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remain unalterable, unless by common consent.' language often differed widely from that of the I. No peaceable and orderly person was ever to ordinance of 1787; but in all cases the underlying be molested on account of his mode of worship principles have been identical, so that the ordior religious sentiments. II. The people were nance might be called the magna charta of the always to enjoy the benefits of the writ of habeas territories. The difference in statemanship becorpus, trial by jury, proportionate representation tween the British and the American methods of in the legislature, bail (except for capital offenses, dealing with problems closely similar is elsewhere . in cases of evident proof and strong presumption), noted. (See REVOLUTION, I.; TERRITORIES, I.) moderate fines and punishments, and the preser - In the organization of the five states which vation of liberty, property and private contracts. have been formed under the ordinance, the privIII. Schools and the means of education were ileges secured by it to the inhabitants of the terriforever to be encouraged; and good faith was to tory have been imbedded in the state constitu. be observed toward the Indians. IV. The terri- tions, usually in the preliminary bill of rights. tory, and the states formed therein, were forever In Indiana, in 1802, a convention, presided over to be a part of “this confederacy of the United by Wm. H. Harrison, sent a memorial to congress, States,” subject to the articles of confederation, asking a temporary suspension of the sixth article; and to the authority of congress under them. but a select committee, John Randolph being They were never to interfere with the disposal of chairman, reported that such action would be the soil by the United States, or to tax the lands highly dangerous and inexpedient. In 1805–7 belonging to the United States; and the naviga successive resolutions of Gov. Harrison and the tion of the Mississippi and St. Lawrence was to territorial legislature to the same end were folbe free to every citizen of the United States, lowed in each year by favorable reports from the “without any tax, impost or duty therefor.” committees to which they were referred; but conV. Not less than three nor more than five states gress took no action. In the summer of 1807 the were to be formed in the territory. The bound effort was again renewed; but the new committee aries of three of these, the “western, middle reported, Nov. 13, 1807, that a suspension of the and eastern ” states, (subsequently Illinois, Indi. article was not expedient. By this time opposition ana, and Ohio, respectively), were roughly marked to the suspension was growing stronger in the terout, very nearly as they stand at present; and con ritory itself, so that the attempt was not renewed. gress was empowered to form two states (Michigan But the legislature, the same year, passed laws and Wisconsin) north of an east and west line allowing owners of slaves to bring them into the through the southern end of Lake Michigan. | territory, register them, and hold them to service, Whenever any of these divisions should contain those under fifteen years to be held until thirty60,000 inhabitants it was to be at liberty to form five for males and thirty-two for females, and a state government, republican in form and in those over fifteen for a term of years to be conconformity with these articles; and was then to tracted for by the owner and the negro. In the be admitted to the Union “on an equal footing latter case, if the negro refused to contract, he with the original states, in all respects whatso was to be removed whence he came; and in both ever.” VI. * There shall be neither slavery nor cases the children of registered servants were to involuntary servitude in the said territory, other be held to service until the ages of thirty for males wise than in the punishment of crimes whereof and twenty-eight for females. Illinois, being the party shall have been duly convicted: pro- then a part of Indiana territory, lived under these vided always, that any person escaping into the laws until her admission as a state, in 1818, when same, from whom labor or service is lawfully she enacted in her constitution that “existing claimed in any one of the original states, such contracts” should be valid. In this way slavery fugitive may be lawfully reclaimed and conveyed remained practically in force all over Illinois, and to the person claiming his or her labor or service the pro-slavery party controlled the state. In as aforesaid." This proviso was the first instance 1822 an anti-slavery man was elected governor, by of a fugitive slave law; it was afterward added divisions in the pro-slavery ranks, and in his to the constitution. (See COMPROMISES, III. ; inaugural he reminded the pro-slavery legislature FUGITIVE SLAVE LAWS; SLAVERY, V.)