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APRIL, 1789.]
Duties on Imports.

(H. OF R. eight cents in his State, and it caused no com- returned to serve in this House, and found them plaint that he knew of.

entitled to take their seats; which report was The question on imposing six cents on salt was concurred with. put and carried, as was a motion for a drawback A petition of the mechanics and manufacturers on salted provisions and fish.

of the city of New York, whose names are thereOa manufactured tobacco,

unto subscribed, was presented to the House and Mr. SHERMAN moved six cents, as he thought read, setting forth that, in the present deplorable the duty ought to amount to a prohibition. This state of trade and manfactures, they look with was agreed to.

confidence to the operations of the new GovernOn snuff, ten cents per pound.

ment for a restoration of both, and that relief Mr. CARROLL moved to insert window and which they have so long and anxiously desired; other glass. A manufacture of this article was that they have both subjoined a list of such artibegun in Maryland, and attended with considera- cles as can be manufactured in the State of New ble success; if the Legislature were to grant a York, and humbly pray the countenance and atsmall encouragement, it would be permanently tention of the national Legislature

thereto. established; the materials were to be found in Ordered, That the said petition be referred to

the country in sufficient quantities to answer the the Committee of the Whole House on the state 1 most extensive demand.

of the Union. A desultory conversation arose in the commit Mr. CLYMER reported, from the Committee of tee respecting the propriety of receiving the mo- Elections, to whom it was referred to report a tion at this time, when it was agreed to add on proper mode

of investigating and

deciding on the all window and other glass, except black quart petition of David Ramsay, of South Carolina, bottles, ten per cent. ad valorem.

suggesting that William Smith, returned a memMr. Clymer informed the House of the state ber of this House, as elected within that State, of the paper mills in Pennsylvania; they were was, at the time of his being elected, ineligible; so numerous as to be able to supply a very exten- that the committee had agreed to a report theresive demand in that and the neighboring States; upon, which he delivered at the Clerk's table,

they annually produce about 70,000 reams of where the same was read, and ordered to lie on į various kinds, which is sold as cheap as it can be the table.

imported. This manufacture certainly is an important one; and having grown up under legisla

DUTIES ON IMPORTS. tive encouragement, it will be wise to continue it. The House again resolved itself into a ComThereupon it was agreed to lay an impost of mittee of the Whole on the state of the Union, seven and a half per cent. ad valorem on blank Mr. Page in the Chair. books, writing, printing, and wrapping paper, and On motion of Mr. GOODHUE, anchors at seven pasteboard; the same, without debate, was laid and a half per cent. ad valorem, was added. upon canes, walking-sticks, whips, clothing ready On motion of Mr. SHERMAN, nutmegs, cinnamade, on gold, silver, and plated ware, and on mon, raisins, figs, currants, and almonds, were jewellery and paste work; upon cabinet ware, struck out. buttons of metal, saddles, gloves of leather, all Mr. Ames introduced wool cards, with observhats of beaver, fur, wool, or mixture of either, all ing that they were manufactured to the eastward millinery, castings of iron, or slit or rolled iron, as good and as cheap as the imported ones. all leather tanned or tawed, or manufactures there Mr. Clymer mentioned, that in the State of of, except such as are otherwise rated.

Pennsylvania, the manufacture was carried to On every coach, chariot, or other four wheel great perfection, and enough could be furnished to carriage, and on every chaise, solo, or other two supply the demand. A duty of fifty cents per wheel carriage, or parts thereof, fifteen per cent. dozen was imposed on wool cards. ad valorem.

