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first the aperture at the apex of the mould is stopped up, but as the sugar concretes, it is opened, in order that the syrup or 'melasses may drain off. By this draining of the Auid part, the cone of sugar Thrinks at the base below the edges of the mould, which, to render the loaf fill whiter, is filled up with moist clay closely applied to the base of the sugar cone : lastly, the cone is placed upon its base, taken out of the mould, wrapped in paper, and dried or baked in a close oven.
· Solutions of brown or white sugar, boiled down until they begin to grow thick, and then removed into a very hot room, shoot upon sticks placed across the vessels for that purpose into brown or white crystals of candy (saccharum crystalinum).
Sugar, as an article of diet, is so well known as not to require any description of it here: it is manifestly a neutral saline subitance, the acid of which Bergman first taught us to separate by means of the nitrous acid *: and it since appears that several other substances, both vegetable and animal, contain an acid similar to that of sugart. The other conftituent parts of sugar seem to be an oily and mucilaginours matter ; and though it is not yet satisfactorily explained how a combination of these substances should produce on the organs of taste a ren. sation of sweetness, yet as it is known that the strong vitriolic acid becomes sweet by uniting it to spirit of wine, we may easily conceive that the sweetness of sugar may be effected in a somewhat fimilar way.
• From the known properties of sugar, it has been supposed to unite the unctuous part of the food with the animal juices, and hence it has been thought to increase corpulence or fatness; others however have thought that a contrary effect would be produced by this quality of sugar, viz. by preventing the separation of the oily matter from the blood, which forms fat. Profeffor Murray, who has treated this sub. ject very elaborately I, thinks that by the fermentation which sugar undergoes in the stomach, and by its relaxing resolvent fap inaceous qualities, as well as by the acid which it contains, it rather tends to emaciate than to fatten the body; and in this opinion he observes that he has the authority of Boerhaave, who says if this sweet be taken in large quantities it produces emaciation by diffolving too much of the animal oil. He is therefore much surprised, that Mr. John Hun. ter should lately recommend sugar and honey as the best restoratives to those suffering from great debility by a long course of mercury ll. What may be the effects of sugar in this respect in its refined state may be difficult to determine ; but in its crude state there can be no doubt of its affording a confiderable share of nourishment, both as combined in various vegetable matters, and as separated by art. Those animals,
• * See his Dill. de acido facchari, published in 1996.
• f See Berthollet in Mem. de l'Acad. &c. 1980. p. 120. Also' Scheele in Vet. Acad. Handl. 1785. p. 23. fq.
"I See app. Med. vol.si
• He says, “Miror ideo, quod adhuc nuper Cl. J. Hunter (Treatise on the Venereal disease, p. 354. sq.) saccharum tanquam optimum reftaurans in hominibus diuturno jejunio debilitatis vel mercurii usu ema. cialis proposucrit, &c." L. 6. p. 410. . L 3
which which wholly feed upon it in the sugar islands, become remarkably corpulent; and the negro children, whose diet happens sometimes for a season to be confined to melasses, are easily distinguished from others by their superior bulk *; they are however more disposed to suffer by worms, and are likewise less active and healthy.
• Sugar however appears by the experiments of several writers to prove deleterious to various kinds of worms, either by immersing them in a solution of sugar, or sprinkling it upon their bodies j; and (wenty grains of lump sugar forced into the stomach of a frog, produced immediate torpor and death, which followed in the course of an hour I; it also proved fatal to pigeons, and to the gallinæ kind, but not to sparrows; and with Meep and dogs it had no other effect than that of a cathartic li. ,
• Sugar may certainly be taken into the stomach in pretty large quantities without producing any bad consequences, though proofs are not wanting of its mischievous effects, in which, by its attenuating and diffolving the luids, and relaxing the solids, debility and diseale are said to have been produced. Stark s for many day's took from four ounces of sugar to eight, ten, sixteen, and even twenty, with bread and water, by which nausea, fatus, ulceration in the mouth, with redness and tumefaction of the gums, oppression, purging, pain, and redness of the right noftril, bleeding at the nose, and livid streaks over the right scapula, were produced. We are also told that a boy who was much affected by acidity of the stomach, in a Mort time greedily ale a large quantity of lump sugar; soon afterwards he was taken ill, and the next morning found dead in his bed. Upon examining his body, red spots, and other marks of a disolved state of the blood were discovered q. What degree of credit ought to be given to these and other cases of the like kind, we leave to the judgment of our readers ; but that the liberal use of sugar to many stomachs has greatly impaired the digestive powers, and laid a foundation for various ccnplaints, is highly probable. At the same time we must admit, that several indulge largely in this article, if not with advantage, at least with impunity.
