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of statesmen. When they go with the ideas of a number of the German states, and begun by the the time, they are, for the most part, popular; junction of some of them with Prussia, for tariff when they go against the time, they become un purposes, a union by virtue of which (the Pruspopular. The reason of the frightful unpopular. sian tariff system being taken as a basis within ity of the order of Jesuits for a century past, is the limits of the territory of the association) all to be found not solely in the dangerous intrigues tariff barriers between such states were swept of the order, but principally in the fact, that the away, while duties were collected at the boundary whole tendency of the order is in deadly enmity lines of the association, on their joint account, with the modern spirit of the times and with the and divided among the several states, parties to intellectual consciousness and cravings of the hu- the union, in proportion to their population. manity of today. The great success of Napole- This union came into existence after the dissoluonic, English, Italian and Prussian politics, was tion of more than one tariff alliance against Pruscertainly determined to a great extent by this: sia, Jan. 1, 1834, and was at first intended to conthat their main tendency was in harmony with tinue for eight years. At that date the union the liberal and national tone of the spirit of the embraced eighteen German states. In 1835, Hestimes in the present age. – 5. But every age has sen-Homburg, Baden and Nassau entered it; in also a love for definite forms of its life. It is 1836, Frankfurt ; in 1838, Waldeck; in 1842, not sufficient for the statesman to recognize the Braunschweig, Lippe and Luxemburg ; in 1851 ideas of the time, and to enter the lists for them; and 1852, Hanover and Oldenburg. From 1854 he will do well also to use the forms of the time. to 1865, all the German states, with the exception A century ago, enlightened absolutism was ac of Austria, the two Mecklenburgs and the ceptable to the age. Great things could then Hanseatic cities, belonged to the Zollverein. The be accomplished without great struggles, under last Zollverein treaty is dated May 16, 1865, and that form. In our age, which demands, as its was to run from Jan. 1, 1866, to the end of 1877, right, the representative form, and especially the but was set aside by the events of 1866. The assent and co-operation, of popular representa- zollverein, or customs-association treaty, of July 8, tion, enlightened absolutism meets with powerful 1867, between the North German confederation opposition even when it advocates the real ideas considered as a single tariff territory, on the one of the time. Count Cavour for this very reason hand, and Bavaria, Würtemberg, Baden and Hesse received earlier and more easily the recognition on the other, which was to continue in force for and cheerful support of his nation than did Prince twelve years, rested on a different basis entirely. Bismarck, because Cavour used the forms of the The Zollverein itself was brought to an end by time for the ideas of the time, while Bismarck the establishment of the German empire, inasseemed at first to despise the forms of the time, much as the constitution of the empire, of April and undertook to realize new ideas by the means 16, 1871, art. 33, provides that Germany shall of an earlier time. Hence the labor of Prince constitute one single country for tariff and comBismarck was harder and slower; but in proportion mercial purposes, with Bremen and Hamburg as as he showed himself more favorable to the forms free ports. At present the Zollverein, therefore, of modern political life, he won for himself the has mainly an historical interest. — The economic furthering support of the many. – 6. Yet the consequences to Germany of the Zollverein were greatest statesman can not singly, not even with the consequences which may be expected from the forms of the time, realize the ideas of the every customs-union. 1. It reduced the cost of the time. The new ideas, indeed, exercise their influ- collection and administration of the customs duties ence; but so do the old historical powers of au as a consequence of the removal of the tariff barthority and custom. The savant may carry out riers between the associated states; 2, it rapidly the thought of the time, in theory, with logical developed the industry of those states by the appliacumen, and a consistency regardless of conse cation of the principle of free trade in their comquences. Real life does not square with the mercial intercourse ; 3, it increased the customs straight lines and sharp angles of doctrines; it receipts by increasing consumption, the tariff bebends them and changes them in the application ing a moderate one; 4, it rendered it possible for of them. Practical politics is an art which has a these states, through the union, to conclude advangreat many complicated problems to solve, an art tageous treaties with foreign countries, which are which has to deal with many joint and personal more disposed to make concessions to a state which forces. The result of political struggles necessi- offers them a large market than to small, unimtates treaties of peace, attempts at settlement portant countries; 5, it increased the commerce of or adjustment and compromises. The man who, the customs-union with foreign countries ; 6, it out of blind zeal for the spirit of the times, increased the political importance of Germany, scorns all compromise, may, indeed, be an hon since its political union was destined, sooner or orable doctrinarian, but he must not expect the later, as it actually did, to spring from its cussuccess or laurels of the statesman.

