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LINE AUGUSTA, daughter of the king of Bavaria :-Issue by the 2d marriage :
1. Maria Louisa ; b. Dec. 12, 1791; m. 1810, to the Emperor Napoleon Bonaparte : [issue; Francis Joseph Charles [Napoleon] Duke of Reichstadt, b. March 20, 1811]; created Duchess of Parina, May 30, 1814.
2. FERDINAND, Crown Prince ; b. April 19, 1793.
4. Carolina Ferdinanda; b. April 8, 1801; m. Oct. 7, 1819, to Prince Frederick Augustus of Saxony.
Francis Charles Joseph ; b. Dec. 9, 1802;'m. Nov. 4, 1824, Sophia, sister of the king of Bavaria. 6. Maria Anne Frances; b. June 8, 1804.
Princes of the Blood. 1. Archduke Charles, Palatine & Viceroy of Bohemia; b. March 9, 1771. 2. Archduke Joseph, Palatine and Lieut. of Hungary; b. March 9, 1776. 3. Archduke Anthony, G. M. of the Teutonic Order; b. Aug. 31,1779. 4. Archduke John, General of Cavalry ; b. Jan 20, 1782. 5. Archduke Renier, Viceroy of Lombardy and Venice; b. Sept. 30, 1783. 6. Archduke Louis ; b. Dec. 13, 1784. 7. Archduke Rodolph ; Card. and Archb. of Olmutz; b. Jan. 8, 1788.
GOVERNMENT. The government of the Austrian Empire is mainly an absolute monarchy, and is noted for its arbitrary aud illiberal policy in prohibiting political discussions, and suppressing liberal opinions. Yet in some of the states the power of the emperor is limited by constitutional provisions, as in Hun. gary, where certain powers are possessed by the Diet, which is required to be convoked at least once in three years.
MINISTERS OF STATE AND CONFERENCE. Prince Clement de Metternich, Count Francis Kollowrat-LiebsteinCount Francis Saurau,
ski, Count Henry Bellegarde,
Chevalier de Plenczig.
Privy Chancery of the Household, Court, and State.
Chancery of the united Court. Count de Saurau, High Chancellor and Minister of the Home Department ; 3 Chancellors of the Court.
Count Anthony Mitrowsky, Baron de Geislern, Chevalier Stahl; 16 Aulic Counsellors.
Chancery of the Court of Hungary. Adam Count Reviczky de Revisnye, Chancellor of Court; John Baron de Malonyai de Vicsay, Vice-Chancellor ; 10 Aulic Counsellors.
Chancery of the Couri of Transylvania. Joseph Baron Miske de Magyar, President; 4 Counsellors of Court.
Michael Count Nadasd, Minister of Finance. Baron Ferdinand de Fechtig, President of the High Court of Justice. Count de Sedlnitzky, President of the High-Police and Censorship. Prince Xavier de Hohenzollern-Hechingen, President of the Council
KING AND ROYAL FAMILY.
Princes of the Blood.
Don Francis de Paula, Infant; b. March 10, 1794; m. June 12, 1819, Louisa Charlotte, daughter of the King of the Two Sicilies :- Issue; Isabella, b. May 18, 1821; Francis, b. May 13, 1822; Henry, b. April 17, 1823; Louisa, b. June 12, 1824 ; Edward, b. April 4, 1826; Josephine, b. May 25, 1827; Maria, b. Nov. 16, 1828.
Council of Ministers.
KING AND ROYAL FAMILY. MIGUEL, King of Portugal and the Algarves; 2d son of John VI. of Portugal; b. Oct. 26, 1802; affianced at Vienna, Oct. 29, 1826, by proxy to his niece Maria de Gloria, who was declared Queen of Portugal; took the oath of Feb. 26,1828, as Regent of Portugal ; was proclaimed King, by the Cortes, June 26, 1828, and formally assumed the title of King of Portugal and the Algarves, July 4, 1828.
