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assistance in this affair ; and, without a portion of the rebels on the 6th professing to throw any blame on the November, at a place named Mahoetahi, officers in command, we may say that it and that their leader Wetini had was unfortunate that the rebellious been slain. The engagement is renatives were not better enlightened ported to have been very severe, the upon this occasion as to the power and Maories fighting, as they generally appear efficiency of our troops. The result to do, with great courage and resolution, was, that they treated us with scanty while the conduct of our officers and respect, and the disaffection still spread men was beyond praise. The natives amongst the various tribes in the have been accustomed hitherto to undernorthern island. The officer in com- value British prowess, and it is to be mand at this period did not seem to hoped that they have now received a possess any great amount of energy, and salutary lesson, which will not fail of little was attempted by him beyond restoring our prestige. Our ultimate holding his position. The arrival of triumph cannot be doubted, but in the Major - General Pratt, who held the mean time many colonists are suffering office of commander of the forces in severely in consequence of the risks and Australia, with large reinforcements, put losses which this disturbance has brought it in the power of the British to assume upon them; and it is absolutely necessary offensive operations; and we are very that the outbreak should be quelled and happy to learn by the last mail that a peace restored as quickly as possible. complete victory had been obtained over

T. MoC.

METROPOLITAN DISTRESS.

BY THE REV. J. LLEWELYN DAVIES,

The distress of the poor in London has to create the Distress movement, by been recently brought before the whole opening its columns to appeals and reworld with unusual prominence, through porting donations, with the occasional the space devoted by the Times to va- stimulus of a thorough-going leading rious attempts to relieve it. There is article. It is a striking, and in many always a lamentable amount of distress respects a hopeful, fact, as a sign of the prevailing in London, and especially tendency of the public mind, that this during the winter season; and the dis- great power should have been applied tress has lately been much aggravated directly to the help of the needy and by the bitterly cold weather, and the miserable ; but, unfortunately, the good suspension, through the frost, of many is not gained without grievous injury to kinds of labour. It is not without good our social order, and without the danger reason that hearts have been touched of inflicting permanent damage upon the and purses opened in behalf of the poor. class it is designed to benefit. But it is important to understand that There is one injustice which the Times the Charity columns of the Times fur- has itself committed, and encouraged nish no safe criterion of the compara- others to commit, which ought not to tive pressure of distress. “Metropolitan be left without a protest. We are told Distress” had already assumed appal that our Poor-Law administration has ling dimensions in the columns of the evidently failed. The proofs of that T'imes before the hard weather set in; failure are the appeals in the Times, the and yet at Christmas time it was shown crowds at the police-courts, and the parby the average statistics of all the Lon- ties of “frozen-out” labourers asking don workhouses, that there was no un- relief in the streets. That contributions usual degree of suffering amongst the should be asked for, and should still poor. It was perfectly easy to the Times pour in to the Field Lane Refuge, and to the fund for Mr. Douglas's District, inapplicable to the St. Marylebone Board. after the frank announcement that many In the first place, the members of it are thousands in each case are being in- not all shopkeepers. If the reviewer vested for the benefit of posterity, may were to attend any ordinary meeting of be surprising, but it proves nothing the Board, he would find there two against any Board of Guardians. It is baronets, who have justly earned the quite certain, again, that if the magis- respect and goodwill of their colleagues trates are found willing to distribute and fellow-parishioners; the Rector of crowns and shillings promiscuously, they St. Marylebone, who devotes a main will have plenty of applicants till their part of at least two days in every week fund is exhausted. That the lowest class to the workhouse; gentlemen of indeof labourers, when thrown out of work, pendent means, and of the military, the will beg in the streets, if they can get legal, and the medical professions, reanything by it, is also certain. I have tired men of business, and tradesmen just heard, on good authority, of a large of all degrees, working together with number of labourers having refused work much zeal and industry. Not one of which was offered to them, preferring these would think of taxing any section the chances of relief in the streets. But of the Board with hardness or inhuthe existence of such a degree of want manity. Nor is the popular or demoas is implied in these applications does cratic feeling in favour of a harsh not sustain the attacks which have been parsimony, but decidedly against it. If made on the Metropolitan Boards of the Poor-Law Commissioners exercised Guardians. These attacks have been complete control over the parish, hunsingularly reckless and unfounded. dreds of pounds would be saved to the

The Times, with its usual breadth, rates. The salaries of certain officers assumes that the parishes and unions in would be paid out of national funds, London are quite inoperative as regards the out-door relief would be contracted, the relief of the poor, and that the poor- and other reductions secured. But the rates are paid for nothing. The Satur- popular feeling is strongly against the day Review believes all London guar- Poor-Law Board, and one reason for it dians to be a set of niggardly shop- is the belief that, under their rule, there keepers, privately employed in scraping would be less indulgence towards the together small gains, and dealing in a

poor. I

may say generally, that no ex“barbarous manner with the poor. It pense is spared which the most humane is very different, we are told, in the of the guardians are satisfied would be country and in Manchester, where the legal and beneficial. Poor-Law works admirably. Now, as Every Board of Guardians, moreover, regards this contrast between London acts under many checks. The reporters and the country, it will probably be know very well that any complaint or allowed that no place, unless it be Liver- scandal makes better reading in their pool, presents so many difficulties to

newspapers than the most exemplary Poor-Law administration as London, freedom from reproach. The Poor-Law with its unsettled colluvies gentium. This Board makes inquiry upon every appeal being considered, it is probable that an addressed to it, even from a single poor average London Board would not be at

person. Clergymen and philanthropists all behind any country Board either in are jealously on the watch to protest intelligence or in humanity.