On wrought tin ware, seven and a half per cenCHAPLAINS, &c.

tum ad valorem; on every quintal of fish, fifty The committee rose; and the Speaker having cents; and on every barrel of pickled fish, seventaken the Chair, a letter was received from the ty-five cents. Senate, communicating a report of a joint com

Mr. Fitzsimons moved the following: "On all mittee, agreed to by the Senate, respecting the teas imported from China or India, in ships built appointment of Chaplains, and the mode of con- in the United States, and belonging wholly to a ducting conference ; also, an appointment of a citizen or citizens thereof, as follows: on bohea committee to confer with a committee of the tea, per pound, six cents; on all souchong and House on an eligible mode of conveying bills, other black teas, ten cents; on superior green papers, and messages. The House concurred in teas, twenty cents; on all other teas, ten cents. the report of the joint committee, and appointed

On all teas imported from any other country, a committee to confer on the subject proposed.

or from China or India, in ships which are not the property of the United States, as follows: on bo

hea tea, per pound, ten cents; souchong, and other SATURDAY, April 18.

black teas, fifteen cents; on superior green teas, Mr. WuITE, from the Committee of Elections, thirty cents; on all other green teas, eighteen reported that the committee had examined the cents per pound. certificates and other credentials of the members Mr. FITZSIMONS supported the motion, by ob

H OF R.]

Duties on Imports.

[APRIL, 1789

serving that one effect of the late glorious revolu- merely because the specie was exported, but to tion was, to deprive the merchants of America of show that it did not bring in an equivalent, as the most of the channels of commerce which they had goods were mostly of that kind which are termed before pursued. This circumstance obliged them luxuries. to search for other sources to employ their vessels Mr. Boudinot declared himself a friend to the in. It had been discovered that a pretty lucrative Indian commerce. He thought it encouraged the trade could be carried on with the countries in employment of shipping, and increased our seathe East; the merchants have gone largely into it, men; he knew its advantages to agriculture and it at present gives employment to some thou- The gentleman from Virginia, (Mr. Madison) sand tons of American shipping, and seamen; our supposed but little of our productions were sent in success has been so great, as to excite the jealousy exchange for India goods; but our beef, pak of Europe, and nothing is left undone to cramp or four, and wheat, were shipped for this purpose, prevent our commercial operations in that quar- not to China, yet to ports where proper cargoes ter. The Legislature of Pennsylvania, impressed were taken in to answer the trade. Encouragewith the importance of the subject, had granted it ment and protection were necessary to prevent the aid by discriminating in the manner he proposed large companies in Europe from underselling our to the committee; and with the like aid from the merchants, which they would readily do, at conGovernment of the United States, the merchants siderable loss, if they could, in consequence, puta may no longer fear the machinations of the opu- stop to our trade. He hoped, therefore, the comlent companies in Europe, who are unwilling to mittee would not hesitate in adopting the motion. let us partake of a trade they so long have had a The motion was adopted accordingly. monopoly of. Already the trade to India has had On coal per bushel — cents. a very happy effect in favor of our inhabitants, by Mr. Bland informed the committee, that there reducing commodities brought from thence to one were mines opened in Virginia capable of supplyhalf of their former price, and yet a sufficient ing the whole of the United States, and, if some profit is left to enable those concerned to carry it restraint was laid on the importation of foreign on with advantage.

coal, those mines might be worked to advantage. Mr. Madison felt a reluctance in being obliged He thought it needless to insist upon the advanto state his reasons why he doubted the policy of tages resulting from a colliery, as a supply for the proposed measure. What, said he, is its ob- culinary and mechanical purposes, and as a nurject? It is not to add to the revenue, for it will sery to train up seamen for a navy. He moved in fact tend to diminish it, in that proportion three cents a bushel. which the importation from China lessens that Mr. Hartley was willing to admit a moderate from other parts; it is not to increase our com- duty, but thought three cents would be a great merce, for long voyages are unfriendly to it; it is discouragement to those manufactures which nenot to increase the importation of necessary arti- cessarily consume large quantities of fuel. He cles, for India goods are mostly articles of luxury; moved one cent. it is not to carry off our superfluities, for these ar Mr. Parker said, that a less sum than three ticles are paid for principally, if not altogether, in cents would not answer the purpose intended. solid coin. If the trade is beneficial at all to the Coal came from England as ballast, and was sold United States, it must be in this single point of so low, as almost to prevent the working of their view, that the articles can be imported cheaper mines in Virginia. He hoped, if the committee through that channel than any other; and, if so, were disposed to encourage them, they would that it is the interest of the people to be supplied proportion the means to the end; a duty of one as cheap as possible. There are no collateral good cent would be void ; nothing under what was purposes to claim our attention in this case. It is moved by his colleague (Mr. BLAND) could annot in the nature of things that we should derive swer the purpose. He hoped, therefore, the comany other advantage than the one I have men- mittee would agree to three cents. tioned, without it is that of raising our India com On the question, there appeared a majority in merce from its weak and infant state to strength favor of three cents. After which the committee and vigor; to enable it to continue supplies at a rose, and the House adjourned. cheaper rate than they could otherwise be obtained. Mr. GOODHUE replied to Mr. Madison's obser