(MARIA DE GLORIA, eldest daughter of Pedro, Emperor of Brazil, eldest son of John VI. of Portugal; b. April 14, 1819; declared Queen of Portugal in consequence of the abdication of her father, May 2, 1826.Pedro having become Emperor of Brazil, under the conditions of the Constitution of that country, by an act of May 2, 1826, abdicated the throne of Portugal in favor of his daughter, promulgated a Constitution for the kingdom with a Cortes, and appointed his brother Don Miguel regent, during the minority of his daughter. Miguel, after having sworn to the Constitution, renounced it, assumed absolute sovereignty in his own right, and is now de facto King of Portugal.]
SARDINIA. CHARLES FELIX, King of Sardinia, Duke of Savoy, Piedmont, and Genoa ; b. April 6, 1765; succeeded to the throne on the abdication of his brother, Victor Emanuel, March 13, 1821 ; m. March 7, 1807, MARIA CHRISTINA, daughter of Ferdinand ÍV., of the Two Sicilies, b. Jan. 17, 1779.
STATES OF THE CHURCH. THE government is an elective, absolute monarchy; the sovereign is the Pope who is chosen for life, by the college of Cardinals from their own body.
POPE PIUS VIII, (Francis Xav. Častiglioni); b. at Cingoli, Nov. 20, 1761 ; created Cardinal March 8, 1816; elected Pope March 31, 1829.
Cardinals. The Cardinals have the rank of princes, are next in dignity to the Pope, and together with him, they form the sacred college. Their number which was fixed, in 1526, at 70, is not generally full. They are divided into three ranks, of which the numbers, in 1829, were 4 CardinalBishops, 43 Cardinal-Priests, and 11 Cardinal-Deacons ;-total 58.
THE TWO SICILIES.
KING AND ROYAL FAMILY. FRANCIS, King of the Two Sicilies; b. April 19, 1777; succeeded his father Ferdinand IV, Jan. 4, 1825; m. (I.) April 24, 1797, Maria Clementina, sister of the Emperor of Austria :-(Issue; Maria Caroline, b. Nov. 5, 1788, m. Feb. 14, to the Duke of Berry) :m. (II.) Oct. 6, 1802, MARIA ISABELLA, sister of the King of Spain, b. Nov. 5, 1798 :2. Louisa Charlotte; b. Oct. 24, 1804 ; m. 7. Antoinette ; b. Dec. 19, 1814.
June 12, 1819, Don Francis of Spain. 8. Antonio, Count of Lecce; b. Sept. 23, 1816. 3. Maria Christina, Q.Spain ; b. Ap. 27, 1806. 9. Amelia; b. Feb. 25, 1818. 4. FERDINAND, Duke of Calabria ; 6. Jan. 12, 10. Caroline ; b. Feh. 28, 1818. 1810.
11. Theresa ; b. March 14, 1822. 5. Charles, Prince of Capua ; b. Dec. 10, 1811. 12. Louis, Count of Aquila ; b. July 19, 1824. 6. Leopold, C. of Syracuse ; b. May 22, 1813. 13. Francis, C.of Trapani ; b. Aug. 13, 1827.
SULTAN AND HIS FAMILY. MAHMOUD II, Grand Seignior and Sultan of the Ottoman Empire; b. July 20, 1785 ; called to the throne on the deposition of his uncle Selim III, July 28, 1808 :— Issue :- Abdul Medschid ; b. April 20, 1823.—Abdulhamid ; b. Feb. 18, 1827;—and several daughters.
GOVERNMENT. The government is an absolute monarchy; the sovereign, who is styled Sultan, Grand Seignior, or Emperor, is the sole fountain of honor and office, and is the absolute master of the property and lives of his subjects. His cabinet council is styled the Divan ; his court, the Porte or Sublime Porte.
Reschid Mehemed Pacha, Grand Vizier, (Prime Minister.)
MOLDAVIA. Jean Stroudza, Hospodar; inaugurated July 21, 1822. WALLACHIA. Gregory Ghika, Hospodar ; inaugurated Sept. 21, 1822.
