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1. At what period of Embryonic Life does the formation of the Liver commence? Describe the process of its development up to the period of birth, and the changes it undergoes during the first year after birth. State what functions it performs during intra-uterine life.
2. What arrangements exist for neutralizing the effects on the Brain of shock in jumping from an elevation on to the feet ? Describe the mechanism of these arrangements, and how they act.
SECOND EXAMINATION.-NOVEMBER 27, 1873.
PATHOLOGY, THERAPEUTICS, AND SURGERY.
From 1 to 5 o'clock p.M,
1. Give the different forms of Stricture of the Esophagus, and their usual seat; and describe the symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment of each form.
2. What are the causes of, and pathological changes occurring in Spontaneous Gangrene, say of the foot ? Describe the process of natural separation of the gangrenous part, and the subsequent repair.
3. State what you understand by the term Cancer. In the examination of a Tumour recently removed, describe fully the characters by which you would be led to the conclusion that it is Cancer.
4. A man receives a punctured Wound in the middle of the anterior part of the Thigh followed by profuse arterial hæmorrhage. The external bleeding is arrested by pressure, but the thigh becomes rapidly distended and tense. What condition does this indicate ? What course is the case likely to take ? and what treatment would
you adopt for the sequences of this injury at their different stages ?
May 28, 1874. 1. In which directions may the Astragalus be dislocated ? and how does this accident usually occur? Describe the attendant signs, possible complications, and consequences of this injury; and state how you would deal with it according to circumstances.
2. What is meant by Degeneration ? Describe the minute characters presented by its principal forms in those structures in which they most commonly occur.
3. Describe the varieties of inguinal Hernia which occur in association with an open state of the vaginal process of the peritoneum in both sexes.
4. A man received a severe kick in the Perineum, which was rapidly followed by considerable swelling there and retention of urine. State the probable nature of the injury and its immediate and remote effects, the mode in which you would investigate such a case, and the treatment you would adopt.
N.B. All four questions must be answered.
DIPLOMA OF MEMBER.
ANATOMICAL AND PHYSIOLOGICAL EXAMINATION.-July 12, 1873.
From 1 to 4 o'clock P.M. Candidates must answer four out of the six questions.
Answers to less than six questions will not be received before half-past 3 o'clock.
1. Describe the course and relations of the Right Subclavian artery; and state the difference which exists between it and the Left.
2. Describe the relations of the Stomach when empty and when distended ; its blood-vessels, its nerves, and the structure of its mucous membrane.
3. Describe the dissection necessary to display a side view of the muscles of the Tongue, and the structures cut through in carrying it out.
4. Describe the Ciliary body of the Human Eye, its situation, connexions, and structure, and the dissection necessary to expose it.
5. Describe the ligaments of the Knee-joint; their several attachments, together with the Interarticular Cartilages, and their uses.
6. Describe the structure of a mature Graafian Vesicle, the mode in which the ovum enters the Fallopian tube, and how it finally becomes attached to the Uterus.
NOVEMBER 8, 1873. 1. Give the anatomy of the Prostate Gland, describing its size, form, situation, connexions, and structure.
2. Describe the changes which occur, both in the position and the internal conditions of the Eyeballs, during near and distant vision, mentioning the parts concerned in effecting those changes.
3. Describe the form, structure, and attachments of the valves in the Heart and Great Arteries ; and explain in what manner the valves perform their offices.
4. Describe the first, seventh, and twelfth Ribs, mentioning their peculiarities.
5. Describe the Astragalus, mentioning the bones with which it articulates, and the ligaments connecting them.
6. Describe the Diaphragm, and its functions.
JANUARY 10, 1874. . 1. Describe the Fibula. With what bones does it articulate ?
2. Give the dissection necessary to expose the cervical portion of the Internal Carotid Artery.
3. Describe the mechanism of tranquil and forced Respiration; of coughing, vomiting, and sneezing.
4. Describe the Anterior Crural Nerve; enumerate its branches, and give their distribution.
5. Enumerate in their order, from the skin inwards, the parts displayed in the dissection of the Perineum.
6. Describe the Salivary Glands and their Ducts ; and state the chief properties and uses of the Saliva.
APRIL 4, 1874.
1. Describe the Venous Sinuses within the Cranium, and the course and relations of the Great Vessel which receives their blood on the right side from its commencement to its termination.
2. Mention the parts in contact with the Levator Ani Muscle. 3. Give the origin, course, distribution, and relations of the Interosseous Nerves.
4. From what sources does the Portal Vein receive its blood ? Describe its distribution, and trace the course of the blood onwards into the general circulation.
5. Describe the form and relations of the Popliteus Muscle ; and mention, in the order in which they appear, the parts which must be removed to expose it.
6. Explain the effect of complete division of the Spinal Cord immediately above the origin of the Phrenic Nerve.
APRIL 25, 1874.
1. Describe the course and relations of the Veins which terminate in the Inferior Vena Cava above the junction of the common Iliac.
2. Describe the Os Hyoides ; and name the muscles connected to it, specifying the parts of the bone to which each muscle is attached.