MONDAY, April 20. vations, respecting the mode of paying for India

ABRAHAM Baldwin and JAMES JACKSON, from goods, by informing the committee that very con Georgia, appeared and took their seats. siderable quantities of ginseng, naval stores, lum

Mr. Tucker, from the committee to whom was ber, and provisions, were shipped; other articles referred the petition of John Churchman and Dawere sent also, and disposed of at ports on this side vid Ramsay, reported that the committee had, of China, in order to procure the most suitable according to order, had the said petitions under cargo; so that we do not pay principally for their their consideration, and agreed to a report therecommodities in solid coin, but send off superflui- upon; which he delivered in at the Clerk's table, ties to a considerable amount, much more than if where the same was twice read, and debated by we were to procure ou teas and nankeens from clauses. any part of Europe.

The first clause, in the words following, to wit: Mr. MADISON had not made the objection " That the committee have conferred with Mr.

APRIL, 1789.]
Duties on Imports.

(H. OF R. Churchman, and find that he has made many calcula- spending considerable sums in visionary pursuits; tions which tend to establish his position, that there are but if an inconsiderable sum will answer on this two magnetic points which give direction to the needle; occasion, and there is a probability of improving that upon this doctrine he has endeavored to ascertain the science of navigation, I see no reason against from a given latitude, and a given variation, what must it. Gentlemen who have been on the committee be the longitude of the place; and having applied his understand the subject best, and they will please principles to many instances in Cook’s voyages, has give the House their sentiments. found the result to correspond with considerable accu

Mr. White said that the proposed voyage had rey with the real facts, as far as they could be determined by the reckoning of the ship: That the object to nothing to do with the principle of magnetic vawhich Mr. Churchman's labors are directed is confes riation; it was intended to ascertain the cause; sedly of very high importance, and his ideas on the sub- if the principle was true, it could be applied to ject appear to be ingenious: That, with a view of ap- practice without knowing the cause which proplying them to practice, he has contrived a map and a duced it; therefore, the committee had reported globe, whereby to show the angles which are made by in the manner before them. the intersection of the real and the magnetic meridians

Mr. Burke understood from Mr. Churchman in different parts of the earth: That he is also engaged that it would take a small vessel about four in constructing tables for determining the longitude at months, in the summer time, to be in the high sea upon magnetic principles: That the committee are northern latitudes, attending him in his researches of opinion, that such efforts deserve encouragement, into the cause of the magnetic variation. He and that a law should pass to secure to Mr. Church- thought Mr. Churchman's theory ingenious and man, for a term of years, the exclusive pecuniary emo- deserving patronage; but the voyage to Baffin's luments to be derived from the publication of these sev-Bay was rather premature. eral inventions;" was again read, and, on the question Mr. Page wished the committee to state the put thereon, agreed to by the House.

expense, because he thought the Legislature ought The second clause, in the words following, to to assist Mr. Churchman in the voyage, if it wit:

would not cost too great a sum. It is true that * With respect to the voyage proposed by Mr. Church- the theory can be carried into practice whether man to Baffin's Bay, the committee are cautious of re- the cause is discovered or not; but as the theory commending, in the present deranged state of our fi- depends upon the cause, a knowledge of this nances, a precipitate adoption of a measure which would would demonstrate the truth of the other. Mr. be attended with considerable expense; but they are of Churchman's system consists in applying the opinion, that at a future day, if Mr. Curchman's princi- magnetic variation to the discovery of longitude. ples should be found to succeed in practice, it would be He lays down two magnetic points, to which the proper to give further encouragement to his ingenuity;" needle is attracted, and a magnetic equator, dewas again read, and, on a motion made, was ordered to fining the nature of the curves formed by the lie on the table.

