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It has been presumed that, in general, the student wonld pass from the smaller to the larger Grammar, before entering on the study of Ionic or poetic writers. As this, however, may not always be convenient, it has seemed best to add, in an Appendix, a synopsis of the most important forms of dialect, and a brief account of the principal kinds of verse.

CONTENTS.

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24 Endings

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INTRODUCTORY STATEMENT § 1 Adjectives

115 Comparison of Adj.

127 PART FIRST.

Form., Compar., of Adverbs 132
ORTHOGRAPHY AND EUPHONY,
Pronouns

133 Numerals

147 Alphabet

3
VERBS

151 Vowels

Paradigms of Verbs

159 Diphthongs 5 Elements of the Verb

196 Breathings

6
Augment

197 Consonants

7
Reduplication

204 Euphony of Vowels

14

Stem and Changes of Stem 210 Ņowels Interchanged

14
Classes of Verbs

220 Vowels Lengthened

15

Signs of Voice, Tense, Mode 230 Vowels Contracted

17
Connecting Vowels

235 Vowels Omitted

239 Euphony of Consonants

26
Accent of the Verb

246 Consonant with Consonant 26 Formation of Tense-Systems 230 Consonant with Vowel

32

Present and Imperfect 250 Cons. with Vowel between 37

Future Active and Middle 252 Euphony of Final Sounds

38 First Aorist Act, and Mid. 253 Crasis

39

Second Aorist dct. and Mid. 254 Elision

40

Perfect and Pluperfect Act. 255 Movable Consonants

43

Perf., Pluperf., Fut. Perf., Mid. 258 Final Consonants

46

Aorist and Future Passive. 264 Syllables

48
Verbal Adjectives •

265 Quantity

49

Systems of the pe-form 266 Accent 52 Enumeration of -forms

272 Punctuation

70

Verbs in ul of Eighth Class 273 PART SECOND.

Verbs in ul of First Class 274

Second Aorists of wi-form 279 INFLECTION.

Second Perfects of ul-form 280 Nouns

71
Voices irregularly used

281 First Declension (A-Decl.) Classified List of Verbs

290 75 Second Declension (0-Decl.) 78

Special Formation of Verbs
Attic Second Decl.

82
Alphabetical List

300 Third Declension (Cons.-Decl.) 84

PART THIRD.
Labial and Palatal Stems 95
Lingual Stems

96

DERIVATION AND COMPOSITION. Liquid Stems 98 Derivation

301 Stems in o 101 of Substantives

308 Stems in i and v 103 of Adjectives

320 Diphthong Stems 104 of Verbs

327 Irregular Declension 108 of Adverbs

328 113 Composition of Words

329

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Local Endings

PART FOURTI.

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SYNTAX,
Definitions
Agreement (general rules).
Omitted Subject, Predicate, and

Object
Number and Gender
The Article
*O as a Demonstrative

'O as an Article .
The Cases
Nominative
Vocative
Accusative

Two Accus. with one verb
Genitive

with Substantives
with Verbs
with Adjectives, Adverbs

in looser Relations Dative

of Influence
of Interest
of Association and Likeness
of Instrument, Means, Man-

The Tenses

Tenses of the Indicative

Tenses in other Modes 337 The Modes 351 Finite Modes

in Simple Sentences 355

in Compound Sentences 361

Indirect 374 Final 374 Conditional 376 Relative 384 Infinitive 384

Dependence of the Infin.. 388

Subject and Predicate 389 Participle 398 Attributive Participle . 401 Circumstantial Participle 402 Part. with Case Absolute 413 Supplementary Participle 424 Verbal Adjectives in téos 428 Relative Sentences 430 Attraction, Incorporation 431 Other Peculiarities. 432 Interrogative Sentences 438 Negative Sentences

Particles 440 Conjunctions 446 Figures of Syntax 447 451

APPENDIX. 458/A. DIALECTS 464 B. METRES 464 465 GREEK INDEX 471 ENGLISH INDEX

487 493 501 507 511 521 525 526 535 538 538 539 541 545 548 551 551 559 564 569 579 581 595

ner, Cause

of Place and Time
Cases with Prepositions
Adjectives and Adverbs
Pronouns
The Voices

Active
Middle
Passive

601 741

page 224 page 235

INTRODUCTORY STATEMENT,

1. The Greek language, as it was spoken and written by the inhabitants of Attica, is called the Attic DIALECT. It is seen in the works of Thucydides, Xenophon, Plato, Isocrătes, Aeschynes, Demosthènes, and other Athenian writers. From about the time of Alexander the Great, it was used as a common literary language by all the Greeks. Hence it is found in the works of Polybius, Strabo, Plutarch, Arrian, Lucian, and many others, who were not of Attic birth. As used by such writers, with more or less variation from the pure Athenian idiom, it is called the Common Dialect. Of the prose literature of Greece, all but a small fraction belongs either to the Attic, strictly so called, or to the Common dialect. It must be the object, therefore, of an elementary Greek grammar to describe the ATTIC GREEK, especially in its genuine form, as seen in the prose-writers of Athens.

a. The works of the Athenian poets (the tragedies of Aeschýlus, Sophocles, Euripides, the comedies of Aristophănes) present many peculiarities of language. In their lyric parts, they show some Doric forms. The poets of all dialects make more or less use of Epic forms.

2. Among the other dialects the most important are - a. The Old Ionic or Epic, used by Homer, Hesiod, and the later epic writers. — b. The New Ionic, used by the bistorian Herodotus.-c. The Doric, used by lyric poets, as Pindar, and by bucolic (or pastoral) poets, as Theocritus.

Beside these, may be named - d. The Aeolic (of Lesbos), seen in the lyric fragments of Alcaeus and Sappho. - e. The Hellenistic, a form of the Common dialect, seen in the New Testament, and in the LXX. or Septuagint version of the Old Testament. — f. The Romaic, or Modern Greek, the popular idiom for the last thousand years, found in written works since about 1160 A. D.

8C.

NOTE TO THE LEARNER. - In the following pages, Hm. stands for Homer, Hd. for Herodotur ; — cf. is used for Latin confer (compare), for scilicet (to wit), — i. e. för id est (that is), - e. g. for exempli gratia (for example), - etc. for et cetera (and so forth). Other abbreviations will explain themselves. The alphabetical lists of verbs (in sections 300 and 740) contain some special abbreviations, which are described at the begin.. ning of section 300.

The sign of equality (=) is sometimes placed between words, to show that they are substantially the same in form or meaning.

The stems of words (see 71 and 196) are given without accents ; and so, generally, are words the existence of which is merely supposed, not proved by the use of Greek authors.

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