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an asteroid will generally stimulate ground-based studies; this effect was seen strongly in the revival of respectability and activity in the early 1960's in planetary exploration when promoted by the Soviet and U.S. space programs.


Gehrels, T. 1970, Photometry of Asteroids. Surfaces and Interiors of Planets and Satellites (ed., A. Dollfus), ch. 6. Academic Press, Inc. London and New York.

Houten, C. J. van, Houten-Groeneveld, I. van, and Gehrels, T. 1970, The Density of Trojans Near the Preceding Lagrangian Point. Astron. J. 75, 659-662.

Tombaugh, C. W. 1961, The Trans-Neptunian Planet Search. Planets and Satellites (eds., G. P. Kuiper and B. M. Middlehurst). Univ. of Chicago Press. Chicago.

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semimajor axis of the orbit

109 yr

Zweiter Katalog der Astronomischen Gesellschaft

phase angle, which is the angle at the asteroid between the radius vectors to Earth and to the Sun; right ascension

astronomical unit, a of Earth

the mean opposition magnitude as defined by

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ecliptic latitude

injection energy into Earth-escape hyperbola, km2/s”


eccentricity of the orbit

proper eccentricity

Ephemerides of Minor Planets, published yearly by the Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Theoretical Astronomy, Leningrad, U.S.S.R.

Fourth Fundamental Catalogue, Berliner Astronomisches Jahrbuch

absolute magnitude:* g = B(1,0) - 0.10

universal constant of gravitation

inclination of the orbit

proper inclination


International Astronomical Union

angular momentum

ecliptic longitude; wavelength


astronomical magnitude or -2.5 log10 I

McDonald Survey of Asteroids

Minor Planet Circulars, published by the Minor Planet Center, Cincinnati,

1 um = 1-micrometer = 1 micron


the angle between the rotational axis and the perpendicular to the orbital plane

observed value minus computed value

angular velocity

nodal longitude

"The symbols of this glossary are commonly used, unless defined differently by indi

vidual authors.

*For the newer, more explicit, definition of absolute magnitude, see under UBV


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period of rotation about the body axis, or orbital period; polarization

Palomar-Leiden Survey of Faint Asteroids

the distance from the Sun

radius of the object


perihelion distance

aphelion distance

time or epoch


Jacobian encounter velocity, defined by E. Öpik in Irish Astron. 8, 191, 1968.

the photometric system described by H. L. Johnson in ch. 11 of Basic Astronomical Data, K. Aa. Strand, ed., University of Chicago Press, 1963. Photographically, as well as photoelectrically, the magnitude B can be observed. It is related to the absolute magnitude, B(1,0), at unit distances and zero phase by

B = B(1,0) + 5 log ra + F(a)
where A is the distance from Earth and F (o) is the phase function.

linear velocity


Aksnes, Kaare; JPL
Alfvén, Hannes; UCSD and Royal
Inst. Tech, Stockholm
Allen, David; Hale Observ.
Anders, Edward; Chicago
Anderson, John; JPL
Arnold, Jim; UCSD
Arrhenius, Gustaf; UCSD
Bandermann, Lothar; Hawaii
Bandurski, Eric; Arizona
Barber, Thomas; NASA Haq.
Battle, Bill; Arizona
Baxter, David; UCSD
Bender, David; JPL
Binder, Alan; IIT Res. Inst.
Bourke, Roger; JPL
Bratenahl, Alex; JPL
Brecher, Aviva; UCSD
Brooks, David; NASA, LRC
Brunk, William; NASA Haq.
Bruwer, J.; Johannesburg
Burns, Joseph; Cornell
Chapman, Clark; MIT
Coffeen, David; Arizona
Cook, Allan; Smithsonian
Coyne, George; Arizona
Cristescu, Cornelia; Bucharest
Crossley, Dennis; UCSD
Cunningham, Leland; UC Berkeley
Danielsson, Lars; UCSD
Debehogne, Henri; Brussels
Delsemme, Armand; Toledo
Dohnanyi, Julius; Bellcomm
Dollfus, Audouin; Meudon
Doose, Lyn; Arizona
Dubin, Maurice; NASA Haq.
Dunlap, Larry; Arizona
Dwornik, Steve; NASA Haq.
Edmondson, Frank; Indiana

Edmondson, Margaret; Indiana
Fink, Uwe; Arizona
Forward, Robert; Hughes Res. Lab.
Fountain, John; Arizona
Friichtenicht, J.; TRW
Gardner, Jack; JPL
Gault, Donald; NASA, ARC
Gehrels, Tom; Arizona
Giclas, Henry; Lowell Observ.
Gill, Jocelyn; NASA Haq.
Giuli, Tom; NASA, MSC
Goldstein, Richard; JPL
Greenstadt, Eugene; TRW
Greyber, Howard; Martin-Marietta
Hall, Charles; NASA, ARC
Hall, Harvey; NASA Haq.
Hämeen-Anttila, Antero; Oulu
Hämeen-Anttila, Jyrki; Arizona
Hanner, Martha; Dudley Observ.
Hapke, Bruce; Pittsburgh
Harris, Dan; Arizona
Hartmann, Bill; IIT Res. Inst.
Helin, Eleanor; CIT
Herget, Paul; Cincinnati
Herman, Dan; NASA Haq.
Herrick, Sam; UCLA
Hills, Jack; Michigan
van Houten, Kees; Leiden
Howes, Morris; Arizona
Ip, Wing-Huen; UCSD
Jeffries, Anthony; Arizona
Johnson, David; NASA, ARC
Johnson, Torrence; MIT
Kaula, William; UCLA
Ken Knight, Charles; Arizona
Kerridge, John; NASA, ARC
Kessler, Don; NASA, MSC -
Kiang, Tao; Dunsink
Kinard, William; NASA, LRC

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