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John Watts, Tiverton, Devonshire, hatter.—John Tate, Darlington, Durham, iron merchant.—F. Chater, Wolverhampton, Staffordshire, chemist.—Henry Dawbar, Lincoln, butcher.
John Corner Blackloci and Thomas Robinson, Birmingham, drapers.
Angus Ross, Inverness, ironmonger.—Robert Crawford, Edinburgh, lime burner.—Morris, Young, if Co., Kilmarnock, calico printers.— Mrs. Caroline Allatt, Glasgow, lodginghouse keeper.
Who have filed their Petitions m the Court of Bankruptcy, and have obtained an Interim Order for Protection from Process.
Elizabeth Hall, Liverpool, lodging-house keeper, April 3 at 10, County Court of Lancashire, at Liverpool.—/. Woods, Liverpool, assistant to a hosier, April 3 at 10, County Court of Lancashire, at Liverpool. — Alfred H. Brown, Barnstaple, Devonshire, chemist, April 5 at 10, County Court of Devonshire, at Barnstaple.— Wm. Parker, Milton-next-Gravesend, Kent, tailor, April 15 at 10, County Court of Kent, at Gravesend. — Chas. Grey, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, shipbroker's clerk, April 13 at 10, County Court of Northumberland, at Newcastle-upon-Tyne.— Christopher Neltess, Newcastle-uponTyne, cartman, April 13 at 10, County Court of Northumberland, at Newcastle-upon-Tyne.—John Gallon the younger, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, blacksmith, April 13 at 10, County Court of Northumberland, at Newcastle-upon-Tyne.—David Liddle, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, general dealer, April 13 at 10, County Court of Northumberland, at Newcastie-upon-Tyne. —John Gaddes, Gateshead, Durham, dogger, April 17 at 10, County Court of Durham, at Gateshead.—G. Weatherall, Nottingham, out of business, April 11 at 9, County Court of Nottinghamshire, at Nottingham.— Wm. Spiby, Nottingham, engineer, April 11 at 9, County Court of Nottinghamshire, at Nottingham.—George Fish, Arnold, Nottinghamshire, shoemaker, April 11 at 9, County Court of Nottinghamshire, at Nottingham.—Joseph Toms, Exeter, builder, April 18 at 10, County Court of Devonshire, at Exeter.—Charles D. Wills, Ex mouth, Littleham, Devonshire, painter, April 11 at 10, County Court of Devonshire, at Exeter.—Henry Bgginton, Sheffield, Yorkshire, brass turner, April 12 at 12, County Court of Yorkshire, at Sheffield.—Joseph Green, Sheffield, Yorkshire, beer-house keeper, April 12 at 12, County Court of Yorkshire, at Sheffield.—John Taylor, Sheffield, Yorkshire, anvil manufacturer, April 12 at 12, County Court of Yorkshire, at Sheffield.— Wm. Abbott, Sheffield, Yorkshire, shoemaker, April 12 at 12, County Court of Yorkshire, at Sheffield. —John Shaw the younger, Sale Moor, Cheshire, out of employment, April 29 at 11, County Court of Cheshire, at Altrincnam.—Anne Turner, Hereford, fishmonger, April 13 at 10, County Court of Herefordshire, at Hereford. — E. G. Stone, Hastings, Sussex, tailor, April 17 at 11, County Court of Sussex, at Hastings.—Richard Neale, Coventry, Warwickshire, loom maker, April 19 at 12, County Court of Warwickshire, at Coventry.—John Henson the younger, Keresley, near Coventry, Warwickshire, grocer, April 19 at 12, County Court of Warwickshire, at Coventry.—Henry Nicholls, Coventry, Warwickshire, coachman, April 19 at 12, County Court of Warwickshire, at Coventry.—Frederick Short, Lynilhurst, Southampton, baker, April 7 at 10, County Court of Hampshire, at Southampton.—Martha Taylor, Leckhampton, Gloucestershire, out of business, April 18 at 10, County Court of Gloucestershire, at Cheltenham.—Owen Gormley, Manchester, publican, April 17 at 12, County Court of Lancashire, •t Manchester. — Thomas Ladkin, Sbearsby, Leicestershire, licensed victualler, April 21 at 11, County Court of Leicestershire, at Lutterworth.—C. Marriott, Derby, butcher, April 15 at 12, County Court of Derbyshire, at Derby.—J. Martin, Litcburch, Derbyshire, beer-house keeper, April 15 at 12, County Court of Derbyshire, at Derby. — Barritt Greenwood, Manningham, near Bradford, Yorkshire, out of business, April 11 at 11, County Court of Yorkshire, at Bradford.— Jos. Shuttleworth, Bradford, Yorkshire, beer-house keeper, April II at 11, County Court of Yorkshire, at Bradford.
