derived to them from the Christian Prelates.
We cannot, however, think of dissembling, by passing over in silence a fact, to which several publications now extant, and the Annals of the Church bear testimony, viz. That some Christian Divines and Canonists have persuaded themselves that all tempoTal concerns were subordinate to the spiritual, and were to be re