? As a medicine, sugar cannot be considered to posiels much power. Dr. Cullen classes it with the attenuantia; and Burgius states it to be saponacea, edulcorans, relaxans, pectoralis, vulneraria, antiseptica, nutriens. In catarrhal affections, both sugar and honey are frequently employed: it has also been advantageously used in calculous complaints; and from its known power in preserving animal and vegetable Substances from putrefaction, it has been given with a view to its antiseplic effects. The candy, by diffolving Nowly in the mouth, is well suited to relieve tickling coughs and hoarseness. The use of sugar in various medicinal compositions is too obvious to require being particularly pointed out.'
* In Alia, Elephants and other animals are fed upon lugar. Sce Abridgement of Evidence on Slave Trade.
• See Redi obf. de animalcul. vivis in corp. vid. p. 166. sq. • f Carminati Opufc. Therap. vol. i. p. 113
Cari. 1.c.. ! Vide Clinicalü'anatomical observations with experiments dietorical Og jtatical. Rezis in Garmingti, l. 6. p. 129. .
To the former of these volumes is prefixed a catalogue, « in which all the plants composing the Materia Medica, as referred to by the colleges of London and Edinburgh, are arranged according to their botanical affinities or natural orders, adopted by Professor Murray;' and in the latter volume is given the arrangement of the Materia Medica, as published by Dr.Cullen; to which is added a catalogue of the vegetable Materia Medica, according to that arrangement. — The work is concluded by a general index in Larin and English : in the Latin index, the officinal names are distinguished by Roman letters, and the sys. tematic by Italics.
ART. IV. Memoirs of the Kings of Great Britain of the House of
Brunswic-Lunenburg By W. Belsham. 8vo. 2 vols. pp. 769.
1os. 6d. Boards. Dilly. 1793. 6. HISTORY, (according to a very just and celebrated defini
tion of it,) is philofophy teaching by example; and the great purpose to be answered by a research into the records of past ages, is to learn how to avoid those errors which have been injurious to human happiness, and by what means the general welfare may be most certainly and effectually promoted. If history be not written, and if it be not read likewise, in this spirit, and with this view, the romantic tales of an Amadis or an Orlando may be studied with as much advantage as the 'me. moirs of Great Britain or France. From increase of knowlege we have a right to expect increase of happiness; and to whatever temporary obstruction the progress of mankind to that perfection of which their nature and condition are fusceptible, may be liable, the grand association of knowlege, virtue, and happiness remains in the moral order of the universe, alluredly fixed and indissoluble.'
Such are the just and elevated sentiments which we find at the conclusion of the volumes now under our notice. The enlightened and ingenious author appears to have entered on his task under a strong impression of these ideas, and never to have lost sight of them through the whole course of his work. Juftly estimating the value of the Revolution in 1688 by the degree of perfection and stability which it gave to the grand fabric of liberty; and considering it as the chief glory of the British nation, that it has established, by general consent, a system of government which has for its batis the unalienable rights of man, and which professes to pursue, as its' grand ob. ject, the happiness of the people; Mr. Beltham makes it the leading design of his memoirs to shew, by an impartial delineation of the interesting events of the succeeding reigns, how far this
end has been kept in view, how far there have been deviations from it, and in what respects the general system of freedom is still susceptible of enlargement and security. As an introduction to these memoirs, a brief but masterly survey is taken of the course of political and military events, from the Revolution to the death of Queen Anne. This introduction is copied, with little variation, from the author's former work, “ Estays philosophical, historical, and literary," Vol. II *.