magnetic meridians, the periods of revolution of The third clause, in the words following, to wit: the magnetic points

, their courses, latitudes and “On the subject of the petition of Doctor David longitudes, their diúrnal, monthly, and annual Ramsay, your committee report it as their opinion, that situation, for any time past, present, or to come, a law should pass to secure to him the exclusive right with rules to apply these principles and materials of publishing and vending, for a term of years, the two to use. Mr. Churchman establishes the truth of works mentioned in the petition;" was read, and, on this theory from calculations, compared with the the question put thereupon, agreed to by the House. actual observations made by Captain Cook and On these clauses, the following debate took tions, he was astonished at the surprising agree

others. Having examined some of the calculaplace:

ment he found-they generally agreed within a Mr. Madison.-I wish that the committee few miles, and only one case where they differed had stated the expenses attending a voyage to more than a degree. If the use of this discovery Baffin's Bay, for the purpose of discovering the was as extensive as he imagined, and he had every cause of the magnetic variation, as proposed by reason to believe it would be so, it was certainly Mr. Churchman, that the House might be bet-a discovery that would do honor to the American ter able to judge of its propriety. Well aware name. He thought some advantage might be deas I am that public bodies are liable to be assailed rived from the projected voyage; and if the exby visionary projectors, I nevertheless wish to as- pense did not exceed five or eight hundred dollars, certain the probability of the magnetic theory. If it might be prosecuted. If Government did not there is any considerable probability that the pro- lend their aid, he expected individuals would pajected voyage would be successful, or throw any tronise it, and furnish the means by subscription. valuable light on the discovery of longitude, it He expressed a willingness on his part to join in certainly comports with the honor and dignity of such a measure, if the application to the LegislaGovernment to give it their countenance and sup- ture was unsuccessful. port. Gentlemen will recollect, that some of the Mr. HUNTINGTON delineated the system also, most important discoveries, both in arts and sci- and approved of it; but thought the voyage would ences, have come forward under very unpromis- be unsuccessful, if for nothing else, for the want ing and suspicious appearances.

of proper instruments. The use of Mr. ChurchI am also well aware that the deranged situa- man's theory depended, in a great measure, upon tion of our treasury would not warrant us in obtaining the magnetic variation with accuracy;

H. of R.]

Duties on Imports.

[APRIL, 1789.

for which purpose Mr. Churchman contemplated respecting the quantity exported from that State; some improvement on the compass; if he was from Pennsylvania the quantity was but small. successful in this, the discovery would no doubt Mr. LAWRENCE could give no exact information answer the object in view.

relative to the quantity of New York rum exMr. Sherman did not think the voyage would ported, but, from what he understood, supposed it be of any help to the gentleman, and therefore to be about one thousand hogsheads annually; it should agree to the report.

was entitled to a drawback, and there was no Mr. TUCKER expressed a doubt whether the reason to believe this had been the occasion of Legislature has power, by the Constitution, to go frauds on the revenue: he should agree to the further in rewarding the inventors of useful ma- measure. chines, or discoveries in sciences, than merely to Mr. Madison was sorry the gentlemen from secure to them for a time the right of making; Massachusetts were absent, because they could publishing, and vending them: in the case of a give authentic information with respect to the doubt, he thought it best to err on the safe side. quantity. He had in his hands a statement of the

The House now decided upon the propositions exports from Massachusetts, which he believed to of the committee, as before stated, and ordered be pretty accurate, from January 1st to Decembills to be brought in, securing the right of pub- ber 31st, 1787. From this it appeared, that there lishing, &c. of their respective works, to John were exported during that period, to Nova Scotia, Churchman and David Ramsay.