toms-union.*

M. J. C. BLUNTSCHLI.

* Says Henri Richelot, writing in 1862: “Since the year

1832 the Zollverein, although other influences concurred with ZOLLVEREIN. The German zollverein, or

its influence, has been the principal fact in Germany; and customs-association, was the union effected among the progress of Germany since then has been, in great part,

the progress of the Zollverein. The first advance of the such as cereals and building lumber, but in manufactured Zollverein consisted in its material enlargement; this it ac commodities, in woolen, silk and cotton textile fabrics, in complished by successive incorporations which leave noth linen and hardware. In its imports we notice an increase in ing in Germany outside of its boundaries save Austria, the exotic articles of consumption, such as tea and coffee, an inHanseatic cities and Mecklenburg. The increase of popula crease in the consumption of which is usually regarded as a tion of the Zollverein was a necessary consequence of the sure index of general prosperity. The same may be said of increase of its territory ; but it has been more rapid ; from the importation of articles used in manufacture. But so far twenty-three and one-half millions in 1834, the number of in as manufactured articles themselves are concerned, the sali. habitants of the Zollverein has risen to nearly thirty-fourent point in the importation of the Zollverein is their demillions. — The reports of the commerce of the Zollverein, crease. In the vitality of the great German fairs which are containing only quantities and no values, do not enable us still held, it is remarkable how German industry, little by to give the total annual movement of its trade with non little, thrusts aside its rivals in England, France and SwitzerZollverein states and countries, and in this matter we have land. Lastly, in its expositions, the first of which took place only more or less uncertain approximations. But the ap in 1844 in Berlin, and the second in 1854 in Munich; and in proximations warrant us in classing the Zollverein, in inter. the expositions of London and Paris in 1851 and 1855, that innational commerce, immediately after England, France and dustry stood the test. If it had no originality or invention the United States, although it is very far from these coun to boast of, all agreed that it possessed solid merit in the tries; and in assigning to it the incontestable rank of the medium sphere which belonged to it.” Its progress was still fourth commercial power of the world, of the third in Eu more noticeable in 1867 in Paris, and in 1873 in Vienna. The rope, and of the second on the European continent. The Zollverein thus seems to have advanced Germany much in manufacturing character of the Zollverein has become more the same way that the introduction of the policy of free trade and more pronounced in international commerce. The in- promoted the wealth, well-being and industrial progress of crease of its exports is apparent, not in its natural products, England. -ED.

END OF VOLUME THIRD.

CONTENTS OF VOLUME III.

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PAGE
Oath...

1
Oath of Allegiance, The (in Eng-
lish History)...

3
Occupation

10
Oceanica.

11
Ochlocracy

16
O'Conor, Charles...

19
Office-Holders, Danger of an Aris-
tocracy of.

19
Ohio..

24
Oligarchy.

27
Olmstead Case. (See Pennsylva-

nia.)
Omnibus Bill. (See Parliament-

ary Law.)
Opinion, Public. (See Public Opin-

ion.)
Opposition..

28
Order of the Day. (See Parlia-

mentary Law.)
Oro Council. (See Embargo,

in U. S. History.)
Orders, Religious. (See Congre-

gations.)
Ordinance of 1787 (in U. S. Hist.) 80
Oregon

34
Oriental Question, The

85
Ostend Manifesto (in U. S. Hist.) 36
Outlawry

87
Outlet

38
Over-Production..

40

556

P

(See

Pacific Railroad. (See Internal

Improvements, Railroads.)
Papal Infallibility. (See Roman

Catholic Church.)
Paper Money...

