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In vain—the North has hid them from our sight;
The snow their winding sheet,--their only dirges
Racked by the savage surges.
Shone a farewell upon their shrouded faces ;-
Towers o'er their resting-places.
Over the cliffs stupendous, fraught with peril,
Of amethyst and beryl.
Tears of Domestic Love, or Pity Holy ;
Down-shuddering, settle slowly.
The hero-seamen of this isle of Britain,
There will their names be written !
THE ENGLISH EVANGELICAL CLERGY.
The Rev. Dr. Pears, a well-known cler- they collectively assume towards the gyman of the Evangelical school, in rest of the Church ; and what are the a visitation sermon preached last June, prospects of the party which is under and lately published, expresses himself their direction. It is in the existence as follows: “Of all misfortunes which of a healthy republic of intellect that "may happen to the Church, none surely much of the freedom of a nation lies; " is more disastrous than that the clergy and that it contributes to this, by ap" should be behind their age; that, pealing to the judgment of the laity, is “ while the laity, led by a few eager and the benefit, and the only benefit, which "active intellects, are pushing on into the polemic warfare of the clergy can "new fields of inquiry, every day bestow. " widening the range of speculation, and For, in regard of its original princi“ venturing on ground before thought ples, those which gave it power and “dangerous or untenable, the appointed success, the Evangelical party seems at " guides and teachers of the people first sight to have outlived its work. It "should be found toiling far in the rear,
started with certain ideas, proposed cer“ treading the old worn path of defini- tain springs of action, of which it would “tions and dogmas, or aiming pointless not be entirely true to say that it is not “shafts at positions which have been still in possession, but of which it is " long since abandoned.” Bearing this undeniable that it has no longer a undoubted truth in view, it may be monopoly. The impulse has spread ; worth while to examine in an impartial the waves have widened till their centre spirit what the present position of the las faded from view. If now an artifiEvangelical clergy is ; how far they have cial attempt be made to retain the infludeveloped, how far mistaken, the prin- ence which was then so beneficial, and ciples upon which the great religious which, having served its legitimate use, movement of the end of last century has to some extent decayed, the attempt was based; what is the attitude which must fail, as will fail all other attempts No. 14.–VOL. III.
to procure or keep power on false pre- of neglect and hatred Cecil and Newton tences ; nor will the case be better, if made men young again with visions of any new principles are set up as sub- great aims and destinies, and Wilberstitutes for the old, and props for a fall- force spoke bravely and calmly of the ing party. The principles of which the strange experiences of the new life
. Evangelical school was at first the ex- How has this spirit prevailed? How positor were chiefly two: it gave promi- far has it altered 1 How far has it been nence to the intimate individual relation supplanted by forms, and its motives of of each person to the unseen world; and action petrified into prejudices ?. It is a it insisted strongly on the distinction sad and strange law which makes the between membership of the visible second generation invariably seize on the Church and the inner and mysterious accidents, instead of the substance, of communion within and independent of the things which ennobled the first. It it. It was with these two subjects that is true, indeed, that the one principle of all sermons were then filled, all social individual religious life did assert itself unions coloured, all missions inspired ; so thoroughly that, while no party has and it was by them that men's hearts lost it, all have gained much of its inwere excited to a new and wonderful fluence: beyond this, what has the life. There were then no tests of ortho
present Evangelical party to show which doxy, no signing of articles, no appeal will distinctively exhibit its character, to the sentence of the multitude ; even and give it a right to perpetuate itself on the most serious topics, as whenever to the disunion of the Church? The a great cause is being promoted, there party is remarkable at present chiefly was not unanimity of thought. They for three things ;-its social theories, its had then no journals of sectarian war- polemic organization, and its philanfare, no shibboleths of personal adhe- thropic activity. Besides this, it takes rence; it was the spirit, and not the à very marked line on intellectual subletter, that made alive. The memoirs jects, and pretends to a severity of conof Wesley, Grimshaw, and Wilberforce servatism on points of doctrine. In are full indeed of questions of doctrine; each of these topics it may be interestbut it was on those greater realities that ing to trace, where it is still traceable, all the questions hung. Venn, of Hud- the results of the original motive power, dersfield, says, in a letter dated August especially with regard to the attitude of 12, 1778 : “ But never, on any account, the clergy, before offering a judgment on
dispute. Debate is the work of the the position of the party collectively. “flesh. No one is ever found disputing Perhaps that fatal law of the petri“ about such external matters (the faction of a principle into a canon is question was one of baptism) “till nowhere more evident than in the social
sorrow for sin, till love for Christ, and theories of the Evangelical party. With “ communion with Him,
them separation from “the world” was “ parted from the heart entirely, or very at first recommended, as it was to the “ much enfeebled.” Even Simeon, in early Christians, not as a valuable rule 1829, writes, “I have neither taste nor of life, but as almost a necessity of their “ talent for controversy ; nor do I on being. It was not asceticism ; it was “ the whole envy those by whom such not Puritanism ;, it was not a code of “ taste and talent are possessed.” It is behaviour binding clergy chiefly, laity important to observe this feature of the partially. Macaulay's keen remark on new sect, which worked its way by the the objection of the Puritans to bullinnate strength of its principles, not by baiting is well known: they objected, the force of its associations, the nobility not because it gave pain to the bull, but of its chairmen of meetings, or the cir- because it gave pleasure to the spectator. culation of its Thersitean prints. There But it was a different principle from this are many now who remember its later which animated Romaine, and Berridge, years; who could tell how in the midst and Talbot. They had no difficulties as
