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And when he thinks, (good easy man,) full surely
HENRY THE VIII. .
Antithesis arises in a sentence or line where words are opposed to each other. This figure gives force to meaning, and variety to utterance, and should be read or spoken with a particular stress on the words in opposition.
Examples. “ Had you rather Cæsar were living, and die all slaves, ihati that Cæsar were dead, to live all freemen?”
'T PAGEDY OF Julius CESAR.
“ Is it credible that when he declined putting Clodius to death with the consent of all, that he would choose to do it with the disapprobation of many? Can you believe that the person whom he scrupled to slay, when he might have done so with full justice---in a convenient placerat a proper time—with secure impunity, he made no scruple to murder· against justice--in an unfavourable place at an unseasonable timemand at the risk of capital condemnation ?"
CICERO FOR MILO.
“So, also, is the resurrection of the dead. It is sown in corruption, it is raised in incorruption: It is sown in dishonour, it is raised in glory: It is sown in weakness, it is raised in power: It is sown a natural body, it is raised a spiritual body.”
1 Cor. XV. Chap. 42nd Verse,
IX. DIONOTONY, OR MONOTONE. Monotone occurs in those parts of a subject where several words follow each other, without re
quiring any variation of voice, or particular stress upon one word more than another.
This figure often imparts sublimity, and from its own want of variety, bestows variety upon that to which it is attached. It should be read or spoken with unvarying sameness.
“For who would bear the whips and scorns o’the time,
“ High on a throne of royal state, which far
“ In thoughts from the visions of the night, when deep sleep falleth on men, fear came upon me, and trembling: which made all my bones to shake. Then a spirit passed before my face; the hair of my flesh stood up : it stood still, but I could not discern the form thereof: an image was before mine eyes, there was silence, and I heard a voice, saying, shall mortal man be more just than God ? Shall a man be more pure than his Maker? Behold, he put no trust in his servants; and his angels he charged with folly : How much less in them that dwell in houses of clay, whose foundation is in the dust, which are crushed before the moth
They are destroyed from morning to evening ; they perish forever without any regarding it.”
JOB 4th CHAP. 13--20th VERSES,
“ As autumn's dark storms pour from two echoing hills, so towards each other approached the heroes. As two dark streams from high rocks meet and mix, and roar on the plain; loud, rough, and dark in battle, met Laughlin and Innisfail : Chief mixed his strokes with chief, and man with man. Steel clanging sounded on steel. Helmets are cleft on high; blood barsts and smokes around. As the troubled noise of the ocean when roll the waves on high; as the last peal of the thunder of heaven ; such is the noise of battle."
“In my distress I called upon the Lord, and cried unto my God: he heard my voice out of his temple, and my cry came before him. Then the earth shook and trembled; the foundations, also, of the hills moved and were shaken, be cause he was wroth. There went up a smoke out of his nostrils, and fire out of his mouth devoured : He bowed the heavens, also, and came down; and darkness was under his feet;-and he rode upon a cherub, and did fly: yea, he did fly upon the wings of the wind."
18th PSALM, 6-10th VERSES.
"In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth. And the earth was without form and void ; and darkness was upon the face of the deep. And the Spirit of God moved upon the face of the waters. And God said, "let there be light,' and there was light.
Genesis, 1st and 3rd VERSES.
Note. The above extracts, save the first, are examples of the sublime, as well as of Monotone.
In Modulation are comprehended all the various inflections of which the voice is capable. It may, indeed, be termed the soul, or witchery of eloquence ; for through its medium the sense is charmed, the imagination taken prisoner, and the most obdurate softened and relaxed. The effect of
Modulation upon the heart must ever be acknowledged, as long as the human ear can drink the harmony of its sounds. To attempt a system of accurately teaching this delightful power, would be indeed vain and futile ;* nothing but being possessed of a chastely correct ear, sensibly alive to the good feelings of nature, whence alone true modulation can emanate, being perfectly master of your subject, and letting it fully and exclusively occupy your mind, can ever enable you to attain a perfect modulation. Instead of paying attention to the different heights, and keys, which are said to produce modulation, but which in reality modulation gives even a name to, it is here recommended to every speaker, to commence his subject in a tone sufficiently audible to be perfectly heard ; then he can rise, and afterwards fall, as feeling, and sense, the only true causes of modulation, dictate. Those who are possessed of the requisites already mentioned, will tind in the following, fit exercises of modulation ; but the student will have much to do before he can be capable of reading or reciting, with any prospect of success, such surpassing efforts of poetic genius.
Mr Walker, and others, have made very ingenious reinarks typified on paper, on the inflections of the human voice; but a just knowledge of the true causes which produce those inflections, will preclude the necessity of any study on the subject, save of the rules to be found in this, and similar books, and of a just conception, as has been above stated, of the author's meaning, which conception, will impart the true feeling, and out of that feeling will arise the natural, and, consequently, the proper inflection, which marks on paper. can never correctly convey. Mr. Walker's own words, give credence to these observations. In his preface to the third Edition of his Rhetorical Grammar, he says, “ The sanguine expectations I had once entertained, that this analysis of the human voice, would be received by the learned with avidity, and applause, are now over; I have almost worn out a long life in laborious exertions, and though I have succeeded, beyond expectation, in forming readers, and
speakers, in the most respectable circles in the three kingdoms, yet I have had the mortification, to find few of my pupils listen to any thing, but my pronunciation. When I have explained to them, the five modifications of the voice, they have assented, and admired, but so difficalt did it appear to adopt them, especially to those advanced in life, that I was obliged to follow the old method, --sead as I read."