The memoirs commence with the following important observations, respecting the grounds on which the present Royal Family were called to the throne :
• George-Louis, Elector of Hanover, and head of the House of Brunswic-Lunenburg, derived his descent from the blood-royal of Eng, land by his mother Sophia, daughter of Frederic, Elector Palatine and King of Bohemia, who married Elizabeth of England, only daughter of James I. It is evident therefore, that the title of this Prince was founded solely on the choice of the Parliament, i. e. of the people or nation; and that the usual order of succession was entirely superleded. For admitting the male line of the House of Stuart to have been extinguished in the person of James II. the right of blood rested in the House of Savoy, descended from Henrietta Dutchess of Orleans, daughter of Charles I. And the Princess Sophia herself being the youngest daughter of the unfortunate Palatine, more than fifty de. scendants of that Prince prior in the order of succeslion were passed over in the Act of William, which settled the Crown of England on the House of Hanover. So that the rights of the people were not only aflerted but exercised in their full extent: Ard the family upon the throne is indisputably an elected family, though the general law or rule of succession remains unaltered.'
The state of parties at the accession of the House of Hanover is thus described :
. The kingdom might at this time be considered as divided with great nearness of equality into the two adverse factions of Whigs and Tories; the latter of which, from the egregious indiscretion of the Whigs in the fatal business of Sacheverel, had recently acquired a great addition of strength and vigour. But it must not be imagined that all who were included in the appellation of Tories, who detested the principles, civil and religious, maintained by the Whigs, as destructive of the ancient constitution and orthodox faith, and who hated still more the persons of the Whigs than their principles, as their perpetual and implacable rivals for power, diftin&tion, and popularity, were therefore attached as a party to the exiled family. Doubtless a great majority of them would have been seriously alarmed at any attempt to restore the son of the late King James to the throne, at least while he remained a Papift; and his notorious bigotry precluded almost every hope or expectation of his convertion to Protestantism. Previous to the æra of the Revolution, the speculative line of discrimination between the
• See Rey. vol. ij. p. i, er jeg. New Series.
two grand factions of the State, now gradually fading into obscurity, was clearly and strongly marked. The Whigs maintained civil government to be an inititution of human origin and appointment, confonant indeed to the divine will, as essential to the order and happiness of the moral and rational creation. The powers velted in the civ magistrates they regarded therefore as a delegation or trust from the people : And it was a necessary consequence of this doctrine, that the individuals entrusted with these powers, were ultimately responsible to the people for the exercise of them, and liable to be degraded and pu. nished for the abuse of them. They asserted that there were unalien. able rights inherent in human nature, for the preservation of which, government was originally instituted ; amongit the chiefest and most important of which, they accounced the right which every man porselles of worshipping God, not according to a decree of the State, but to the dictates of his own conscience. In other words, they maintained the principle of Toleration, not as a matter of favour, but of justice. I And this principle was considered by them as violated, not only by laws professedly penal, but by any exclusion from the common rights and privileges of citizenship, founded not on any species of civil delin. quency, but the mere unavoidable diversity of religious opinions. The Tories, on the other hand, rejected these doctrines with vehement indignation and abhorrence, as subversive of the welfare, and even of the existence, of civil society. They asserted that government was expressly ordained of God, from whom alone Princes derive their au. thority, and to whom alone they were responsible for their actions that to refilt the will of the Sovereign, was in effect to resist the will of God—and that although, when the commands of the Sovereign were directly opposed to the commands of God, an active obedience could not be lawfully yielded; yer even in these extreme cases, it was the duty of the subje&t quietly to submit to all the consequences of his noncompliance : And that passive obedience and non-reíflance were at all times and in all cases right and obligatory, where active obedience became either criminal or impracticable. They were far from deny. ing that it was the duty of the Prince to consult and provide for the welfare and happiness of the people, as the great end of his government; but for any neglect or contempt of this duty, there was, as they asserted, no lawful remedy but humble petition and remonftrance. That the people had rights, they admitted ; but these rights were not to be defended by force : In the number of these rights, however, they did not include the right of private judgment in religion. They conceived it to be the duty of individuals to acquiesce in chat formula of doctrines, and to conform to that mode of worship, which the wisdom of the State had provided ; that to oppose private to public opi. nion was in all cases presumptuous and unwarrantable; and in matters of religion more especially dangerous, and doubly culpable, as a contemptuous defiance of the united authority of church and state *,'
• • That this delineation of the principles by which the two great parties in the State were diftinguished is accurate and just, may be demonstrated by an appeal to that perfect standard of Toryism and