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It has been presumed that, in general, the student wonld pass from the smaller to the larger Grammar, before entering on the study of Ionic or poetic writers. As this, however, may not always be convenient, it has seemed best to add, in an Appendix, a synopsis of the most important forms of dialect, and a brief account of the principal kinds of verse.
INTRODUCTORY STATEMENT § 1 Adjectives
115 Comparison of Adj.
127 PART FIRST.
Form., Compar., of Adverbs 132
Paradigms of Verbs
159 Diphthongs 5 Elements of the Verb
204 Euphony of Vowels
Stem and Changes of Stem 210 Ņowels Interchanged
220 Vowels Lengthened
Signs of Voice, Tense, Mode 230 Vowels Contracted
235 Vowels Omitted
239 Euphony of Consonants
246 Consonant with Consonant 26 Formation of Tense-Systems 230 Consonant with Vowel
Present and Imperfect 250 Cons. with Vowel between 37
Future Active and Middle 252 Euphony of Final Sounds
38 First Aorist Act, and Mid. 253 Crasis
Second Aorist dct. and Mid. 254 Elision
Perfect and Pluperfect Act. 255 Movable Consonants
Perf., Pluperf., Fut. Perf., Mid. 258 Final Consonants
Aorist and Future Passive. 264 Syllables
Systems of the pe-form 266 Accent 52 Enumeration of -forms
Verbs in ul of Eighth Class 273 PART SECOND.
Verbs in ul of First Class 274
Second Aorists of wi-form 279 INFLECTION.
Second Perfects of ul-form 280 Nouns
281 First Declension (A-Decl.) Classified List of Verbs
290 75 Second Declension (0-Decl.) 78
Special Formation of Verbs
300 Third Declension (Cons.-Decl.) 84
DERIVATION AND COMPOSITION. Liquid Stems 98 Derivation
301 Stems in o 101 of Substantives
308 Stems in i and v 103 of Adjectives
320 Diphthong Stems 104 of Verbs
327 Irregular Declension 108 of Adverbs
328 113 Composition of Words
'O as an Article .
Two Accus. with one verb
in looser Relations Dative
Tenses of the Indicative
Tenses in other Modes 337 The Modes 351 Finite Modes
in Simple Sentences 355
in Compound Sentences 361
Indirect 374 Final 374 Conditional 376 Relative 384 Infinitive 384
Dependence of the Infin.. 388
Subject and Predicate 389 Participle 398 Attributive Participle . 401 Circumstantial Participle 402 Part. with Case Absolute 413 Supplementary Participle 424 Verbal Adjectives in téos 428 Relative Sentences 430 Attraction, Incorporation 431 Other Peculiarities. 432 Interrogative Sentences 438 Negative Sentences
Particles 440 Conjunctions 446 Figures of Syntax 447 451
APPENDIX. 458/A. DIALECTS 464 B. METRES 464 465 GREEK INDEX 471 ENGLISH INDEX
487 493 501 507 511 521 525 526 535 538 538 539 541 545 548 551 551 559 564 569 579 581 595
of Place and Time
page 224 page 235
1. The Greek language, as it was spoken and written by the inhabitants of Attica, is called the Attic DIALECT. It is seen in the works of Thucydides, Xenophon, Plato, Isocrătes, Aeschynes, Demosthènes, and other Athenian writers. From about the time of Alexander the Great, it was used as a common literary language by all the Greeks. Hence it is found in the works of Polybius, Strabo, Plutarch, Arrian, Lucian, and many others, who were not of Attic birth. As used by such writers, with more or less variation from the pure Athenian idiom, it is called the Common Dialect. Of the prose literature of Greece, all but a small fraction belongs either to the Attic, strictly so called, or to the Common dialect. It must be the object, therefore, of an elementary Greek grammar to describe the ATTIC GREEK, especially in its genuine form, as seen in the prose-writers of Athens.
a. The works of the Athenian poets (the tragedies of Aeschýlus, Sophocles, Euripides, the comedies of Aristophănes) present many peculiarities of language. In their lyric parts, they show some Doric forms. The poets of all dialects make more or less use of Epic forms.
2. Among the other dialects the most important are - a. The Old Ionic or Epic, used by Homer, Hesiod, and the later epic writers. — b. The New Ionic, used by the bistorian Herodotus.-c. The Doric, used by lyric poets, as Pindar, and by bucolic (or pastoral) poets, as Theocritus.
Beside these, may be named - d. The Aeolic (of Lesbos), seen in the lyric fragments of Alcaeus and Sappho. - e. The Hellenistic, a form of the Common dialect, seen in the New Testament, and in the LXX. or Septuagint version of the Old Testament. — f. The Romaic, or Modern Greek, the popular idiom for the last thousand years, found in written works since about 1160 A. D.
NOTE TO THE LEARNER. - In the following pages, Hm. stands for Homer, Hd. for Herodotur ; — cf. is used for Latin confer (compare), for scilicet (to wit), — i. e. för id est (that is), - e. g. for exempli gratia (for example), - etc. for et cetera (and so forth). Other abbreviations will explain themselves. The alphabetical lists of verbs (in sections 300 and 740) contain some special abbreviations, which are described at the begin.. ning of section 300.
The sign of equality (=) is sometimes placed between words, to show that they are substantially the same in form or meaning.
The stems of words (see 71 and 196) are given without accents ; and so, generally, are words the existence of which is merely supposed, not proved by the use of Greek authors.