Saturday, March 25. Assignees have been appointed in the following Cases. Further particulars may be learned at the Office, in Portugalstreet, Lincoln's-inn-flelds, on giving the Number of the Case.
John Henry Nainby, Regent-street, Lambeth, Surrey, not in any business, No. 58,078 T.; Henry Saward, assignee.— George Banks, Wilmington, near Darttord, Kent, baker, No, 64,251 T.; John Durrant, assignee.—John Becks, Waterloostreet, Camberwell, Surrey, out of employment. No. 64,219 T.; Thomas Reginald Kemp, assignee.—R. Robson, Ayton Stile, Durham, out of business, No. 77,545 C.; Henry Gilpin, assignee.— D. Newman, Gloucester, lieutenant in the Militia, No. 18,721 T.j Thomas John Alderson, assignee.—Klein Grant, Maidenhead, Berkshire, physician, No. 77,518 C; William Bernand, assignee.—Peter Paul Couch, Waverlyroad, Paddington, Middlesex, civil engineer. No. 63.975 T.; Walton Pell, assignee.—Henry Holmes, Boyle-st., Old Burlington-street, Middlesex, clerk, No. 63,327 T.; John Hook, assignee. -James Garside, Rishworth, near Halifax, Yorkshire, publican, No. 76,241 C; Henry Earnshaw, assignee.
Saturday, March 25.
Orders have been made, vesting in the Provisional Assignee
the Estates and Effects of the following Persons:—
(On their own Petitions^.
James Bonny, Reigate, Surrey, licensed victualler: in the Gaol of Surrey.—James Kna/.p the elder, Summer-cottages. Wertemberg.grove, Clapham, Surrey, out of business: in the Gaol of Surrey.—John Doggett, Old Church-st., Edgewareroad, Middlesex, out of business: in the Debtors Prison for London and Middlesex.—Thomas Gibson, Wellington-place, Old Kent-road, Surrey, out of business: in the Gaol of Surrey. — Simon Jonas, Clifton-street, Finsbury, Middlesex, dealer is jewellery: in the Queen's Prison.—A. Rowsell, Upper Eatonstreet, Pimlico, Middlesex, waiter to a coffee-house keeper: in the Debtors Prison for London and Middlesex.—Charles Cole, Upper Eaton-street, Pimlico, Middlesex, waiter to a coffee-house keeper: in the Debtors Prison for London and Middlesex.—Frederick W. Rudkin, Seymour-place, Eustousquare, Middlesex, coal merchant: in the Debtors Prison for London and Middlesex.—Thomas Stephenson, Calvert-street. Old Gravel-lane, Middlesex, out of employ: in the Debtors Prison for London and Middlesex.—Wm. Lloyd, York-st., Westminster, Middlesex, licensed victualler: in the Q-ieen's Prison.—Henry Corsten, Hungerford, or Grand Hall, Hungerford market, Strand, Middlesex, florist: in the Debtors Prison for London and Middlesex.—Jos. Gordon, Jewry-st., Aldgate, London, teacher of mathematics: in the Debtors Prison for London and Middlesex.—Samuel Wood Graves, Warwick-st., Pimlico, Middlesex, gentleman: in the Debtors Prison for London and Middlesex.—John O'Hara, Talbotvillas, St. Columb's-road, Paddington, Middlesex, clerk to a builder: in the Debtors Prison for London and Middlesex.— Jonathan Bath, High-street, Camden-town, Middlesex, beer retailer: in the Debtors Prison for London and Middlesex.— Henry Houghton, Queeu's-road, Bermondsey, Surrey, waterproofer: in the Gaol of Surrey.—Edward Scott, H as wellcoitage, Epsom, Surrey, tea dealer: in the Gaol of Surrey.— Henry Baker, Adam and Eve-court, Old Oxford-street, Middlesex, out of business: in the Debtors Prison for London and Middlesex.—Jonathan Bayley Shaw, Philip-lane, Wood-st., Cheapside, London, out of employ: in the Debtors Prison for London and Middlesex.