— The gen- of the illegal existence of slavery in Illinois. eral scheme of the ordinance, with the exception That body retorted by an act to call a convention of the prohibition of slavery, was the model upon to frame a new constitution. The act had to be which the territories of the United States were approved by popular vote, and, after a contest thereafter organized. (See TERRITORIES.) Upon lasting through 1823-4, was defeated by a vote of the inauguration of the new government under 6,822 to 4,950. In both states provisions forbidthe constitution an act was passed, Aug. 7, 1789, ding future contracts for service, made out of the recognizing and confirming the ordinance, but state, or for more than one year, gradually remodifying it slightly so as to conform it to the new moved this disguised slavery. — The preambles to powers of the president and senate. When the ter the constitutions of Ohio, Indiana and Illinois all ritory south of the Ohio came to be organized, the recite that the prospective state “has the right of organization was controlled by the stipulation of admission to the Union ” in accordance with the the ceding states that slavery should not be pro- constitution, the ordinance of 1787, and the enahibited; and in the case of other territories the bling act. In the case of Michigan congress long
neglected to pass an enabling act; the people of general phrases of the second article. (See Nathe territory, therefore, resting on the fifth article TION.) We are therefore to take the sovereign of the ordinance, and claiming that the only con- right to acquire territory as the justification of the dition precedent to admission (the increase of the ordinance of 1787, just as in the case of the population to 60,000) had been fulfilled, formed a annexation of Louisiana, which was equally unconstitution, and were admitted without an ena authorized by the constitution. (See CONSTITUbling act. (See MICHIGAN.) It should also be TION, III., B, 2.) – Undoubtedly the greatest bennoticed that the extreme northwestern part of the efit of the ordinance to the territory which it cov. territory, south and west of the head of Lakeered was its exclusion of slavery from it. It thus Superior, was not finally included in any of the received the full sweep of that stream of immifire states named, but is now a part of Minnesota. gration, foreign and domestic, which so carefully – The second of the articles of confederation de- avoided slave soil; the strictness with which this clares that each state retains “ every power, juris- westward stream confined itself to the comparadiction and right which is not by this confederation tively narrow channel bounded by the lakes and expressly delegated to the United States in con the Ohio, is of itself a testimony to the wisdom of gress assembled.” The power to acquire, the the sixth article. Beyond this, however, there jurisdiction to govern, and the right to retain, were countless other benefits. The enumeration territory outside of the limits of the states, are of the natural rights of the individual was a politnowhere in the articles, even by implication, given ical education for the people of the new territory, to the Cnited States. Whence, then, did congress, as well as a chart for the organization of the new draw the power to vest in itself the title to the state governments. The stipulations for the ennorthwest territory, to frame this ordinance for couragement of education, though too indefinite its government, to abolish slavery therein, and to to be binding, have exerted an enormous influence provide for the admission to the confederacy of upon the demands of the people and upon the five new states? The “ Federalist " answers the policy of the legislatures. This whole section question thus briefly: "All this has been done, was thus, from the beginning, the theatre of a and done without the least color of constitutional conscious and persistent attempt to combine uniauthority; yet no blame has been whispered, no versal suffrage and universal education, each for alarm has been sounded." In other words, we the sake of the other; and the success of the are to suppose that the states, tempted partly by attempt, though still far from complete, has al& willingness to despoil Virginia of her vast ready gone far beyond any possible conception of western claims, and partly by a desire to share in its projectors. Most important of all, from a pothe proceeds of the western territory as a common litical point of view, the ordinance was the first stock, were willing to allow their imbecile con conscious movement of the American mind gress to appropriate a source of revenue to which toward the universal application of the federal it had no shadow of claim, and which, as it then principle of state government to the continent. seemed, would so increase in a few years as to The original states owed their