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ment for the university. Old volumes they had the inclination, to undermine of Hansard will abundantly acquaint us the stability of the Church by insidious with the arguments on which rested the clerical appointments. exclusion of Catholics from Parliament. It will be well to notice another What would have been thought of the objection, which may possibly be adwisdom of the legislature if Catholic vanced. The colleges subscribe very emancipation had been passed with a liberally to support various charities, compromise which permitted Catholics such as schools, in those places where to enter Parliament, and allowed them they possess property or Church patronto be under-secretaries of State, but age. It may, therefore, be said that closed the cabinet against them ? Such these charitable grants would be dia preposterous proposition could be verted if the majority of the Fellows of maintained on only one ground. The a college should cease to be members cabinet has a certain control upon the of the Church of England. But it is appointment of Bishops ; and it might extremely improbable that those who have been urged that such high eccle- dissent from the established Church siastical duties ought to be exercised by would ever become a majority in any Churchmen alone. This suggests the college. The old established public one solitary pretext for the exclusion of schools will continue to be the chief Dissenters from fellowships. Each col- feeders of the universities. But, even lege possesses many Church livings, and supposing this were not the case, we this Church patronage is in the hands of have no right whatever to assume beforethe Fellows. It may be therefore urged hand that a dissenting majority would that it would be an objection to allow a be backward in assisting the spiritual Dissenter to have any voice in the be- and educational wants of those districts stowal of Church preferment. In order in which college property is situated. to state the case of my adversaries as It may perhaps also be said that, if fairly as possible, I have mentioned this the Fellows of a college did not all proapparent argument, which those who fess the same religious faith, disputes know the universities must at once de- would be engendered, and that social tect to be a purely imaginary objection. harmony would be destroyed. But no For the universal custom at every college such social disunion is created by the is to appoint to a college living according admission of students of every religious to seniority. When such a living is denomination; and experience shows vacant, it is first offered to the senior that, when people are inclined to enter clerical Fellow; and, in the event of his on religious bickerings, Church porefusal, it passes down to the other lemics afford a more ample arena for Fellows in succession. This custom is uncharitable quarrelling than religious so ancient and has been so uniformly Dissent. observed that, according to the best The true friends of the Church are opinions, the senior clerical Fellow could pursuing an injudicious policy, if they in a court of equity successfully enforce attempt to retain such a restriction. It his claim to a living which was vacant can always be spoken of as a grievance ; in his college. The new statutes of and whenever it is brought into operaTrinity College. Cambridge. distinctly tion in the case of an accomplished stuprovide, that college livings should be dent, it is a grievance which will excite offered to the clerical Fellows in order wide popular sympathy. Such a restricof their seniority. Dissenting Fellows tion, if intended to defend the Church, would, therefore, have no power, even if is “a barrier against conciliation," a cob
web “against hostility.” The Church | There is a distinction between the declara- will be strengthened by conciliation, but tions required from the holder of a fellowship a grievance will always feed and encouand a member of the Senate. In the first case it is ; “I will conform to the Liturgy;" in
rage Dissent. the second : “I am a bona fide member of the
It has been remarked by a most emi. Church of England."
nent authority, Sir J. Herschel, that the
fellowships are the mainstay of the English university system. To them as a goal the most intellectual students are constantly striving. The race is a manly and a noble contest-manly, because no feelings of jealousy tarnish the keen competition; noble, because the contest is purely intellectual. What other coveted distinction is there which wealth and rank has no influence in securing ? Cheap books and the extension of good schools have placed the rudiments, at least, of a good mathematical education within the reach of humble life. So large is now the fund which is devoted to scholarships at Oxford and Cambridge that a clever boy may maintain himself at the university. If, therefore, the religious disability upon fellow. ships was removed, they might be regarded as great rewards which our universities bestow upon the most intellectual of the nation.
Many most distinguished students have by this religious disability been excluded from fellowships. Their place has been occupied by men of inferior talent; and thus an encroachment is obliged to be made upon the important principle, that fellowships are great rewards which are uniformly conferred upon the most intellectual students. I would not refer to any particular instance in order to base an argument upon the plea of a personal grievance. Everyone who enters the university knows that fellowships are confined to members of the Church of England; and therefore even a senior wrangler cannot feel that he is personally aggrieved because excluded. He is not excluded either by the desire, or on account of the prejudices of his college. The exclusion rests upon an Act of Parliament, which leaves the college no option in the matter. This suggests the most cogent objection to the restriction. Why should not the matter be left in the hands of the colleges themselves ? A Dissenter may be appointed to the highest educational position in a college; why, therefore, may not the college be permitted to elect such an individual to a fellowship ?
The anomaly of the present system
may be readily illustrated. By the new statutes, prælectorships have been created. These are educational offices of the highest importance. A college may be compelled to exclude a high wrangler from a fellowship, and yet can appoint him to a prælectorship. Such an opportunity of retaining a distinguished mathematician upon the educational staff of the college may very probably be eagerly taken advantage of ; but, if the high wrangler wished to leave Cambridge to prosecute his studies at the bar, then the college is prevented from rendering him that assistance which is given to a less distinguished student who happens to be a member of the Church of England.
