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broidered in silver, block shaped, and 4 inches high; the lance 11 inches in diameter and 9 feet long, including spear and ferrule. Each company will also have a service guidon, made of bunting or other suitable material, in shape and design the same as the silken guidon.
238. GUIDONS FOR SIGNAL CORPS.-Each mounted company of the Signal Corps will have a guidon of orange silk, dimensions and shape same as described for cavalry guidons; in the center on both sides of the guidon two crossed flags 6 inches square of white silk, with centers 2 inches square of scarlet silk, having staffs 15 inches in length of yellow silk; the letter of the company, of white silk, block shaped, 41 inches high, to be placed above the crossed flags; lance same as for cavalry guidon. This silken guidon will be used only in battle, campaign, or on occasions of ceremony. Each mounted company of the Signal Corps will also have a service guidon, made of bunting or other suitable material, in shape and design the same as the silken guidon.
239. Whenever in the opinion of a commanding officer the condition of any silken color, standard, or guidon in the possession of his command has become uinserviceable, a surveying officer will be appointed to report, for the informa. tion of the Secretary of War, its condition and the necessity of supplying a new one. If requiring repair, application to have it placed in a serviceable condition should be made to the Chief of the Quartermaster Corps. Service colors and guidons will be submitted for the action of an inspector when unfit for further use. Upon receipt of new silken colors, standards, or guidons commanding officers will cause those replaced to be numbered and retained by the organization to which they belong as mementos of service, a synopsis of which, bearing the same number, will be filed with the records of the organization.
240. Boat flags and pennants for the use of officers of the Army when making official visits by water are authorized as follows:
FOR GENERAL OFFICERS.--A flag of scarlet bunting, rectangular in shape, 3 feet hoist and 4 feet 9 inches fly; the rank to be indicated by white stars of suitable size placed in the center line of the length of the flag; for a brigadier general, one star; for a major general, two stars, and for the Lieutenant General, three stars.
The Chief of Coast Artillery and the chiefs of bureaus of the War Department will use the general officer's flag with the appropriate number of stars.
FOR Coast DEFENSE COMMANDERS.---A flag of scarlet bunting, rectangular in shape, 1 foot 6 inches hoist and 2 feet fly for small boats and launches and 2 feet 3 inches hoist and 3 feet fly for larger boats. In the center, on both sides, crossed cannon in yellow, with a medallion at their intersection, in scarlet, having an oblong projectile in yellow.
FOR Post COMMANDERS.-A pennant of bunting, triangular in shape, 1 foot hoist and 3 feet fly; the third nearest the staff to be a blue field bearing thirteen white stars and the remaining two-thirds to be scarlet.
The truck of the staff for general officers, artillery district commanders, and post commanders above the rank of captain to be a gilt ball, and for post commanders of lower grade to be flat.
241. Camp colors will be as described for flags, printed upon bunting 18 by 20 inches, on a pole of ash 8 feet long and 1} inches in diameter, the butt end armed with a pointed ferrule.
242. Whenever provisional divisions and brigades are organized for purposes of instruction, the headquarters of opposing forces are marked by blue and red banners, respectively. Headquarters of organizations may be marked, according to the force to which they belong, by blue or red flags or pennants with appropriate insignia in white.
Division flag: Four feet hoist, 6 feet fly.
Brigade pennant: Swallow-tailed, 4 feet hoist, 5 feet fly. The chief umpire's flag will be made of white bunting, crossed diagonally from corner to corner with two stripes of red bunting, 8 inches wide; same size as division flag.
Flags and pennants for headquarters of opposing forces and organizations will be furnished by the Quartermaster Corps.
243. No ensign, pennon, streamer, or other banner of any kind other than the flags, colors, standards, pennants, and guidons prescribed by the Army Regulations or otherwise authorized by the War Department will be used by the Army or by any regiment or other organization thereof.
244. The names and dates of battles in which a regiment of cavalry, field artillery, or infantry, or a battalion of engineers has participated may be engraved on silver bands to be placed on the pike of the colors or lance of the standard, as the case may be, of such regiment or battalion, provided that the names of the battles which it is proposed to have engraved on the silver bands be submitted to the War Department, in order that there may be some uniformity in determining what are to be classed as battles. Where only part of a regiment or of a battalion of engineers participated in a battle the name and date of such battle, followed by the letter or numerical designation of the uuit or units of the regiment or battalion so engaged, may also be engraved on a silver band pertaining to such regiment or battalion.
REGIMENTS AND BATTALIONS.