eighty-nine hogsheads; to Europe, one hundred DUTIES ON IMPORTS.

and thirty-four hogsheads, and eight hundred and The House again resolved itself into a Com- he submitted to the committee, how far it was

ninety-seven to Africa and the East Indies. Now mittee of the Whole on the state of the Union, proper to adopt a measure for such a trifling conMr. Page in the Chair.

sideration, which would become a most dangerous The following clause of the bill was agreed to, viz: "On all other articles, five per cent. on their cover to the clandestine trade that must necessavalue at the time and place of importation, ex- the day and brought back in the night, for the

rily follow. Rum will, no doubt, be exported in cept tin in pigs, tin plates, lead, old pewter, brass, sake of drawing back the duty, as has been done iron or brass wire, copper in plates, wool, dying already in similar cases. woods and dying drugs, other than indigo, raw hides, beaver, and all other furs, and deer skins.” erally, but on this article it was particular injus.

Mr. Fitzsimons contended for drawbacks genMr. Fırzsimons proposed a drawback of six tice to omit it. The manufacture of rum was of cents per gallon on all rum distilled in the United considerable importance in the Eastern States, States, exported without the limits of the same. but it would not be able to stand a successful

Mr. MADISON asked if the quantity of rum so exported was very considerable? He believed it competition with West India rum in foreign was not; and he would not, for the sake of en- countries, while loaded with a duty of six cents couraging that branch of trade, open a door by and he looked upon it to be the same thing as if

per gallon. The tax on molasses was that sum, which frauds on the revenue could be committed equal to the whole duty collected.

it had been paid on the rum at distillation; one Mr. Firzsimons could not say what quantity gallon of the former yielding but one of the of rum was exported in that way; but he feared, unless a drawback was allowed, it would be a

Mr. Madison thought there were very few

cases in which drawbacks ought to be allowed, great injury to the manufacture. At the time the duty of six cents on molasses was laid, he perhaps none but what related to the East India thought it was understood, the committee would trade. The small proportion of distilled rum exallow a drawback on the rum exported. There ported

did not justify so great a risk; but of the seems to be an apprehension that the system of small proportion which went abroad, the greatest drawbacks will operate to the disadvantage of part went to the coast of Africa. He feared this the revenue ; but he believed a mode could be and ought to be reprobated instead of encouraged. devised to prevent frauds, in this case, fully as If gentlemen were to consider the

great advaneffectually as on the importation. If this was not tages derived to the distillers from the present done, it would be time enough for gentlemen to Government, they would perhaps think them oppose it; they would have this opportunity, be sufficient for their encouragement without allowcause a bill, regulating the manner of collection, he presumed, would pass at the same time with ing drawbacks. The annual exportation from the one for levying the duties. If drawbacks States is five thousand three hundred and twenty

Massachusetts to the several ports of the United were not allowed, it would be a very considerable seven hogsheads. This quantity was formerly restraint on commerce, particularly on the India trade, which he believed was likely to be consid- subjected to an equal duty with the West India erably extended. He was sorry the gentlemen rum. If, under these circumstances, country rum from Massachusetts were not there in their could command this great sale, what will it do places, * to give information to the committee parts of the United States laid open to this trade,

now when the communication is free, and many The delegates from that State were gone to meet that were shut before? This consideration alone the Vice President, who was expected in town this ought to do away all complaints for want of a day.


APRIL, 1789.]
Duties on Imports.

[H. of R. Mr. BLAND said the committee had spent seve-ted to the Committee of the Whole; after proral days in encouraging manufactures, by select- ceeding some time in considering it, the coming articles for revenue, and were now extending mittee rose and reported progress: their views to the encouragement of commerce. And the House adjourned. He thought there was some impropriety in combining the clause proposed in this part of the bill, and even doubted if it was in order; therefore

TUESDAY, April 21. would vote against it.