The number of students at Oxford and Cambridge does not keep pace with the increase in the nation's wealth and population. Oxford and Cambridge have not now so many undergraduates as they had thirty years since. This diminution in numbers is no doubt due to many causes. Admission to holy orders is now readily obtained without a university degree; and the various appointments which have been thrown open to general competition, such as those in the Indian Civil Service, doubtless attract many who would otherwise matriculate at a university. But still it cannot be denied that there is an increasing demand for education, and that thriving collegiate institutions have, during the last few years, sprung up in different parts of the country. And yet, if there is any value or utility in endowments, educational establishments which are so poor that they must almost be self-supporting, ought not to be able to compete with Oxford and Cambridge, whose vast endowments are constantly augmenting in consequence of the increasing value of land. In many colleges at Oxford and Cambridge there is not a sufficient number of distinguished students upon whom to bestow the large funds which are devoted to scholarships and exhibitions.
Is it not then desirable to allow the whole nation freely to participate in these great advantages ? Sometimes it is said, Why do not the Dissenters endow
membershat followshiers the spievance.
colleges of their own ? Oxford and perty qualification. It is based upon an Cambridge were endowed under circum- intellectual test, and therefore is the stances which can never again occur. ideal franchise of philosophic reformers. No confessional, now exists to encourage But is it not unconstitutional to associate charitable bequests; and, even if a new with this intellectual test a religious disuniversity were liberally endowed, but ability? All alike are permitted to wear confined to one religious denomination, the badge of this mental qualification. its influence must tend to stereotype But it would seem that the intellectual sectarian differences. Any educational test without a profession of religious establishment, however liberally sup- faith is unworthy to confer the franchise. ported, must now be most insignificantly How can it be said that the memendowed, compared with the ancient bers for the university represent the foundations whose property may be esti university when it is decreed beforemated at ten or twelve millions, which hand that the privilege of voting has been accumulating during a long shall require the profession of certain succession of ages, under a state of opin- defined opinions ? Many are the ion and feeling that exists no longer, blemishes in our representative system. and that will never recur. Obedi- Conservatives and Liberals profess alarm ence to the original intention of founders at a threatened and inevitable extension has been long forgotten, and is a plea of the suffrage. A 61. qualification, it is which it is now impossible to sustain, maintained, will cause the country to Gratitude to our liberal benefactors will be controlled by masses who are inadebe most appropriately shown by causing quately educated. Constituencies, theretheir munificent bequests to produce the fore, which are tarnished by none of greatest possible influence upon the in this dreaded ignorance should be careful tellectual advancement of the whole to demonstrate their superiority. An nation.
intellectual franchise has never been The deep sense of gratitude which I fairly tried in this country, because the shall ever feel to my Alma Mater, prompts unfavourable conditions under which it in me an earnest desire to give the largest exists in the universities must certainly number possible an opportunity of being prevent any fair illustration of its sucbenefited by the great advantages which cess. The electors of the universities the endowments of the universities can are scattered over every part of the confer.
country, and great numbers who come I wish now to direct attention to the to the poll have travelled many hundreds restriction which confines the privileges of miles. Here, then, is a case in which of the Senate to members of the Church voting-papers might be used with the of England.
greatest advantage. The signatures of It will be necessary here only to con- these voting papers might be certificated sider the restriction in one of its aspects by either the tutor or the bursar
-namely, the exclusion of all who are of the College to which the elector not members of the Church of England might happen to belong. The constifrom voting at elections for members of tuency would thus be saved a great and the university. The M.A. degree is useless expenditure both of time and now conferred upon persons of any reli- money. An election might, under these gious denomination.
circumstances, be contested for a few When an individual proceeds to the pounds. This would induce a great M.A. degree, he is asked by the Regis- number of eminent men to offer themtrar of the university whether or not selves as candidates. An opportunity he is a member of the Church of Eng. would thus be afforded of making a good land. If he replies in the affirmative, selection, and Cambridge and Oxford the M.A. degree confers upon him a would be spared the reproach that the vote for the university. The university Universities have not unfrequently proved franchise therefore is the only one which a secure refuge to respectable mediocrity. in our country is not based upon a pro- I throw out this suggestion, which may, perhaps, be regarded as a digression, be- has permitted me to publish the followcause I believe that the value and im- ing letter : portance of a vote for the university “ My dear Sir, would be most materially increased if an “I have read your MS. with much election was conducted in the manner interest. I cordially sympathize with I have proposed. Under the present the object you have in view; for I have system a Dissenter may very reasonably long been of opinion that the maintenregard a vote for the university as a ance of these tests is highly impolitic, privilege hardly worth contending for. and injurious to the real interests both Many Churchmen, now, never feel in- of the Universities and of the Church. terested in the choice of the candidates They keep from the Universities many who offer themselves; but, if voting-papers who might have been their ornament were introduced, there would, doubtless, and support, and afford to the Church appear at every election numerous no security at all commensurate with the candidates of every shade of political odium they excite. opinion, whose qualifications would be " In fact, the only Dissenters they based upon high intellectual eminence. exclude are those who have a very scruThe result of a university election would pulous conscience and a very high sense then be eagerly watched by the nation of the obligation of a promise-prefor it would be a fair indication of the cisely the men we should be most public opinion of the intelligence of the anxious to admit. The abolition of these country.