245. In the cavalry, field artillery, and infantry arms the regiment is the administrative unit. The headquarters of the regiment are at the station of the permanent regimental commander; in his absence the command of the regiment devolves upon the senior officer on duty with it wherever he may be stationed. The regiment is composed of two or more battalions which, in turn, are composed of two or more companies. The battalion, in a regiment, is not an administrative unit and has no separate records; it is purely a tactical unit conveniently organized for instruction or maneuver, and particularly for combat, either as an integral part of the regiment to which it belongs or separated from it.
It is appropriately commanded by a field officer, normally a major, regularly assigned in orders. In the absence of its regular commander the command devolves upon the senior officer of the battalion on duty with it, unless a field officer has been assigned as contemplated in paragraph 247. Whenever incomplete battalions of the same or different regiments are serving together, the commanding officer may designate provisional battalions, and similarly, in the case of incomplete regiments, he may designate provisional regiments. The regulations relating to regiments apply to battalions not organized into regiments unless otherwise specially provided.
A battalion commander is responsible for the instruction, tactical efficiency, and preparedness for war service of the troops of his battalion under his immediate command.
246. A regimental commander and coast-defense commander are responsible for the instruction, tactical efficiency, and preparedness for war service of the troops under his immediate command. They will encourage among their officers harmonious relations and a friendly spirit of emulation in the performance of duty. Their timely interference to prevent disputes, their advice to the inexperienced, and immediate censure of any conduct liable to produce dissension in the command or to reflect discredit upon it, are of great importance in securing and maintaining its efficiency. In such efforts they will receive the loyal support of their subordinates.
247. Field officers of the mobile Army are assigned by the department commander to stations or commands where their services are most required, and are there assigned to appropriate duties by the commanding officer, preferably with troops of the units to which they belong. A lieutenant colonel may be appropriately assigned to the command of any part of a regiment larger than a battalion, or to the command of a battalion in the absence of its major.
248. The regimental staff officers are appointed from the captains, and consist of the adjutant, the quartermaster, and the commissary, and they will be so designated, respectively. They are appointed by the regimental commander, who will at once report his action to The Adjutant General of the Army. The battalion staff officers consist of the adjutant and the quartermaster and commissary, and will be designated as the battalion (or squadron) adjutant and the battalion (or squadron) quartermaster and commissary, respectively. In the cavalry and infantry arms the battalion adjutant will be appointed from the first lieutenants and the battalion quartermaster and commissary from the second lieutenants. In the engineer and field artillery arms, battalion adjutants are appointed from the captains, battalion quartermasters and commissaries from the lieutenants. Except in the battalions of engineers they are appointed by the regimental commander after consultation with the battalion commander. When a battalion is detached and serving at such a distance from regimental headquarters that more than 15 days are required for exchange of correspondence by mail, the battalion staff officers are appointed by the battalion commander, who will immediately notify the regimental commander and The Adjutant General of the Army. In the battalions of engineers they are appointed by the battalion commanders. Appointments of staff officers will not be antedated and will take effect on the day on which actually made. A regimental staff officer will be entitled to the pay pertaining to his appointment from the date on which he reports for duty at regimental headquarters, a battalion staff officer from the date on which he reports for duty at the station of a company of his battalion, whether such company be stationed at the post of the battalion commander or not. This date will be noted on the post return for the month in which the officer reports, and on his pay voucher for the same month.
249. The tour of duty of a staff officer of a regiment, coast defense command, or battalion not forming part of a regiment, is limited to four years, and having completed a tour, an officer will not be eligible for a second tour until he shall have served two years as a company officer. The tour of duty of a staff officer of a battalion forming part of a regiment is limited to two years, and having completed a tour, an officer will not be eligible for a second tour until he shall have served two years as a company officer.
250. All staff appointments in a regiment are restricted to the officers on duty with it and who are not serving at a school of instruction. Should the regimental commander desire to appoint an absent officer to the regimental staff he may apply for orders for the absent officer to join, but the officer must join before the appointment can be made.
251. The adjutant, under the direction of the commanding officer, will have charge of the various rosters of service; he will make, publish, and verify all details, keep the records of the regiment, and perform such military duties
with troops as are required by regulations. Through him the commanding officer communicates with the officers and men of his command.
252. The adjutant should be courteous to and on friendly terms with the officers of the command he represents, and will avoid all discussions of the orders or military conduct of his superiors. He should inform himself upon all points of military usage and etiquette, and on proper occasions aid with his advice and experience the subalterns of the regiment, especially those just entering the service. He will endeavor at all times to exert the influence belonging to his station in sustaining the reputation, discipline, and harmony of the command.
253. The adjutant, quartermaster, and commissary, under the regimental commander, are responsible for the discipline and efficiency of the noncommissioned staff and band and for the proper supply of the regiment in the field.
