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THE text of this Edition of Livy's First Five Books is principally taken from that of a very accurate one, published in 1822, by Dr Dymock of Glasgow, who has followed the celebrated edition of Ruddiman. The changes made by other editors have been sparingly introduced; but whenever they were too striking to be denied observation, they have been attended to in the notes. The editions and annotations consulted by the Editor have been those of Sigonius, Gronovius, Drakenborch, Crevier, Ruperti, Doering and Stroth, Raschig, Ruddiman and Dr Hunter.

One change, however, of great importance has been introduced, to which it is necessary shortly to advert. The principles which affect the indirect or oblique form of narration, so admirably evolved by Dr Carson, in his masterly work on the Qui, quæ, quod, and exemplified in his edition of Tacitus, have, in this edition, for the first time, been strictly attended to. Former editors have been extremely capricious in distinguishing the facts for which Livy vouches as a historian, and the sentiments which he expresses as his own, from those which he merely indicates to be the assertions or sentiments of others, when these are not expressed as the ipsissima verba of the persons holding such sentiments, or making such assertions. Indeed they hardly ever take any notice of the principle in imputed sentiments, although instances abound in every page, and often neglect it even in imputed addresses. In all cases

To aid the reader in carrying on a consecutive knowledge

of the chronology connected with the events, the date of each
remarkable era, as generally received, during the kings, and
subsequently of each year, as arranged in the chronology of
Glarean, has been affixed to the margin.

An account of the LIFE and WRITINGS of the Author un-
der perusal is always a natural object of desire, and one is
accordingly prefixed to this Edition. The HISTORICAL and
GEOGRAPHICAL INDEX, at the end of the work, has been so
prepared as to enable the reader to trace the allusions to each
person, office, or place contained in the volume. This has
been done by a reference to the passages where each name
occurs throughout this portion of history.

The NOTES at first are designedly short and simple; but as
the work advances, greater attention is paid to critical discus-
sion, and subjects, which the youthful reader, at his entrance on
the study of Livy, could hardly be expected to understand. In

preparing them, the Editor has, in addition to his own remarks, availed himself, without scruple, of the labours of the commentators already enumerated. Their English shape rendered it impossible to assign to each critic, who wrote in Latin, his own share. But to others, particularly Dr Adam and Dr Hunter, whose philological labours cannot be too highly estimated, he has uniformly assigned the assistance which their English lucubrations afforded him.


24th September 1833.

W. M. G.





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I HAVE you never read,' says Pliny the Younger, in one of his letters, that an inhabitant of Cadiz was so much excited by the distinc'tion and glory which Livy had acquired, that he came from the re'motest quarter of the globe to visit him, and, immediately on his ha'ving seen him, departed?' The distinguished historian, TITUS LIVIUS, to whose genius so extraordinary a tribute was paid, was born at Patavium, (now Padua, a town of Venetia, in the north of Italy,) in the 695th year of Rome. In his case, as in that of most others, distinguished merely for their literary fame, we are unfortunately ignorant of nearly every thing connected with his history calculated to throw light upon the early pursuits which formed him to excellence. Of his education, of the time when he removed to Rome, and the manner in which he first attracted notice, we are utterly ignorant. But we may form at least a plausible conjecture as to the circumstances which drew upon him the regards of the Emperor Augustus. It is not improbable that a dissertation of his, wherein he treats of philosophy, applied to history, produced this result. No history of Rome, deserving the name, existed before his time; and we know that the disjointed, scanty and unsatisfactory annals which contained the records of the Roman state, called forth from Cicero loud reprehension and regret. It is not surprising, therefore, that a prince like Augustus, who courted the praise of patronising learned men in general, should, (whatever circumstance introduced Livy to this notice,) have hailed, with the utmost satisfaction, the appearance of one, who, from his industry, his love of country, his powers of narration, and the philosophic eye with which he surveyed the progress of events, seemed destined to supply so obvious a deficiency in Roman literature. We accordingly find, that he lived on terms of intimacy with that prince, and that he was even offered by Livia the office of tutor to Claudius, the Emperor's grandson. This intimacy must have been productive of great advantage to him, in opening up both public and private sources of information, whilst it has never led to him to boast of a friendship

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