tests will not endanger the connexion It now only remains for me to point between the Universities and the out a practical method of carrying the Church. two important reforms which I have en- “ An immense majority of the studeavoured here to explain and advocate. dents will still be, as heretofore, Church
I believe the reforms may be easily men; and, of the remainder, many will and peaceably obtained. The question become so, when they cease to be emought to be taken up by some member bittered by a grievance. of Parliament who is intimately ac- “ In the governing body of the sevequainted with the practical details of our ral colleges, and among the members of university system. Let him state the the Senate, Dissenters will form a minocase fairly and dispassionately to the rity inappreciably small, and the social House of Commons ; let him back his influences around them will always tend arguments with a petition, which may 'to assimilate them in feeling to the readily be obtained, influentially signed majority. by resident members of the universities. « The tests I speak of must sooner or And these privileges will then be not later go the way of all tests. The Unilong withheld from those who dissent versities will do wisely if they make a from the State-Church, and who have, on grace of necessity, and offer spontanemany occasions, violently agitated to ously what cannot be long withheld. obtain much less important reforms. “Let us petition Parliament on the
subject, without delay. The questions I have discussed in this “I am sorry to think that in this paper are so important that I was very matter I shall be opposed to many anxious to obtain the opinion of a resi friends for whose judgment I have great dent member of the university. . respect ; but I feel that it would be
The Rev. W. G. Clark, Fellow and cowardly, since you ask for my views, to Tutor of Trinity College, Cambridge, shrink from expressing what is my firm most kindly perused these pages; and and deliberate conviction.
i Whilst going to press I notice with pleasure that Mr. Dodson has introduced a bill into Parliament for the purpose of allowing the electors of the University to vote in the manner here proposed.
“My dear Sir,
“Very truly yours, “William GEORGE CLARK.”
ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE WEALTH OF INDIA.
BY THOMAS HARE.
India has afforded to the philosophical raw materials of India. A deficiency historian his most striking example of in the supply of cotton might imperil the inevitable force of the physical laws the industry, and almost the existence, which govern the progress and condition of multitudes. Parliamentary aid has of mankind. With a soil of great fer been invoked ; and to the complaints tility, a climate rendering it in the of our merchants and manufacturers that highest degree prolific, and a vast popu- India yields so little to the necessities lation, it possesses the elements neces- of commerce, the representatives of the sary for the accumulation of wealth. Indian Government reply—“Why do “ The food of the labouring classes being “ you not put your shoulders to the "produced by the smallest degree of “ wheel ? Why do you not send agents “ toil, and labour being abundant, they “into the cotton districts? Take the " received the smallest possible share of “same measures to get cotton which the “ the wealth they created. The distri- “ drysalters have taken to get indigo, “bution of wealth governs the distribu- “ namely--to promote the cultivation “ tion of power. There is no instance, “ of indigo." “ in any tropical country, in which, This practical advice at home is con“ wealth having been extensively accu- · verted into bitter irony by the acts of “mulated, the people have escaped the Indian authorities ; by which the “ their fate;" and the Sudras, estimated cultivation of indigo, wherein many milat three-fourths of the Hindoos, are lions sterling are embarked, and several placed by the native laws below the hundred thousand native labourers emordinary scale of humanity. “The really ployed, is in a large degree suspended. “ effectual progress of society depends, British settlers, whose enterprise the “ not on the bounty of nature, but on cotton manufacturers were invited to “ the energy of man.” The supplies of emulate, and who are proved by the seed, implements, and cattle, indispen- testimony of every enlightened and imsable to the indigent cultivator, make partial witness, native and European, to him a borrower of money; and for a have done more good to the country and thousand years he has habitually paid people than any other class—men of edufifty or sixty per cent. per annum. All cation and character, probably better acreasoning and inquiry show, that it is quainted with the language of Bengal capital, with European knowledge and than any who are not natives—are driven energy to direct its employment, which to look to Guatemala or the banks of is needed. Statesmen feel that their La Plata for that protection to their hopes rest in the capacity of the agri- industry which is withdrawn from them culture of India to supply the materials in the British territories. of European industry in exchange for Those who devote themselves to the its finished products. The factories of increase of the growth of cotton can exEurope wait with impatience for the pect no better fate. Advances to the No. 18.—VOL. II.