43
Paraguay (Republic of)..

48
Parasites, Social....
Pardon

57
Paris Monetary Conference... 58
Parley

68
Parliament, The British.

68
Parliamentary Law.

71
Participation in Profits.
Parties, Political...

95
Party Government in the United
States...

112
Party Names in U. S. History. (See

American Party, Anti-Federal
Party, Anti-Masonic Party, Con-
stitutional Union Party, Demo-
cratic Republican Party, Federal
Party, Greenback-Labor Party,
Liberal Republican Party, Re-

publican Party, W'hig Party.)
Patent Office

122
Patents, and the Patent System... 123
Patronage.

139
Patrons of Husbandry. (See

Grangers.)
Pauperism.

145
Peace.

153
Peace Congress. (See Conference,

Peace.)
Pendleton, George H.....

154
Penitentiary Systems. (See Pris-

ons and Prison Discipline.)
Pennsylvania

154
Penny Banke. (See Banks, Histo-

ry and Management of Savings.)
Pensions. (See United States Pen-

sion Laws, and the Pension Laws
of other countries.)

PAGE
Persia

159
Personal Liberty Laws (in U. S.
History)

162
Personal Union.

163
Peru....

164
Petition (in U. S. History)

167
Petition, Right of.

169
Philosophy of Law.

173
Physiocrates.

188
Pickering, Timothy.

198
Pierce, Franklin..

198
Pinckney, Charles Cotesworth. 198
Pinckney, Thomas.

198
Piracy

199
Plenty and Dearth.

201
Poland

203
Police

206
Police Power of a State.

212
Political Arithmetic. (See Arith-

metic, Political.)
Po cal Assessments. (See As-

sessments, Political.)
Political Economy..

216
Political Economy, History of... 237
Political Science.

257
Politics, Nature and Character of. 268
Polk, James Knox..

278
Poll Tax....

279
Popular Sovereignty (in U. S His-
tory)

281
Population..

284
Portugal.

299
Postoffice...

306
Postoffice Department..

810
Postoffice Savings Banks. (See

Banks, History and Management

of Savings.)
Powers of Congress. (See Con-

gress, Powers of.)
President. (See Executive.)
President Pro Tem. (See Parlia.

mentary Law.)
Press, The Newspaper and Peri.
odical...

811
Previous Question. (See Parlia-

mentary Law.)
Prices

326
Primary Elections..

343
Priority of Debts due to the United

States and to the States..... 350
Prisoners of War...

351
Prisons and Prison Discipline.... 352
Private Bills. (See Parliamentary

LE
Private Calendar. (See Parlia-

mentary Law.)
Privateering

361
Privilege. (See Parliamentary

Law.)
Prizes, Maritime.

362
Production of Wealth

363
Products on Paper...

374
Profits.....
Prohibition (in U. S. History).... 378
Promotion..

380
Property...

383
Property, Landed. (See Rent.)
Property, Literary..

392
Proportional Representation. 411
Protection

413
Protection in the United States... 423
Protestantism. (See Churches,

Protestant.)
Prussia

441
Public Debts. (See Debts, Na-

tional, State and Local.)
Public Lands of the United States. 460

R
Races of Mankind.

484
Radicalism

492
Railways

493
Railway Clearing House.

(See
Clearing, and Clearing Houses.)
Randolph, John.

531
Rebellion
Rebellion, The (in U.S. History).. 532
Reciprocity.

537
Recognition

539
Reconstruction (in U. S. History). 540
Refuge, Right of. (See Asylum.).
Refunding of the Public Debt of

the United States.
Reichsrath.....

564
Reichstag.

564
Removal of Deposits.

(See De-
posits, Removal of.)
Removals from Office....

565
Rent..

569
Representation

581
Representative Democracy:

Democracy, Representative.)
Republic...

595
Republican Party (in U. S. His-
tory)...

597
Repudiation

603
Resignation.

613
Restrictive System. (See Embar-

go, in U. S. History.),
Returning Boards (in U. S. His.
tory).

615
Revenue, Public.

618
Revolution.

629
Revolution, The (in U. S. History) 631 •
Rhode Island.

637
Ricardo, David.

640
Riders (in U. S. History).... 642
Right of Inheritance. (See Inher-

itance.)
Right of Petition. (See Petition,

Right of.)
Riu Kiu.

645
River and Harbor Bills. (See In-

ternal Improvements.)
Roads. (See Transportation, Means

of.)
Roads and Canals. (See Internal

Improvements.)
Rohmer's Doctrine of Parties.