GREECE. THE Greeks revolted from the Turkish domination in 1821, asserted independence, and established a republican government. The Turks attempted to reduce them to subjection; a destructive war ensued, which lasted several years; at length the governments of Russia, France, and Great Britain interfered; and the Sultan of Turkey was induced to consent to the independence of Greece. In 1827, Count Capo d'Istria was elected President of Greece for the term of seven years; in January, 1828, he entered upon the duties of his office, and he has succeeded in establishing an efficient administration, and in gaining the confidence and affection of the people.
In February, 1830, the plenipotentiaries of Great Britain, France, and Russia, appointed Prince Leopold of Saxe-Coburg to be the hereditary sovereign of Greece, with the title of “Sovereign Prince.” The Prince accepted the appointment; but on learning the actual condition of the country and the feelings of the people with regard to an appointment in which they had no voice, he afterwards resigned it.
The government was reorganized by the fourth national Congress, which met at Argos in the summer of 1829, Capo d'Istria still remaining at its head. The Panhellenium, a Council of 27 members, was replaced by another body consisting also of 27 members, called the Gerousia, Senate or Congress. This body gives its opinion on matters of legislation ; but has not the power of a negative upon the decisions of the President. Besides the Senate, there is a Ministry, consisting of four departments, each having a secretary, viz. the Home Department; Foreign Affairs, including Commerce; the Judiciary; and Public Elucation and Ecclesiastical Affairs.
The country of Greece, which is liberated, comprises the Morea, the most of the continent lying south of ancient Thessaly and Epirus, the island of Negropont and most of the smaller islands in the Archipelago, leaving Candia, Samos, and Scio in the possession of the Turks. The total area is not far from 16,000 square miles. “ The Peloponnesus contains about 280,000 inhabitants; the islands about 175,000 ; and continental Greece, including Acarnania and Ætolia, about 180,000 ;-in all 635,000 souls.”
See Anderson's “ Observations upon the Peloponnesus and the Greek Islands, made in 1929.”
Abbas Mirza, heir presumptive, b. 1785.
In the first volume of the American Almanac, in the article on the “ Use and Abuse of Ardent Spirits," it was shown that from 30,000 to 40,000 die annually in the United States in consequence of hard drinking. Some remarks were also made on the vast expense of money and the destruction of happiness and character, which attend this loss life; and it was also shown that a moderate use of ardent spirits, even when it does not lead to intemperance, is useless, if not injurious, to persons in health.
We are now happy in being able to lay before our readers a series of important facts, which show that a deep and most salutary impression has been made upon the public mind by the influence of Temperance Societies; and wbich also afford ground for hope that a mošt pernicious and destructive habit may be eventually banished from the United States. The friends of these societies ascribe intemperance, with its train of evils, not to the tastes and habits of a few, but to the general use of spirituous liquors as an article of luxury, and as an auxiliary to labor in the field and the workshop; and it is against these uses that they especially direct their efforts. The facts which are here presented, have been brought to light chiefly by the efforts of the American Tenperance Society, and have been furnished by a gentleman favorably situated for obtaining the most authentic information.
The American Temperance Society, which was formed in February, 1826, employs two agents in travelling from place to place to promote the objects of the institution; and a newspaper entitled “ The Journal of Humanity,” printed at Andover, Mass., is devoted to the same object. As many as thirteen state societies have already been formed, one in each of the following states, New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Virginia, South Carolina, Georgia, Mississippi, Ohio, and Indiana.
The number of minor associations noticed in the publications of the American Temperance Society up to Aug. 19, 1830, was 1605, viz. in Maine 98, New Hampshire 84, Vermont 119, Massachusetts 232, Rhode Island 11, Connecticut 181, New York 372, New Jersey 30, Pennsylvania 95, Delaware 2, Maryland il, District of Columbia 4, Virginia 111, North Carolina 17, South Carolina 11, Georgia 47, Florida 1, Alabama 8, Mississippi 9, Louisiana 2, Tennessee 11, Kentucky 19, Ohio 87, Indiana 26, Illinois 4, Missouri 3, Michigan 10.
The societies in these lists are not all connected with the A. T. S., but they all make the same fundamental principle,-entire abstinence from ardent spirits,--the basis of their efforts. Many societies doubtless exist, of which the officers of the A. T. S. have received no information. The whole number of members of these associations cannot be stated. In the