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froy the very grounds of confidence. In ordinary bargains, it is allowed that, to make them binding, a valuable confideration' in money or otherwise must be given for every article inter, changed: but, in war, when one side has a decided superiority, the victor will certainly exact concessions as the price of peace, and insist on those concessions to which the conquered party would never confent, if not compelled to yield by force. Must such concessions, then, be considered as void? do they cease to be binding because they were extorted by force ? On this principle, the French may lay claim to Canada, and Mr. Gerrald is bound to adjudge it to them as a right. On this principle, England may still assert her sovereignty over the British colonies of North America ; and Mr. Gerrald, if he be consistent, must admit her claim : for, when France ceded Canada to us, and when Great Britain acknowleged the independence of those colonies, each kingdom acted at the time under the influence of force, which dictated the two treaties of Paris of 1763 and 1783; and if these treaties be deficient in that principle which alone can make them sacred or binding, (viz. the free and unbiassed will of the parties standing on equal ground,) then the Britisha government in Canada is a gross usurpation, founded on a treaty in its nature not binding; and the republican government of the United States is 'a permanent insurrection and rebellion against Great Britain, not sanctioned but aggravated by a treaty imposed on this country by force, and consequently null and of no effect. Other men, who wished to get rid of treaties, without a violation of public faith, would look for arguments à pofteriori : but Mr. Gerrald, who lays claim to the character of a moral philosopher, cuts the business short by inferring the invalidity of trearies à priorii

If the court of England did not oppose the opening of the Scheldt in 1785, it was because we did not think it necessary to go to war for the purpose of doing what France appeared re. solved to do without any recourse to England.

Mr. Gerrald, in asserting the necessity of a parliamentary re. form, reprobates the interference of peers and ministers in the election of members of the House of Commons. In almost every word that he says on this head, we agree cordially with him; and we wish, as heartily as he does, to see the complete removal of this abuse. We unite with him also when he says that the people have a right to meet and deliberate on public affairs : but we differ in this, that we would have them (except in extraordinary cases, such as the two in which conventions did actually fit in this country,) assemble for the purpose of lay. ing their complaints before the legislature; whereas Mr. Gerrald would have them to take the exercise of the sovereignty

into their own hands, and not merely lord it over, but absolutely extinguish, the parliament.

For Mr. Gerrald's plan of his convention, we must refer to bis pamphlet : the curious reader will turn to p. III-114.

That we have taken so much notice of this work is in itself a proof that we consider it as of great importance; its general purity and energy of diction, and its forcible appeal to the pafLions, prove Mr. Gerrald to be a powerful master of eloquence. This single production is of itself sufficient to give celebrity to his name as an author. Would that we could say it was his only literary offspring ; we then might have thought as highly of his fincerity in the cause of liberty, as of his shining abilities: but what are we to think of a man who is by turns the champion of liberty and the advocate for pavery? who one day calls on the people of England not to be guilty of the sacrilege of obIruding the advancement of freedom in France; and, on another, exhorts them as strongly to steel their hearts against the appeals of those who wish to abolish slavery in the West Indies. Mr. Gerrald has written on both sides of the question.-This pamphlet shews what he can say for liberty.-The productions of his talents, when they were lent to the supporters of slavery in the West Indies, prove that he does not think lavery, and its perpetuation from father to son, indefensible. We would with to know on which of the two occasions he speaks his genuine sentiments ; for we cannot suppose that he expresses them on both; because we cannot think that he confiders Navery and li. berty as having geographical situations assigned to them, and that while one thould glow within the torrid, the other should shiver within the frigid, zone.

Many passages are contained in this pamphlet which we with to extract, but for which we cannot find room ; there is one in particular, respeding the administration of justice in this country, which we warmly recommend to the serious attention of the truly patriotic reader : see p: 79–80. Sh....n


For FEBRU A RY, 1794.

THEOLOGY. " Art. 19. Two Afize Sermons. By R. Valpy, D.D. F, A. S. Pub

lished at the Request of the High Sheriff and Grand Jury of the

County of Berks. With Notes Historical and Poliucal, and an · Appendix. 8vo. pp. 151. 35. Richardsons. These assize-sermons bear strong marks of brilliant talents and

found erudition. The subject of the first discourse is the progress of morality, religion, and laws, in the different periods of the world.