254. Regimental, battalion, and squadron quartermasters and commissaries and regimental and battalion quartermaster and commissary sergeants will be available for duty as assistants and will be required to assist the officers of the Quartermaster Corps at the various posts and stations. They shall not be called upon to receipt for money or property which does not pertain to their respective regiments, battalions, or squadrons, nor shall they be separated from the organizations to which they belong.
They will be available at all times for field service and such other exercises with their organizations as the regimental commander may deem necessary.
Questions arising as to the number of assistants necessary will be decided by department commanders, who will see that the number so detailed is kept at the lowest point consistent with an efficient performance of these duties, due attention being given to the avoidance of assigning to officers duties which can be properly performed by civilian employees.
255. Regimental and battalion staff officers may be assigned to duty with a company or to any staff duty which their regimental commander may impose, subject to the provisions of paragraph 254.
256. The regimental noncommissioned staff officers consist of the sergeant major, the quartermaster sergeant, commissary sergeant, and two color sergeants, and are appointed by the regimental commander. The battalion noncommissioned staff officers are the battalion sergeants major, and in engineer and field artillery troops, battalion quartermaster sergeants. They are appointed by the regimental commander after consultation with the battalion commander. When a battalion is detached from regimental headquarters the battalion noncommissioned staff officers are appointed temporarily by the battalion commander, who will immediately notify the regimental commander, and such temporary appointment will be in full force and effect from the date it is made and will continue in full force and effect from that date if it be approved by the regimental commander. If the regimental commander disapproves the appointment, then the increased rank and pay will cease upon receipt by the battalion commander of notice of such disapproval. Each noncommissioned staff officer will be furnished with a warrant signed by the regimental commander and countersigned by the regimental adjutant. The appointment takes effect on the day upon which it is made and the warrant may be continued in force upon discharge and reenlistment, if reenlistment be made on the day following that of discharge; each reenlistment and continuance will be noted on the warrant by the adjutant. Any noncommissioned staff officer may be reduced to the ranks by the sentence of a court-martial, or by order of the commander having final authority to appoint such noncommissioned officer. Noncommissioned staff officers will preferably be selected from the noncommis
sioned officers of the regiment who are most distinguished for efficiency, galJantry, and soldierly bearing.
257. The public property pertaining to the headquarters of the regimen“ will be marked “H. Q.,” with arm and number of regiment. Haversacks, canteens, and similar articles of equipment in possession of the noncommissioned staff and band will be marked as follows: Cavalry equipments, crossed sabers, with number of the regiment above and “N. C. S.” or Band" below the intersection; field artillery equipments, crossed field guns, with the number of the regiment above and “N. C. S.” or “Band” below the intersection; infantry equipments, crossed rifles, with the number of the regiment above and "N. C. S." or "Band” below the intersection; coast artillery corps equipments, crossed cannons, with “N, C. S.” or “Band" below the intersection, and in the latter case the number of the band below the intersection and above the word “ Band"; and equipments of the special corps of the Army, according to their respective devices. The design will be stenciled in black, the letters and numbers in full-faced characters. The design will be placed above the letters “U. S.” on equipments and the soldier's number in characters 1 inch high below the letters “U. S.”
258. The following-named books of record, reports, and papers will be kept in each regiment: A correspondence book and a morning report of the field, staff, and band, furnished by the Adjutant General's Department; a regimental fund book (ordinary blank book without special ruling), furnished by the Quartermaster Corps; a document file, a file of the regimental orders, all orders, circulars, and instructions from higher authority, copies of the monthly returns, muster rolls of the field, staff, and band, and other regimental returns and reports.
Of the books, reports, and papers herein referred to the correspondence book, the document file, the muster rolls, the regimental monthly returns and all other returns of the personnel of the regiment, the general orders and circulars of the War Department, and regimental general orders will be permanently preserved. Division and department orders, except extracts of special orders, will, when the regiment is relieved from duty in the division or department, be disposed of under instructions of the division or department commander. All other books, reports, and papers will be kept five years, reckoned from the close of the period of their use in case of books and reports and from their dates in case of papers, when they will be destroyed under the direction of the regimental commander.
259. All orders and circulars from the War Department, or from the headquarters of an army, field army, division, brigade, or territorial department in which the regiment may be serving, will be filed in book form, and general orders and circulars indexed as soon as received.
260. The noncommissioned officers cf regimental bands will be appointed by the regimental commanders, upon the recommendation of regimental adjutants, under the same conditions prescribed in paragraph 256 for the noncommissioned staff of the regiment. The noncommissioned officers of the Engineer band will be appointed by the commanding officer of the battalion with which the band is serving. The noncommissioned officers of the Coast Artillery Corps bands will be appointed by coast defense commanders.
261. When a regiment occupies several stations the band will be kept at headquarters, provided one or more companies bę serving there. The field