against any cruel treatment of their If we take the parish of St. Maryle- neighbours.

neighbours. In ninety-nine cases out bone as an illustration, it will not be of a hundred the complaints which are supposed, by Saturday Reviewers at brought to the notice of the Board are least, to be too favourable a specimen. disposed of by correcting the alleged I speak with a prejudice in favour of a facts. In any exceptional case, redress body of which I am a member; but the is instantly given. language I have referred to is manifestly I admit, however, that, notwithstand

1

ing the good intentions of the Board, distress. The causes of physical misery, the results of their administration are whilst they remain, make that misery by no means of a kind that would defy inevitable. In those instances of uncriticism. Not to speak of the insuper- doubted destitution which have been able difficulties of a constant weary detailed before the magistrates and elsestruggle against vice, and idleness, and where, we do not know how much is fraud, the management of so vast a due to drunkenness, that plague and business as that of the St. Marylebone curse of our poor. And how can you workhouse requires great administrative keep a drunkard out of want? Another capacity and constant vigilance; and a cause of distress is scarcely less difficult board of thirty perfectly equal members, to cope with-the imbecility and want elected every year, does not promise of energy which infects some persons much efficiency in government. The like a disease. Then there is the downnumbers of in-door poor at this moment right idleness of not a few, which keeps (January 18th), amounting to 2,039, them from seeking work, and throws would people a small town; whilst them out of occupation when they get there are 3,332 “on the books ” receiy- it. The destitution which arises from ing out-door relief; and, in addition to sickness and misfortune the character these numbers, 2,851 have had casual of the sufferers having been reasonably relief during the last week. The cost of good-ought to be relieved humanely the relief of the poor during the year by the workhouse, if not more indulhas been 53,5001. This does not look gently cared for, as one might surely as if the guardians of the poor in the hope it would be, by the kindness of metropolis were doing nothing. It is friends and by Christian charity. inevitable that, in the execution of so Let me add, somewhat abruptly, the enormous a task, we should be too much following suggestions :in the hands of our paid officers, so long 1. It seems to be necessary to revive as the power and the responsibility are the old warnings against unguarded and diffused equally through thirty members. too ambitious almsgiving. Of course, the If a salaried chairman were appointed, magistrates who have laboured so geneto give his whole time to the business rously during the last few days in the of the workhouse, he would probably summary relief of crowds of applicants, soon save his salary by the economies he will be compelled to discontinue those might introduce, besides guarding the unprofitable labours. It is a very inconparish from frequent troubles and scan- siderate benevolence which has imposed dals.

so hopeless a task upon them. But there But even if such blots were more is great fear lest societies, rich in means numerous and discreditable than they and eager to help the needy, should be are, it is obvious--and no well informed tempted to stimulate mendicancy and person could forget it—that the sub- vagabondage. No greater harm can be stantial relief of the poor is, and must done than this to our labouring popube, the work of the guardians, and that lation. the better this work is done the less the 2. In dealing directly with distress, public hear of it. At the same time, the the efforts of charitable persons should public have ample opportunities of be based as far as possible upon personal knowing what is going on at the work- knowledge, and should chiefly aim, I house, through the meetings, open to submit, at assisting with judgment and ratepayers and reporters, at the work- delicacy those whom a temporary gift or house and the vestry, and through the a little pension may save from pauperism, reports in the local newspapers. But and make more comfortable, without enthe Poor-Law administration does not couraging vice or idleness ;-not at supexterminate distress, nor pretend to do plying the wants indiscriminately of the it. No system of relief, however chari- needy or unemployed. Exceptional distable, could possibly put an end to tress, like that at Coventry, may, of course, call for an exceptional effort of private institutions and practices have a tendency charity; but workhouse relief has advan- to educate and encourage the

poor,

and to tages for dealing with the lowest strata promote their self-respect, are more useof poverty which private persons do not ful agencies "for the relief of distress," possess; and there need be no scruple than those which may hold out a deluabout leaving apparently destitute appli- sive hope to the improvident. A sober cants for help, when we can know no- and industrious working man, even of thing of their character or real circum- the poorest class, ought to be able to stances, to the relieving-officer.

stand against a fortnight's loss of work 3. Gentlemen of leisure and public without running a risk of starvation. We spirit may do much service by obtaining may all remember, for the spring and the a knowledge of our public relief-system, summer, the importance of sound efforts by watching its administration, and by to encourage hope, and knowledge, and offering themselves for election as guar- self-reliance amongst our poorer neighdians of the poor.

bours; and so, when the dangerous and 4. By far the best way of battling with irregular charity-work of this winter destitution and misery is to labour in is over, we may be labouring beforethose efforts which are likely to better hand most effectually to mitigate the sufthe condition of the poor. Whatever ferings of the next.