(See Parties, Political.)
Roman Catholic Church.

646
Rotation in Office. (See Civil

Service Reform.)
Rules. (See Parliamentary Law.)
Rush, Richard

656
Russia

657

375

S
Saint Simonism. (See Socialism.)
Salary Grab (in U. s. History)... 673
San Domingo

675

the parue the Zion. The Art Brands of the i sech es serais pod bring me to
Lipun rasa in 's narra, et artsent: hs itse-
errepiebari trg cente iserryRSEate BD sea sed hardware la zima
1-2 in (any oarste Aite tocare save Abstra the eastic articles of memo- *1 2 *
Har.nexts. Cie ad Veekesbury. The increase of copea crease in the consumpre st IO FS
tm the Zone vetrin wa a nerimary careeqcesce the fare isies of gecesi pembersy. Tie ze 35 =
Int=a. A ta teri'UT; ; but it has been more rapid; from the impcraton d arbeies i et ses
***.*y thre, and m-balance in ISA, the name of in- | 24 nandured arcses themsi- ne
hab'act of the Looseren bas risen to vary thy-loor est point in the imperation of sex
me –The repeate of the cameree of the Conversin, i creze. In the very of De

pas
ent:21.noy qaar!.ta* ad no vaiuen, do not enabwe na
to give the total anal mosement of its tryle with Doe-
2. varin state and contre, and in this matter we bare laud. Laetay, in its esposos, te is 12.12
only r or lo norrtain apprezimatas. Bat the ap in 1844 in Berlin, and the secoci 3:54 m.
proximation. warrant o. in clare 1.7 the 7Terein, in inor. the eIprstions of London e posa 2
nasal em utre, immediate y afin Ergiand, France and dcery stood the test 12 basse TILTI
the Chind heir, alborogh it is very far from the CCD to dress of, all agreed that is provides 3
trina; std in asigntreg to it the incimiratable raak of the medium sphere which bei der
fearth cranmetrial prswer of the world, of the third in En more Boticeable in 16 in Paris, mi ante
Force, add of the stund on the European catinent. The Zoilserein thus scens to bere si acest senso
manufactoring character of the Zollverein has become more the same way that the introductions et 1
and more pronounced in international commerce. The in- promoted the wealth, well-being said in a re
Cream A its ezports is apparent, not in ite natural products, i Eogiadd.-ED.

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PAGE
Public Lands, Office of..

479
Public Opinion...

479
Public Policy..

480
Public Revenue. (See Revenue,

Public.)

198

198

PAGE
Oath.

1
Oath of Allegiance, The (in Eng-
lish History).

3
Occupation

10
Oceanica..

11
Ochlocracy.

16
O'Conor, Charles..

19
Office-Holders, Danger of an Aris-
tocracy of.

19
Obio.

24
Oligarchy.

27
Olmstead Case. (See Pennsylva-

nia.)
Omnibus Bill. (See Parliament-

ary Law.)
Opinion, Public. (See Public Opin.

ion.)
Opposition.

28
Order of the Day. (See Parlia-

mentary Law.)
Orders in Council. (See Embargo,

in U. S. History.)
Orders, Religious. (See Congre-

gations.)
Ordinance of 1787 (in U. S. Hist.) 30
Oregon

34
Oriental Question, The

35
Ostend Manifesto (in U. S. Hist.) 36
Outlawry

87
Outlet

38
Over-Production...

40

299

P

Pacific Railroad. (See Internal

Improvements, Railroads.)
Papal Infallibility. (See Roman

Catholic Church.)
Paper Money.

43
Paraguay (Republic of)..

48
Parasites, Social....

52
Pardon

57
Paris Monetary Conference..

58
Parley

68
Parliament, The British.

68
Parliamentary Law..

71
Participation in Profits.
Parties, Political.

95
Party Government in the United
States

112
Party Names in U. S. History. (See

American Party, Anti-Federal
Party, Anti-Masonic Party, Con.
stitutional Union Party, Demo-
cratic-Republican Party, Federal
Party, Greenback-Labor Party,
Liberal Republican Party, Re-
publican Party, Whig Party.)
Patent Office.

122
Patents, and the Patent System... 123
Patronage.

139
Patrons of Husbandry.

(See
Grangers.)
Pauperism

145
Peace..

153
Peace Congress. (See Conference,

Peace.)
Pendleton, George H...

