Plant Physiological Ecology
Springer Science & Business Media, 08.10.2008 - 605 Seiten
Box 9E. 1 Continued FIGURE 2. The C–S–R triangle model (Grime 1979). The strategies at the three corners are C, competiti- winning species; S, stress-tolerating s- cies; R,ruderalspecies. Particular species can engage in any mixture of these three primary strategies, and the m- ture is described by their position within the triangle. comment briefly on some other dimensions that Grime’s (1977) triangle (Fig. 2) (see also Sects. 6. 1 are not yet so well understood. and 6. 3 of Chapter 7 on growth and allocation) is a two-dimensional scheme. A C—S axis (Com- tition-winning species to Stress-tolerating spe- Leaf Economics Spectrum cies) reflects adaptation to favorable vs. unfavorable sites for plant growth, and an R- Five traits that are coordinated across species are axis (Ruderal species) reflects adaptation to leaf mass per area (LMA), leaf life-span, leaf N disturbance. concentration, and potential photosynthesis and dark respiration on a mass basis. In the five-trait Trait-Dimensions space,79%ofallvariation worldwideliesalonga single main axis (Fig. 33 of Chapter 2A on photo- A recent trend in plant strategy thinking has synthesis; Wright et al. 2004). Species with low been trait-dimensions, that is, spectra of varia- LMA tend to have short leaf life-spans, high leaf tion with respect to measurable traits. Compared nutrient concentrations, and high potential rates of mass-based photosynthesis. These species with category schemes, such as Raunkiaer’s, trait occur at the ‘‘quick-return’’ end of the leaf e- dimensions have the merit of capturing cont- nomics spectrum.
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2C LongDistance Transport of Assimilates
Plant Water Relations
Effects of Radiation and Temperature
4B Effects of Radiation and Temperature
ScalingUp Gas Exchange and Energy Balance from the Leaf to the Canopy Level
Allelopathy and Defense
9C Effects of Microbial Pathogens
9D Parasitic Associations
9E Interactions Among Plants
Role in Ecosystem and Global Processes
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acclimation acid activity allocation apoplast associated Biol biomass C4 plants canopy carbon carboxylation cell walls Chapter 2A chemical chlorophyll chloroplasts CO2 assimilation CO2 concentration compounds cycle decrease dormancy Ecol ecological ecosystems effects elongation energy enhance environmental enzymes fungi genes germination gradient grass growth rate herbivores higher host increase inhibition interactions irradiance isotope Lambers leaf leaf area leaves light lower mass mechanism membrane mesophyll metabolism mineral nutrition mitochondria mmol molecules mycorrhizal nitrogen NO3À nodules nutrient occurs Oecologia organic oxidase parasitic pathogens pathway phloem photosynthesis physiological phytochrome Phytol Plant Cell Environ Plant Physiol Plant Soil plasmodesmata pressure production proteins radiation ratio reduced relative resistance respiration respiratory response rhizosphere role Rubisco Sect seed seedlings senescence signal Solanum lycopersicum species stem stomatal stomatal conductance supply synthesis temperature tion tissue traits transpiration transport trees uptake water potential water relations water stress xylem
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