formal individuality make congress independent of the states. Such a to accident or the will of the king ; the inchoate supposition does far less than justice to the acute states of Vermont, Kentucky and Tennessee were ness of the state politicians who were then the the accidents of accidents; here, in the northcontrolling class ; they would have been glad to west territory, the nation first consciously chose withhold the power to govern the territories from the state system for its future development. (See congress, and yet how were they to avoid grant- Nation, III.) — Major General Arthur St. Clair, ing it? The reason for their “whispering no a delegate from Pennsylvania, and president of blame, sounding no alarm,” lay in the patent ne congress during the adoption of the ordinance, cessity of the case, in the political law which was the first governor of the territory, 1788–1802. finally forces a recognition under any form of His biography, cited below, is the best exposition government, that it is only in non-essentials that of the practical workings of the ordinance. When a limitation on sovereignty can be deduced by the portion of the northwest territory outside of implication, and that there are certain essential Ohio was organized as Indiana territory (see that attributes of sovereignty which can only be re state), William H. Harrison became its governor, stricted in express terms. (See also Hamilton's 1800–11, and was succeeded by John Gibson, argument in BANK CONTROVERSIES, II.) The 1811-13, and Thomas Posey, 1813–16, until Indi right to acquire property is as much the natural ana became a state. When the separate territory right of a government, however limited, as of an of Illinois was organized (see that state), Ninian individual; and a government, if restricted so far Edwards became its governor, 1809–18. Michias to be denied this right, is either non-existent gan, as a territory, had as governors William or impotent. It is not true that circumstances, Hull 1805–13, Lewis Cass 1813–31, Geo. B. Porin this case, compelled the states to allow a vio- ter 1831-4, and Stevens T. Mason 1834–5. When lation of the articles of confederation ; it is rather Wisconsin was separated from Michigan as a tertrue that circumstances, in this case, compelled ritory, its governors were Henry Dodge, 1836-41 the state politicians to respect the natural rights and 1845–8, James D. Doty 1841-4, and N. P. of the national government, which, in so many Tallmadge 1844–5. The small remainder of the other cases, they had attempted to limit by the territory, after the admission of Wisconsin as a 122
state (see WISCONSIN ; MINNESOTA), was added to | south to latitude 42° ; on the south, latitude 42° ; Minnesota. — For the cessions of the various states and on the west the Pacific ocean. These differed which went to make up the northwest territory, from those claimed by the state constitution in see TERRITORIES. The text of the ordinance is only one respect: the latter took as a northern in 1 Poore's Federal and State Constitutions, 7; 1 boundary the Columbia and Snake rivers, thus Stat. at Large (Bioren and Duane's edition), 475 ; including the territory between latitude 46° and Duer's Constitutional Jurisprudence, 512; An- the Snake river, which congress preferred to drews' Manual of the Constitution, App. xiii.; assign to Washington territory.- CONSTITUTION. see also North American Recier, April, 1876 ; | The first constitution is still in force. It restricted Hildreth's Pioneer History, 193 (Ohio Company); suffrage to whites, on six months' residence and Taylor's History of Ohio, 493; 1 Bancroft's Forma one year's declaration of intention to become a tion of the Constitution, 177, and 2:98; H. B. Ad citizen; authorized the legislature to prohibit the ams' Maryland's Influence in Founding a National immigration of persons not qualified to become Commonwealth; Coles' History of the Ordinance of citizens of the United States ; provided for a leg1787 (read before the Penn. Hist. Soc., June 9, islature of two houses, the senate to consist of 1856); 4 Journals of Congress, 373, 379; 3 Hil. sixteen members, chosen by districts for four dreth's United States, 449; 1 von Holst's United years, and the house of representatives of thirtyStates, 286 ; 1 McMaster's History of the American four members, chosen by districts for two years ; People, 505 ; 1 Schouler's United States, 98 ; 2 Pit- forbade the passage of special or local laws in a kin's United States, 210; 1 Curtis' History of the number of specified cases ; gave the governor a Constitution, 291 ; 1 Draper's Civil War, 1 term of four years, and made him eligible not Wilson's Rise and Fall of the Slave Power, 31 ; 1 more than eight in twelve years; provided that Greeley's American Conflict, 38; 2 Holmes' Annals, he should be chosen by popular vote, or, in de354; 1 Stat. at Large, 50 (act of Aug. 7, 