LETTER FROM PROFESSOR HENSLOW.
HITCHAM, IPSWICH, flippant denunciation, as though it were

January, 1861.
MY DEAR SIR,

unworthy consideration. If it be faulty

in its general conclusions, it is surely a The manner in which my name is noticed in a review of Mr. Darwin's

stumble in the right direction, and not work in your number for December, is

to be refuted by arguments which no

naturalist will allow to be really adverse liable to lead to a misapprehension of my view of Mr. Darwin's “Theory on

to the speculations it contains.

Yours faithfully, the Origin of Species." Though I have

J. S. HENSLOW. always expressed the greatest respect for my friend's opinions, I have told himself

EXTRACT. that I cannot assent to his speculations “I see, in Macmillan's Magazine, you without seeing stronger proofs than he are arranged with Lyell, Hooker, and has yet produced. I send you an extract 6 others in the list of those who have from a letter I have received from my “ espoused Darwin's views. I was not brother-in-law the Rev. L. Jenyns, the aware you had become a convert to well-known author of “British Verte- “his theory, and can hardly suppose brata," as it very nearly expresses the you have accepted it as a whole, views I at present entertain, in regard “ though, like myself, you may go the to Mr. Darwin's theory—or rather hypo- length of imagining that many of the thesis, as I should prefer calling it. I

both of animals and have heard his book styled “the book plants, may at some remote period of the day,” on more than one occasion “ have had a common parentage. I do by a most eminent naturalist; who is not, with some, say that the whole of himself opposed to and has written “his theory cannot be true—but, that it against its conclusions ; but who con- " is very far from proved; and I doubt siders it ought not to be attacked with “ its ever being possible to prove it."

66 smaller groups,

ERRATUM. By a mistake in the article on “ DIAMONDS” in the last number (p. 189), the weight of the Koh-i-noor in its cut state was given as 104 carats, instead of 1034.

MACMILLAN'S MAGAZINE.

MARCH, 1861.

VICTOR AMADEUS, THE FIRST KING OF SARDINIA.

BY GEORGE WARING.

CHAPTER I.

nearly seventy years, nor the burden of

growing ill-health, had dragged down the In the year of grace 1729, on one of slight sinewy figure, or robbed it of that those golden days of the late Italian royal presence which stamps the man autumn, the court of Sardinia was who has wrought out great things in his gathered in the banqueting hall of the day. At intervals, as the door opened, palace, waiting till the chapel bell should and some fresh person joined the group ring out its summons to mass. The in the back-ground, the king would court was gay, after the fashion of that turn and sigh deeply—as who among time and that country, with velvets, us has not marked the old sigh when plumes, and jewels, though the king, one has thus sought a beloved preVictor Amadeus, who stood in the em- sence, forgetful for the moment that it brasure of a window conversing with the has vanished for ever? And, indeed, French envoy, presented in his own per- the monarch had cause for regret. From son a somewhat contemptuous contrast that assembly he missed the few whom to his glittering subjects. A little old he had ever really loved—the few of man, in his unvarying garb of plain whose affections he could feel secure. brown cloth ; his linen coarse, and un- Jeanne Baptiste of Savoy, the king's trimmed with lace; the hilt of the niother, had died in 1723, and his queen, sword, which had won him his kingdom, the good Anna of Orleans, who had was guarded with leather, that it might borne the rough humours and inconnot fray his coat. There was a parade of stancy of her lord with a patience worthy simplicity in his bamboo cane, in the her blood-she was grand-daughter to tortoiseshell snuff-box, not even inlaid, our ill-fated Charles-had followed her from which he was offering the count a during the past year, but the deepest pinch. Only one piece of an old man's wound of this man's heart, a wound coxcombry showed out of keeping with which time was powerless to close, had the severely plain costume, and this was been inflicted when his eldest son, the a magnificent peruke, so full-flowing and idol and the image of his father, perished ostentatiously curled, as to rival, if not in the promise of his brilliant youth. to surpass, that of the Grand Monarque As the king's glance traversed the ashimself

. Under that wig, brows, knotted sembly, it fell on his son Charles Emwith combinations, bent over an eye still manuel

, now heir to his throne; but vehement and eager; an eye which had nothing like affection marked the cold never overlooked a weak point in an steady gaze, before which the prince enemy, nor a vantage ground for its quailed and shuffled awkwardly back master. The face was fearless, but not behind his wife, Polyxena, a princess posfrank; the lines of the thin lips secre- sessing far greater force of character than tive and astute. The old man kept his her husband. Her Victor greeted respectsoldier's bearing; neither the weight of fully, and after a sharp survey of Charles's

No. 17.-VOL. III.

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