to where to draw the line between "person of spiritual religion ; indeed carnal and lawful amusements, — be- “ the father had no scruple alout a tween “worldly vanity” and necessary game at cards, and the mother,” &c. intercourse with men. They simply All Evangelical people may drink wine; felt that they were a peculiar people, but clergymen, at all events, must not and their life was a sanctified one. Such smoke. Works of fiction are to some a principle as this must, at the first extent countenanced, though under attempt to reduce it to a code, result in protest. With respect to music, opinion utter failure. Wesley could well say, is not accurately formed. The oratorio and without affectation, to his followers, is the debated ground; and a dignitary " You have no more business to be of the Church was loudly attacked a few gentlemen than to be dancing-masters. years since for having attended Exeter Cecil writes, “It is a snare to a minister Hall in the evening. The chief reli“ when in company to be drawn out to gious organ of the party is constantly " converse largely on the state of the engaged in publishing the names of “ funds and the news of the day ;' and clergymen,-and even the families of urges that such conversation "gives a clergymen,—who have lately been pre-, “ consequence to these pursuits which sent at balls, a practice in which it is “ does not belong to them.” This is not pleasant to be obliged to confess the very spirit of the apostles ; in our that some leading Evangelical ministers own day it appears only in a setting of are little behind it. “Do you find there external ordinances, and such advice as the godly ?” says one, alluding to balls; that of Mr. Ryle,—“A minister ought “I think not.” (Sermon on Gal. vi. 15.) “not to spend a whole evening in speak- Now it would clearly be of no use here "ing merely of politics. ... I do not to argue that to create an artificial sepa“ mean to say we ought to be preaching ration between one part of the Church “ in every room we enter; but,” &c. and the rest is a system totally opposed What now remains of that old spirit is to the constitution of man and the idea simply a set of practical rules directed of Christianity; that it is directly against some of the most popular amuse- contrary to the custom of the early ments of the day, and enforced with an Church, and the precepts of the apostles; arbitrary severity of which the rest of that it creates vast ill-feeling, and still the community is little aware. It is vaster jealousy and censoriousness. It thought wrong, for example, for those would be of still less use to prove that who profess a religious life to cultivate it is entirely repugnant to the principles the drama in any form, except that of of the Church service, and inconsistent reading Shakspeare; to attend horse- with the very words of the Liturgy. races--regattas are allowed-or evening But, in looking at the present position of parties where there is dancing, there the body which professes these views, it being no objection to “at homes.!! is impossible not to see that it is in this Some out of door games are lawful : code of ordinances, more than in any clergymen, however, must not play other point, that they exhibit a falling cricket or follow game.
One of Lord off from their original moving force; Palmerston's bishops, it is stated in a that they conciliate least respect, and weekly journal, not long ago refused secure most enemies; that they do least to admit a candidate to orders until he good to others, and produce most disgave a distinct pledge to give up shoot- loyalty amongst those of their own ing. In the evening, all may play chess, number who obey in practice the laws or minor games of chance; but the more against which in their hearts they rebel. intellectual rubber is strictly forbidden. The creed of social intercourse of The Rev. W. Mackenzie, in his sketch which we have been speaking is susof Bickersteth's life, expresses this curi- tained partly by the inherent vitality ously enough : “It could not be said which seems to attach most signally to " that either father or mother was all formal legislation when the spirit
which produced it has decayed or represent in Parliament the interests of altered ; and partly by the lay-organiza- the party, and that on the strength tion of the school by which it is pro- simply of a good life and great activity fessed. This organization is not the in philanthropic movements, without less powerful from being indirect, or extreme personal popularity, without less operative from being in great mea- distinguished talent for business, withsure unacknowledged and unaccredited. out commanding eloquence, without Clergymen have remarked in our hearing, extensive knowledge, without profound“ There is no such name as Evangelical ness of thought, without much sound“ formally adopted by the party; we ness of judgment,-is a fact as strange
are not a party, and have no party as it is unfortunate ;-unfortunate be" titles.” We could produce evidence, cause it shows the change in the party, if necessary, to show that the title is thus crystallized no less in its personnel formally adopted by those who are recog- thau in its principles. Of the methods, nized as leaders; and that not casually, however, by which the party is conbut purposely, and as a distinctive ap- trolled,— without enlarging upon the pellation. It was to a collective body, Evangelical press, the office and power not a mere mass of individuals, that the of which is well known, and accurately Earl of Shaftesbury, during the late war, appreciated, -the first that deserves addressed, as though from some Vatican, mention is the influence of constant his instructions as to the side which his changes in the subject of agitation sugfollowers were to favour in their prayers: gested. An army long engaged at any and it is to a united sect, and not a mass one work becomes demoralised; give of units, that the Record alludes when variety to their labours, and discipline it speaks of “Christian people." It may is at once secured. “Let them have perhaps be worth while to examine a plenty of marching," said Lamoricière of little more fully into the nature and the Irish Brigade. Perhaps the time of extent of this organization. One of its great protests and declarations is now most characteristic features is, that it passed, when it was possible for any includes a very large lay element. All canvassing secretary to cast his eye over who pay any attention to the subject are a printed list of his party, affirming as familiar with the names of numbers of one man their prescribed adherence to laymen, — noblemen, bankers, retired this doctrine, or regulated abhorrence of officers, and others,—without whom no that innovation. But whether it be a combined action takes place, and without Gorham case