1789); fault of a popular majority, by a joint vote of Smith's Life of St. Clair; Burnet's Settlement of the legislature; forbade the legislature to charter the Northwest Territory; Washburne's Sketch of any bank, to subscribe to the stock of any comEdward Coles; Story's Commentaries, § 1310 ; pany, or to charter any corporation otherwise The Federalist, xxviii. (by Madison); and author. than by general law; and ordered the state capiities under articles referred to. For Jefferson's tal to be fixed by popular vote. Two other quesclaims to the authorship of the ordinance, see 1 tions were submitted to popular vote, with the Benton's Thirty Years' Vier, 133; 1 Randall's following result : by a vote of 7,727 to 2,645, Life of Jefferson, 397; for Dane's, see 3 Webster's slavery was prohibited in the state ; and by a vote Works, 397; for Dane's, King's and Pickering's, of 8,640 to 1,081, free negroes or mulattoes not see 2 Spencer's United States, 202 ; Pickering's then resident in the state were forbidden to Life of Pickering. ALEXANDER JOHNSTON. 'come, reside or be within this state, or hold any
real estate, or make any contract, or maintain any OREGON, a state of the American Union. suit therein," and the legislature was authorized It was claimed to have been rightfully a part of to pass laws for their removal and exclusion, and the Louisiana purchase, as its western boundary for the punishment of persons who should emwas defined in 1819 by the Florida treaty (see ploy or harbor them. The constitution has not ANNEXATIONS, I., II.), and it was evidently un since been amended in any particular. In 1882 der this claim that Lewis and Clarke first explored the legislature changed the time of inauguration it in 1804-6, by direction of President Jefferson. of state officers from September to January, so that The conflicting claims are elsewhere given. (See the new governor holds from September, 1882, NORTHWEST BOUNDARY.) The people of Oregon, to Jan. 1, 1887. — GOVERNORS. John Whittaker, without waiting for action by congress, formed a 1859-62; Addison C. Gibbs, 1862–6; Geo. L. provisional government in 1843. After several Woods, 1866–70; Lafayette S. Grover, 1870-78; failures to pass an act for the organization of the Wm. W. Thayer, 1878-82 ; ' Zenas F. Moody, territory (see WILMOT PROVISO), an act for that 1882–7. — POLITICAL History. The long interpurpose became law, Aug. 14, 1848. It covered val between Oregon's adoption of a constitution all the territory of the United States west of the and its admission as a state was due mainly to the Rocky mountains and north of latitude 42° north “anti-negro clause” of the constitution, which (see WASHINGTON TERRITORY), and prohibited made republicans in congress very unwilling to slavery by putting in force the provisions of the vote for a ratification of the instrument. The ordinance of 1787. No enabling act was passed clause was due to the existence of three parties in by congress, but a state convention at Salem, the state, one in favor of slavery, a second opAug. 17 - Sept. 18, 1857, under authority of the posed to it, and a third opposed to negro immiterritorial legislature, adopted a state constitution. gration. The last two united to prohibit both Under this the state was admitted Feb. 14, 1859. slavery and negro immigration; but the first was - BOUNDARIES. The boundaries fixed by the act sufficiently strong to compel the convention to of admission were as follows: on the north, the submit to the people the question of "slavery or Columbia river and latitude 46° north ; on the no slavery." After the ratification was complete, east, the Snake river from latitude 46° north to and the state admitted, the first and third factions its junction with the Owyhee, and thence directly united against the second, and made Oregon a
democratic state. The democratic party of the , Said Napoleon, in an address to the French sen. state had so strong a pro-slavery element in it ate, dated Jan. 29, 1807: “Who can calculate the that one of the Oregon senators, Lane, was the length of the wars and the number of campaigns Breckinridge candidate for the vice-presidency in it would be necessary to enter on, some day, to 1860. In that year the republicans obtained the repair the evils which would result from the loss electoral vote of the state by a plurality, the pop- of Constantinople, if the love of cowardly ease ular vote being as follows: Lincoln, 5,270 ; and the seductions of the great city should preBreckinridge, 5,006; Douglas, 3,951; Bell, 183. vail over the counsels of a wise foresight? We From that time until 1868 the state was repub- should leave our posterity a long inheritance lican in state, congressional and presidential elec- of wars and misfortunes. The Greek cross being tions. In 1868 the democrats, by about 1,000 triumphant from the Baltic to the Mediterranean, majority, obtained the electoral vote of the state we should, in our own day, see our provinces for Seymour, and elected the congressman and a overrun by a swarm of fanatics and barbarians ; majority of both houses of the legislature. Since and if in this too tardy struggle civilized Europe that time the parties have alternately been suc should perish, our guilty indifference would justly cessful in the state's biennial elections. In 1870, excite the complaints of posterity, and would be 1874 and 1878 the democrats carried the state, a title of opprobrium to us in history."