154
Penitentiary Syetems. (See Pris-

ons and Prison Discipline.)
Pennsylvania.

154
Penny Banks. (See Banks, Histo-

ry and Management of Savings.)
Pensions. (See United States Pen-

sion Laws, and the Pension Laws
of other Countries.)

PAGE
Persia

159
Personal Liberty Laws (in U. S.
History)

162
Personal Union.

163
Peru.

164
Petition (in U. S. History).

167
Petition, Right of..

169
Philosophy of Law

178
Physiocrates.

188
Pickering, Timothy.

198
Pierce, Franklin.
Pinckney, Charles Cotesworth.. 198
Pinckney, Thomas..
Piracy

199
Plenty and Dearth.

201
Poland

203
Police

206
Police Power of a State.

212
Political Arithmetic. (See Arith-

metic, Political.)
Political Assessments. (See As-

sessments, Political.)
Political Economy..

216
Political Economy, History of... 237
Political Science.

257
Politics, Nature and Character of. 268
Polk, James Knox..

278
Poll Tax.

279
Popular Sovereignty (in U. S His-
tory)

281
Population.

284
Portugal.
Postoffice.

306
Postoffice Department..

310
Postoffice Savings Banks. (See

Banks, History and Management

of Savings.)
Powers of Congress. (See Con.

gress, Powers of.)
President. (See Executive.)
President Pro Tem. (See Parlia-

mentary Law.)
Press, The Newspaper and Peri-
odical....

811
Previous Question. (See Parlia-

mentary Law.)
Prices

326
Primary Elections.

343
Priority of Debts due to the United
States and to the States..

350
Prisoners of War..

851
Prisons and Prison Discipline.... 352
Private Bills. (See Parliamentary

Law.)
Private Calendar.

(See Parlia-
mentary Law.)
Privateering

361
Privilege. (See Parliamentary

Law.)
Prizes, Maritime.

362
Production of Wealth.

363
Products on Paper...

374
Profits

375
Prohibition (in U. S. History). 378
Promotion..

380
Property.

383
Property, Landed. (See Rent.)
Property, Literary.

392
Proportional Representation.. 411
Protection

413
Protection in the United States..
Protestantism. (See Churches,

Protestant.)
Prussia

441
Public Debts. (See Debts, Na-

tional, State and Local.)
Public Lands of the United States. 460

Quarantine

482
Quids (in U. S. History).......... 483

R
Races of Mankind......

484
Radicalism

492
Railways

493
Railway Clearing House. (See

Clearing, and Clearing Houses.)
Randolph, John......

531
Rebellion

532
Rebellion, The (in U. S. History).. 532
Reciprocity.

537
Recognition

5.39
Reconstruction (in U. S. History). 540
Refuge, Right of. (See Asylum.).
Refunding of the Public Debt of
the United States.

556
Reichsrath...

564
Reichstag..

564
Removal

of Deposits. (See De-
posits, Removal of.)
Removals from Office.

565
Rent.

569
Representation

581
Representative Democracy. (See

Democracy, Representative.)
Republic...

595
Republican Party (in U. S. His-
tory)...

597
Repudiation

603
Resignation

613
Restrictive System. (See Embar-

go, in U. S. History.),
Returning Boards (in' U. S. His-
tory)...

615
Revenue, Public.

618
Revolution..

629
Revolution, The (in U. S. History) 631 •
Rhode Island.

637
Ricardo, David.

640
Riders (in U. S. History).

642
Right of Inheritance. (See Inher-

itance.)
Right of Petition. (See Petition,

Right of.)
Riu Kiu..

645
River and Harbor Bills. (See In-

ternal Improvements.)
Roads. (See Transportation, Means

of.)
Roads and Canals. (See Internal

Improvements.)
Rohmer's Doctrine of Parties.

(See Parties, Political.)
Roman Catholic Church.

646
Rotation in Office. (See Civil

Service Reform.)
Rules. (See Parliamentary Law.)
Rush, Richard

656
Russia.

657

S
Saint Simonism. (See Socialism.)
Salary Grab (in U. S. History)... 673
San Domingo

6775

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