The depravity and ferocity of antient manners are thewn from an appeal to facts, which is well supported by authorities; and a striking contrast with the pure and benevolent spirit of chriftianity is exhibited. The actual effects of the religion of Christ on the state of manners at the time of its firft promulgation are described; the subsequent disorders and enormities, which disgraced the christian church, are Mewn to have been owing to the neglect or abuse of chriftianity; and the peculiar advantages, both civil and religious, at present enjoyed in this coantry, are adduced as a proof that, under the mild influence of the gospel, we are “ going on towards perfection.” The author strongly expresses his disapprobation of all compulsory methods of restraining or promulgating opinions ; and laudably contends that the Church of England builds her present tenets on the everlafting rock of gospel charity. He applauds our present govern ment for the justice which has lately been done to the principles and conduct of the Roman Catholics in Ireland ; and, with a degree of consistency and liberality which, at all times, is entitled to praise, he adds the following remarks respecting the dissenters :

. The conduct of the dissenters, in the late critical conjunctures, proves that they are awakened to a sense of the blessings of the Brie iilh Constitution, that they have as much ceased to be what they were in the cime of Charles I. as the catholics have abjured the tenets, which they were encouraged to enforce during the reign of James II. Hence we may entertain the pleasing hope, that the time is not far distant, 'when it will be found no less consistent with individual security, than with general policy, to free them from political restraint; to remove from them the natural causes of republican tendencies, by a commonication of advantages resulting from constitutional monarchy; and to induce them to melt their heterogeneou's principles into one common mass of exertion to maintain public ordet, to secure internal peace, and to increase national prosperity...

O fi fic omnia dixisset! It is with concern that we find, in a pan. phlet which contains so much good senfe, and so many liberal reficca tions, an echo of the vulgar cry against philosophical plans of re. formation.- Not contented with pafling a deferved encomium on the British government, and with maintaining, as he does on very ra'a tional grounds, in his second sermon, the duty of submission to magiftrates as dispensers of the laws ; . Dr. Valpy discourages political innovations, on the plea that, as long as human nature is liable to err, reformation will be labor ačtus in orbem,' and apologizes for one of the grofsest abuses of government, by maintaining the neceflity of adhering to that system of corrupt influence which strengthens the existing adminiftration by fine-cure places and pensions. -How, we alk, is all this consistent with the doctrine of the first discourse, « let us go on 'to perfection"?

The learned author has enriched these sermons by a considerable number of pertinent notes and illustrations; and has added to them an Appendix, conlisting of three parts. In No. I. he confiders the causes which will prevent the establishment of a Republic in France; " determining in the negative, from hiftorical Examples. In No. I. he reasons On Systems of Reform, and concludes, with all the



other opponents of the question, that this is an improper time. In No. III. he discusses the late alarming effects of party spirit in this country ; candidly stating, and justly lamenting, effects fo deftructive of public confidence and private security.' Art. 20. Sermons on various Subjects, intended to promote Chrif

tian Knowledge and Human Happiness. By the Rev. Luke Booker, LL.D. Minister of St. Edmund's, Dudley. 8vo. pp. 302. 6s. Boards. Rivingtons.

These discourses are modestly presented to the public rather as the spontaneous overflowings of the heart, than as the laboured productions of the head ; and it is chiefly in this view that they are entitled to attention. The author, with whose poctical abilities the public are already acquainted,- as a preacher, rather aspires at the praise of forcibly impressing important sentiments on the mind of the hearer, than at that of amusing him with abstract fpeculation. He poffeffes a talent for description, and a familiar and pathetic cast of language, very well suited to that kind of preaching which is, in his judgment, most useful. • Most of the practical discourses in this volume have a pathetic turn. On theological topics, Dr. B. maintains the orthodox system : and he is particularly zealous in his defence of the divinity of Christ; a subject to which he appropriates four sermons. In politics, he is an enemy to innovations; and he protests against modern theories whichi 'are, in his apprehension, of a dangerous and destructive tendency. E. Art. 21. A Defence of the Methodists, in Five Letters. Addressed

to the Rev. Dr. Tatham ; containing sundry Remarks on a late Discourse preached by that Gentleman at four of the Churches in