Mr. HARTLEY asked and obtained leave of The question was put on the motion for a draw-absence. back on country rum, and lost. Mr. Fitzsimons had another clausé upon the

DUTIES ON IMPORTS. same subject, only on more general principles; he

The House again resolved itself into a Comhoped gentlemen would consider well before they mittee of the Whole on the state of the Union, doomed it to share the fate of the former. It Mr. Page in the Chair. was to this purpose: that all the duties paid, or The motion respecting drawbacks, proposed secured to be paid, upon goods imported, shall be yesterday by Mr, Firzsimons, was adopted withreturned or discharged upon such of the said out debate. goods, as shall within months be exported A motion being under consideration for laying to any country without the limits of the United a duty of six cents per ton on all vessels built in States, except so much as shall be necessary to the United States, and owned by a citizen or citidefray the expense that may have accrued by the zens thereof, and all vessels foreign built, but now entry and safe keeping thereof. The subjects of owned by such citizens; duties and drawbacks are so connected by their Mr. Madison observed that some small provinature, that

he did not see how they were to be sion of this kind was necessary for the support of separated. Gentlemen did not imagine that what light-houses, hospitals for disabled seamen, and bad been done tended to favor commerce; it cer- other establishments incident to commerce. The tainly did not. Every impost which is paid is a motion was agreed to. disadvantage to the person concerned in trade, The next motion proposed was-“on all vessels and nothing but necessity could induce a submis- belonging wholly to subjects of Powers in alliance sion to it. The interest of the landholder is un- with the United States, or partly to the subjects doubtedly blended with the commercial interest; of those Powers, and partly to the citizens of the if the latter receive an injury, the former will | United States, cents per ton. have to sustain his proportion of it: if drawbacks Mr. Goodhue laid it down as a maxim, that the are not allowed, the operations of trade will be tonnage duty ought to bear a certain ratio to the considerably shackled; 'merchants will be obliged, freight; for which reason he had made some calin the first instance, to send their cargoes to the culations to determine what proportion any given place of consumption, and lose the advantage of sum would bear to the average of the freights a circuitous freight, which alone is a profit of no both to Europe and the West Indies. A vessel of small magnitude.

two hundred tons carried three or four hundred Mr. HARTLEY expressed his sorrow for the barrels, the freight of which to the West Indies last decision of the committee; he wished the might be estimated at five shillings, to Europe at question had not been put in the absence of the one dollar. Now calculate this at the average, gentlemen from Massachusetts, who were on a and five per cent on the freight would be about business in some degree of a public nature. The seventy-two cents; whether the duty should be present motion was only just brought in; he sub-rated at four, five, or six per cent on the freight, he mitted, therefore to the committee, if it were not submitted to the committee; but as this motion best to pass it over for the present, in order to was contined to those nations in alliance with us, give time for consideration.

he would move but sixty cents. Mr. LAWRENCE was for expediting business, but Mr. Boudino'r, on the principle last mentioned, thought, nevertheless, that deciding questions at proposed thirty cents. this time, when several members were absent, did Mr. Goodhue.--There would be no occasion to not tend to that point, because the question would lay additional duties on ships owned by forbe agitated again in the House.

eigners, if our own vessels were not subjected to Mr. Boudinot endeavored to evince the pro- charges in foreign ports over and above what the priety of drawbacks by facts within his know- natives pay. It is the operation of this unequal ledge. A large quantity of Madeira wine was burden that renders it necessary for us to disimported for the express purpose of exporting it criminate. It becomes us, therefore, to ascertain again; now, pot to allow a drawback of the duty, what these extraordinary, impositions are, in in this and similar cases, would encumber trade order to regulate our conduct. I am very well exceedingly.

satisfied, in my own mind, that thirty cents will be On motion of Mr. CLYMER, the committee rose, very inadequate to the object. Those who are and the Speaker resumed the Chair.

acquainted with the disadvantages under which

our commerce labors, will readily see that sixty MANNER OF TAKING OATHS. cents are not fully equal to the extra duties imThe bill regulating the manner of taking the posed on American vessels in foreign ports, and, oath prescribed by the Constitution, was commit- consequently, not sufficient to establish that

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