a Denison case, a whose authority no new step is con- Crystal Palace movement or a movesidered to be satisfactorily accredited. ment against Sunday bands, the cause There are many names whose duty it is of Indian education or the cause of a to serve simply as guarantees to the pro- grant to Maynooth, the drill is unceasvinces of the peculiar character of any ing. More than one "alliance” adopt it movement, polemic or otherwise ; and as their business to circulate among the that they can serve no other object is clergy of theirschool information as to the evident from the fact that they appear progress of each battle, and instruction so often, that the gentlemen who lend as to the petitions and funds which are them could by no possibility attend in to support the combatants engaged. The practice to all the interests which they loyalty of each disciple is as well known profess to direct. At the head of these by the petitions which he presents to stands one nobleman, whose name it Parliament from his parish, and the would be an affectation to omit. That manner in which he receives the depuany one man should have the directing tation from each “parent society,” as power which Lord Shaftesbury possesses, the fig-tree is known by its fruit. It is should appoint bishops, preside at every this working together, this simultagreat assembly, control personally nearly neity of action, that gives its coherence every leading man, inspire the press, to every result; that induces Mr. Ryle
to speak of the rest of the clergy of the of the strongest school of Evangelicals, Church of England as
our adver- it is not to be wondered at if the assosaries ;” that enables Canon Stowell to ciation is universally looked upon as quote the text which speaks of the the most active instrument of propaheavenly wisdom as “first pure, then gandism now existing. All the energies peaceable," with the suggestive com- of the party are directed to its support. ment, “Purity first, peace afterwards." Three thousand clergymen give it active
Perhaps, however, organization de- assistance, Its annual income, from pends more on the distribution of pa- subscriptions, exceeds 40,0001.; and it tronage than on any other element. is a condition, expressed or implied, of The Evangelical school may be fairly said every grant, that the recipient of the to have now in their hands the appoint bounty shall undertake to urge the ment of all the bishops, and about half Society's claims on his congregation, at the deans. The Evangelical bishops least on one stated occasion in the year. have on the whole been more successful In some cases, leading men of the party than might have been expected ; but, if do so on the distinct plea of its party the system is continued long, an entire character. Indeed, in the last report, preponderance of men wedded to a par- the Committee draw particular attention ticular system must be very dangerous. to the evangelical nature of their prinAnother arrangement, which secures a ciples, and ask their clerical friends to large number of the most important point it out more prominently to their livings to the same party is that of flocks. They publish distinct attacks, trusteeship. A certain number of clergy- not only on Romanism-one of their men, who succeed by co-optation, are select preachers is described by his bioentrusted, by legacies and subscriptions, grapher as looking on popery with hatred with the power of appointing to some
as if he saw the whole sysof the largest, though often not the most tem steaming direct from Hell,"—but lucrative cures of the Church. One of also on Puseyism. The following is a the most important of these is that passage from one Incumbent's grateful which is known as Simeon's trust: letter, which is printed with official apwhich bestows the livings of Bath, probation : Clifton, Derby, Cheltenham, Bradford, “ Another case has struck me much. Beverley, and many others. It need “ A young man, highly educated and in hardly be said, that all the appointments a responsible position, had been greatly are of one character.1
“ attracted by Puseyism. He had long But the Evangelical “Carlton” is the “ attended a Puseyite place of worship; Church Pastoral-aid Society. This is but, seeing a controversial lecture adan association, now in the twenty-sixth “ vertised, he determined to come and year of its existence, forsupplying curates “ hear it. He did so, and was so deeply and Scripture-readers to populous places. impressed, that he has never since reThe primary object is of course purely “ turned to his former Church. He is philanthropic; and no one will for a now a most valuable help to me.”moment deny the vast amount of aid (P. 38.) which it renders to the working clergy. The employment of lay agency, it But this is not all. The society requires, may be mentioned, is an instrument of whenever a grant is given, that the as- much power in the hands of the Evansistant who is appointed to the parish gelicals, some of whom push it to a shall be approved by the Committee, remarkable excess. One clergyman of a and subject to their veto if his principles manufacturing town last year himself are not such as are thought deserving appointed thirty lay-missionaries to hold of aid. Now, considering that the work- prayer-meetings in his parish. One ing members of the Committee are all society, a very good and useful one, is
* The present trustees are the Rev. Messrs. established for the purpose of supplying Auriol, Carus, Holland, Marsh, and Venn. these lay agents to the metropolis, and