3. Mention in their relations to each other the parts seen on removal of the Flexor brevis digitorum Muscle.
4. Describe the process of Growth in a long Bone.
6. Describe the changes produced in Air by Respiration, and the means by which these changes are effected.
MAY 9, 1874.
1. Describe the Lachrymal Gland, its position, and the Anatomy of the various structures engaged in conducting the tears from the gland to the nose.
2. Describe the mucous surface of the Duodenum ; and state what changes the food undergoes in that part of the Intestine.
3. Describe the attachments, and the relations in front and behind, of the Quadratus Lumborum Muscle.
4. What is the normal temperature of the Blood ? and how is that temperature maintained ?
5. Trace the Supra-scapular Artery from its origin to its termination, noticing the dissection necessary to display it, and naming its various anastomoses.
6. Describe the Radius, including its articular surfaces; and mention the various muscles and tendons, in their proper relations, attached to and in connexion with it.
DIPLOMA OF MEMBER.
EXAMINATION ON SURGICAL ANATOMY AND THE PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE OF
SURGERY.-JULY 18, 1873. From 1 to 4 o'clock p.M. Candidates must answer at least four out of the six questions.
Answers to less than six questions will not be received before half-past 3 o'clock.
1. Under what circumstances may Blood be passed by the Urethra ? By what signs would you distinguish its probable source ? State the treatment which you would adopt.
2. What is Carbuncle ? State in what conditions of the general health this disease usually occurs. Describe its course from its commencement to its termination in a favourable case.
3. Describe, in the order in which they appear, the parts met with in a dissection from the Skin to the Peritoneum, of that region of the abdominal wall which is bounded, below by Poupart's ligament and above by a horizontal line drawn from the Anterior Superior spine of the Ilium to the median line.
4. How does Dislocation of the Head of the Humerus into the Axilla usually occur? What are the chief signs upon which you would rely to distinguish this injury from others in the same region.
5. In what cases and under what circumstances may Tracheotomy be required ? Describe the operation, and point out the difficulties and dangers that may arise in the course of it. 6. What fluctuating or fluid Swellings may present themselves in the popliteal
Describe their characteristics; and state briefly the treatment appropriate in each.
NOVEMBER 14, 1873. 1. State the local and general symptoms of a Strangulated Hernia in the Inguinal Canal, and describe the operation for its relief.
2. Describe the operation for placing a ligature on the Radial Artery in the upper third of its course.
3. Give the pathological anatomy, symptoms, and treatment of Strumous Ophthalmia (Keratitis).
4. State the symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment of the various fractures of the upper end of the Humerus.
5. What is Necrosis ? Describe its causes, the pathological changes which ensue, the bones most liable to be affected, and the surgical treatment.
6. What is Talipes Valgus? With what condition of foot is it commonly associated ? Describe the treatment.
JANUARY 16, 1874. 1. Describe the method of Reparation in Simple Fracture of Bone, in Laceration of Muscle, in Division of Tendon, and in Sloughing of Skin.
2. Mention all the symptoms of Concussion of the Brain ; and give an explanation of them.
3. Describe the Diseases of the Skin usually grouped under the term Vesicular; and give their appropriate treatment.
4. Describe the varieties of Primary Venereal Sores commonly met with, their probable consequences, and proper treatment.
5. Describe the affections known as Phymosis and Paraphymosis; explain their causes and possible consequences, and state their treatment.
6. What is Staphyloma? Mention its causes, pathology, and treatment.
APRIL 17, 1874.
1. Mention in order the various structures which must be divided in Syme's Amputation at the Ankle-joint.
2. Enumerate the various forms of Hydrocele of the Testicle and Spermatic Cord; and describe the pathological anatomy, diagnostic symptoms, and treatment of that form which most commonly affects the Cord.
3. Describe the operation for Extirpation of the Eyeball; and mention in their order the parts divided.
4. What treatment would you adopt in a wound of the Deep Palmar Arch? Give the anatomical reasons which would guide your treatment in the difficulties that
5. Describe the operation of tying the Common Iliac Artery. State by what channels the collateral circulation would be carried on.
6. Describe the usual Dislocation of the thumb at the metacarpo-phalangeal joint; explain the difficulty sometimes experienced in its reduction; and indicate the appropriate treatment of this injury when simple and when compound.
May 15, 1874.
1. Enumerate in their order, from the skin inwards, the parts which are divided in the operation of Lateral Lithotomy; point out any arterial anomalies which may give rise to unexpected or unavoidable hæmorrhage. State what vessels or vascular tissues may be wounded in the operation apart from any anomalies ; and point out how best to avoid such hæmorrhage, and how to act when it occurs.
2. Describe the nature of the injury which the parts sustain in a Compound Dislocation of the Foot outwards. State the occasional obstacles to the reduction, how they are to be overcome, and how the foot should be kept in position.
3. Describe the symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment of complete subcutaneous Rupture of the Popliteal Artery.
4. Describe the operation for the removal of the entire Superior Maxillary Bone; and name the parts divided.
5. Describe the causes and kinds of Fistula in Ano, and the various modes of operation employed for their cure.
6. Describe the treatment of a Penetrating Wound of the Cornea.