* Napoelecting the governor, congressman, and a ma leon, however, foresaw all the dangers which jority of the legislature; in 1872, 1876 and 1880, threaten the existence of Turkey when he wrote: the "presidential years,” the republicans se “The patriotism of the peoples and the policy cured the electoral vote of the state, the congress of the courts of Europe would not prevent the man, and a majority of the legislature. (See downfall of the Ottoman empire.” – The origin OREGON, under ELECTORAL COMMISSION.) In of these dangers, and of all the political com1883 the legislature is republican by the following plications connected with the serious problem majority : senate, sixteen to fourteen; house, called the Eastern or Oriental question, goes back thirty-nine to twenty-one. — The most prominent to the reign of Othman I., who, at the head political leaders of the state have been the follow. of numerous Asiatic hordes, occupied several ing Lafayette Grover, democratic congressman provinces of Asia Minor, and thus laid the founin 1859, governor 1870–77, and United States sen. dations of an empire which was destined to find ator 1877-83; Joseph Lane (see his name); John its chief power in the subjection of Greek peoH. Mitchell, republican United States senator ples. The taking of Constantinople during the 1873–79; and George H. Williams, republican reign of the sultan Mohammed II, definitively United States senator 1865–71, and attorney gen marked the establishment of the Turks in Europe, eral under Grant, 1872–5. — See NORTHWEST who thenceforth planned the subjection of the BCUNDARY, and authorities under it; Grover's principal neighboring states and the extermination Oregon Archives, 1849–53; Dunn's History of Ore of the Christians. - To these religious and ethnogon (1844); Tucker's History of Oregon (1844); / graphic causes must be added the tendencies of Greenhow's History of Oregon (1845); Gray's His- Russian policy to pursue its work of universal tory of Oregon (1849); 2 Poore's Federal and domination by the conquest of the Ottoman emState Constitutions; Tribune Almanac, 1859-83; pire. The remarkable testament of Peter I. left Hines' Oregon and its Institutions (1868); Dufur's by that prince to his successors, and deposited Statistics of Oregon (1869).
among the archives at Peterhof (near St. PetersALEXANDER JOHNSTON. burg), tells what should be and what are the polit
ical views of Russia in this regard. In this docORIENTAL QUESTION, The. By this, or ument, whose length does not allow its reproducby the equivalent term, Eastern Question, is usu tion here, in extenso, the czar declares that he conally understood the political complications which siders the Russian people called by Providence to are ever on the point of arising, in the Ottoman universal domination; that the “Russia which empire, in consequence of the mutual antago- he had found a rivulet and intended to leave a nism of the Christian and Mussulman populations mighty stream, would, under his successors, bewhich inhabit that country, on the one part, and come a great sea, destined to fertilize impoverished of the prevision of the conquest of Turkey by the Europe, and that its waters would overflow spite of Russians, on the other. — The extreme diversity all the dikes which weakened hands would oppose of the nations occupying the vast territory sub- to them, if his descendants knew how to direct ject to the porte, and the bonds, ethnographic or their course." It was to teach the czars, his succesreligious, which unite the greater number of them sors, how to direct that course, that he thought it to Russia, constantly imperil the integrity of the expedient to leave them his counsels or instrucTurkish monarchy, and threaten, at any moment, tions. After having explained the necessity of certo cause fresh revolutions in that country, the tain conquests which have been accomplished since consequences of which would be felt immediately his time, he continues: “S ix. Get just as near as all over Europe; for the possession of Constantinople would give the czars an increase of power
• Who would write history after civilized Europe had which would destroy at a blow the foundation on
perished ! We are not so sure that the conquest of Turkey
by Russia would add to the power of the latter.-MAURICE which the balance of power in Europe rests. BLOCK.