Oxford, and entitled " A Sermon suitable to the Times.". By : Joseph Benson. 12mo. pp. 68. 15. Whitfield. 1793

The general charge here brought against Dr. Tatham is that, in the abovementioned sermon, he made a rude and unjuft attack on the general body of the methodists, which gave occasion to 'a lawless rabble, composed of gownsmen, and others of the baser sort, who as. Sembling at the methodist meeting-house, obliged the preacher to leave the pulpit, overthrew the seats in the chapel, and beat and otherwise ill-treated many of the people.' Such outrages committed against peaceable men, who, to say the least, discover no designs hoftile to the peace of the state, and whose public religious offices, whether deserving the character of fanatical or not, whether conducted by men of education or by illiterate itinerants, have in fact contributed very essentially toward the reformation of the lower classes of society, cannot be too severely censured ;- and if it were certain that „Dr. Tatham's sermon was the indirect means of such mischief, (for that it was the designed instrument we can never suppore,) we could only regret that such talents as those of Dr. Tacham should be so unfortunately misapplied.

Mr. Benson, by way of recrimination for the charge of ignorance brought against the methodist teachers, in bis turn accuses the heads

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of the University of great negle& in providing proper instruction for
young students in divinity; he complains that he himself, when he
was at college, was obliged to be, for the most part, self-taught: not
being able to obtain any instruction from his tutor, farther than Core
nelius Nepos and the Greek Teftament, nor having any opportunity
to attend public lectures on divinity, except a few read by the Regius
Professor of Christ Church. If there be any general ground for
complaint of this kind, fas est et ab hofte doceri. As to Mr. B.'s other
accusations; that the candidates for holy orders are not instructed
that the first qualifications of their profession are supernatural illumi:
nations, and a birth from above ; and that, though they take degrees
in the schools and in the universities, they take no degrees in the
school of Christ, not even the first, of repentance from dead works,
much less the fecond, faith toward God; as we do not well compre.
hend the meaning, we cannot judge of the force, of the complaint. E.
Art. 22. A Vision from the Lord God Almighty, the great and mighty
: God of the whole Earth, a Vision that must bring about that great

and glorious Day of Peace, when Nation shall no more lift up
Sword against Nation, or learn War any more. 8vo. pp. 32.
6d. Ridgway. 1792.
· When interesting events take place in the political world, weak
heads are disturbed by reflecting on them; the agitation of mind ge.
nerates myftical reveries, and there is no answering for the effects.
If this poor visionary, who signs himself Henry Hardy, has any
friends, there seems to be abundant occasion for their kind offices. N.
Art. 23. The Evidences of a Plenary Inspiration. A Letter to Mr.
· Thomas Porter, in Reply to his Defence of Unitarianism *, by

Robert Hawker, D. D. &c. 8vo. 1s.6d. Law, &c.'. A reply generally signifies continuation of a controverfy ; in this instance, however, we find an exceprion to the general rule. Dr. military combatants, possibly finding himself unequal to his, adversary on the old ground, attempts a diversion by proposing a new subject of discussion :, but, in doing this, he has afforded us no oppor. tunity of complimenting him : for nearly the whole of what relates to the subject of this pamphlet, as expresied in the title, is avowedly extracted from the writings of Dr. Doddridge.--Dr. H.'s opinion of infpiration is so confused, and fo open to objections, that we fear he has not considered the subject with due attention. He contends for more than scripture critics ever thought of defiring; and, as if the tracfcribers, as well as the original authors, of the books of the New Testament were inspired, he refuses to allow that there are aliy important differences discoverable in the various copies of them; when, Itrange as it must seem to the reader, the note subjoined points to a 'passage of great moment in the Trinitarian controversy (i John v.) which is to be found in fome copies, and is omitted in others.

Dr. H.'s account of the demoniacs of the N.T.-like his account of Infpiration, rather increases than removes difficulties.--For our Review of Dr. H.'s volume of Seimons, fee Rev. for Oacber 1792, 'p. 237.

Moo-y. "Sve Review, September 1793, p. 116.


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