possible to Constantinople and the Indies. The shall one day be the solution of the Eastern quesprince who reigns there will be the real sovereign of tion. That problem, which presents itself periodthe world. To this end, excite continual wars now ically to European cabinets, with new corollaries, in Turkey and now in Persia ; establish ship is so complex that it is unreasonable to predict builders' yards on the Black sea ; get control by what may be in store in relation to it. The powerdegrees of that sea, as well as of the Baltic, two lessness of Turkey in Syria and Lebanon, and the points necessary for the success of the project ; perpetual antagonism of the Maronite Christians hasten the decay of Persia; penetrate as far as the and the Druses create, in Asia Minor, motives for Persian gulf; restore, if possible, by way of Syria, the intervention of France and England similar in the old commerce of the Levant, and advance to character to those which Russia finds for interIndia, which is the great emporium of the world. vention in European Turkey, in which Christians Once there, it will be possible to do without Eng- of the Greek rite utter incessant complaints against land's gold. & xi. Induce the house of Austria the Mussulman authorities and claim the protecto drive the Turk from Europe, and on the occa tion of the head of their religion. A perceptision of the conquest of Constantinople calm its ble improvement in the internal organization of jealousy, either by exciting a war between it and the Ottoman empire can not be denied. Still it is the old states of Europe, or by giving it a part of doubtful whether it can early enough make the the conquest which is subsequently to be taken from progress which it remains for it to make in order it. & xii. Attach to and gather about you all the to put itself in a condition to meet the storms disunited or schismatic Greeks spread through which sooner or later will break upon it. Turkey; become their centre and support, and es
LEON DE ROSNY tablish in advance universal predominance by a species of sacerdotal royalty or of sacerdotal su OSTEND MANIFESTO (IN U. S. HISTORY). premacy: this will give you so many friends The filibustering expeditions against Cuba (see among your enemies." It is well known how FILIBUSTERS) occasioned anxiety in Europe as to religiously this testament has been followed to the the possible future action of the United States letter, and how consistent the politics of Russia government in concealed or open favor of such have been with the doctrine laid down in it. The expeditions. In 1852 Great Britain and France Crimean war (1855–6) was the consequence of a jointly proposed to the United States a tripartite premature endeavor to establish the suzerainty of convention, by which the three powers should disthe czar, not precisely over Ottoman territory, claim all intention to obtain possession of Cuba, but over all subjects of the sultan who belonged and should discountenance such an attempt by to the Greek church whose pope and head is at any power. Dec. 1, 1852, the secretary of state, St. Petersburg. The sympathy of the Hellenic Everett, refused to do so, while he declared that populations with the Russian government be- the United States would never question Spain's trayed itself at that period, and was all the more title to the island. Everett's letter has been sekeen as there exists among them a profound verely criticised, but it seems justifiable as a refu. hatred for the Ottoman element. The treaty of sal to voluntarily and needlessly restrict future Paris, by taking away from Russia the right to administrations. — Aug. 16, 1854, President Pierce maintain a war fleet in the Black sea, only post- directed the American ministers to Great Britain, poned the time when the czar would descend on France and Spain, James Buchanan, John Y. MaTurkey anew. But only a moment was needed son and Pierre Soulé, to meet in some convenient for that stipulation to become illusory. That city and discuss the Cuban question. They met moment came in 1870, on the occasion of the at Ostend, Oct. 9, and afterward at Aix la Franco-Prussian war, when Russia asked and ob- Chapelle, and drew up the dispatch to their gov. tained in its favor a revision of the treaty of 1856 ernment which is commonly known as the “Oson this point.* – We shall not try to foresee what tend Manifesto.” It declared, in brief, that the
sale of Cuba would be as advantageous and hon* Rassia's ambitious designs found espression again in orable to Spain as its purchase would be to the the last Russo-Turkish war. The insurrections which took United States; but that, if Spain should obstiplace in Herzegovina, Servia and Montenegro, in 1876 and 1877, not without being produced by Russian influence, nately refuse to sell it, self-preservation would caused new controversies between Russia and Turkey, after
make it incumbent upon the United States to the latter had refused the guarantees desired by the great * wrest it from her,” and prevent it from being powers for the security of the Christians, in the conference Africanized into a second St. Domingo. – The which met at Constantinople in November, 1876, and which
Ostend manifesto was denounced in the repubcontinued in session till January, 1877. These controversies led to a declaration of war by the czar against the porte, April 24, 1977. This was the fifth Russo-Turkish war. qeliberations of this congress was the peace of Berlin, March 3, 1878, a treaty of peace, called the peace of San Ste which provided for the independence of Rumania, Servia fano, was signed, by which the war was ended. But the and Montenegro, and established two new independent congress of Berlin materially changed its provisions in favor states, Bulgaria and Eastern Rumelia. The immediate gain of Turkey. This congress met at Berlin, June 13, 1878, under to Russia by this war was not great considering the sacrifice the presidency of the German chancellor, Prince Bismarck. it had inade in it. It cost 500,000,000 roubles, and 172,000 men It was called to examine the result of the Russo-Turkish war on the European theatre of the war. On the other hand, the (1877-8) created by the peace of San Stefano, and to make it war greatly increased the influence of Russia, as a great Slavic harmonize with the interests of the other powers, especially power on the Balkan peninsula, and afforded it an opportuof England and Austria. The result of the transactions and nity to interfere in the affairs of that peninsula at any time.