(On Creditor's Petition).
Jane Bright, Northumberland-street, Strand, Middlesex, spinster: in the Debtors Prison for London and Middlesex. (On their own Petitions).
Thomas Andrews, Ridgway, Worcestershire, innkeeper: in the Gaol of Worcester.— Ezra Evans, Bengeworth, Evesham, Worcestershire, nailer: in the Gaol of Worcester. — Rphram Chamberlain, Moulton, near Northampton, attorney's clerk: in the Gaol of Northampton.— William Johnson the elder, Downham Market, Norfolk, bone crusher: in the Gaol of Norwich.— William Strickland Eccles, Burnley, Lancashire. foreman to a tailor: in the Gaol of Lancaster.—James Wm. Holland, Longsight, near M anchester, out of business: in the Gaol of Lancaster.—H. Smith, Portsea, Hampshire, builder: in the Gaol of Winchester.— II7. Boyd, Kingston-upon-HuU, out of business: in the Gaol of Kingston-upon-IIull.—John Brain, Manchester, salesman: in the Gaol of Lancaster.— Thomas CornaU, Preston, Lancashire, labourer: in the Gaol of Lancaster.—D. Harrison, Blackburn, Lancashire, wholesale butcher: in the Gaol of Lancaster.—Alexander Henderson, Manchester, stationer: in the Gaol of Lancaster—A. Roseoe, Salford, Lancashire, beer seller: in the Gaol of Lancaster.— James Outlier, [lackland Newton, Dorsetshire, innkeeper: in the Gaol of Dorchester.—James Gilchrist, York, beer seller: in the Gaol of York.—Richard Kent, Leeds, Yorkshire, dealer in milk: in the Gaol of York.—Henry Watson, Birkenhead, Cheshire, civil engineer: in the Gaol of Chester.— George Card, Tunbridge Wells, Tanbridge, Kent, fly driver: in the Gaol of Maidstone.—Richard Wm. Dadd, Rochester, Kent, oat of business: in the Gaol of Maidstone.—John H. Drew, Plymouth, Devonshire, baker: in the Gaol of St. Thomas-the-Apostle.—Francis Denman, Bridgewater, Somersetshire, miller: in the Gaol of Wilton.—Henry Faulkner, Bridgewater, Somersetshire, coach builder: in the Gaol of Wilton.—John Hedges, Battonsborougb, Somersetshire, innkeeper: in the Gaol of Wilton.—John Darnels, Manchester, Venetian blind manufacturer: in the Gaol of Lancaster.— Herbert Woolley, Woolwich, Kent, third engineer: in the Gaol of Maidstone. — Thomas Walton, Manningham, near Bradford, Yorkshire, commission agent: in the Gaol of York. —Thomas Ijeeder Daniels, Saxlingham, Nethergate, Norfolk, butcher: in the Gaol of Norwich.—James Seddon, Ardwick, Manchester, pattern card maker: in the Gaol of Lancaster.
The following Prisoners are ordered to be brought up be/ore the Court, in Portugal-street, to be examined and dealt with according to the Statute:—
April 11 at 10, before the Chief Commissioner. George Giles, Natchez-villas, New-road, Twickenham, Middlesex, attorney-at-law.— Henry Ashley, Eluabeth-street, Eiton-square, Pimlico, Middlesex, tailor.
April 11 at 11, before Mr. Commissioner Phillips. Walter Whitelaw, Lower James-street, Golden-square, Middlesex, cutter to a tailor.
April 11 at 10, before Mr. Commissioner Murphy. Robert Elliot, Argyll-place, Regent-st., Middlesex, commission agent.—John Moss, Corrogated-row, Bermondsey, Ssrrey, horse dealer.—Samuel Wood Graves, Warwick-St., Pimlico, Middlesex, gentleman.
The following Prisoners are ordered to be brought up before a Judge of the County Court, to be examined and dealt with according to the Statute i—
At the County Court of Kent, at Maidstone, April 11 at 12.
Richard Thomas Hart, Wilmington, near Dartford, licensed victualler.—George Card, Tunbridge Wells, Tunbridge, mail cart sab-contractor.— Wm. Wharton, Longfield, near Gravesend, retailer of beer.—Richard Wm. Dadd, Rochester, out of business.—Herbert Woolley, Woolwich, third engineer. At the County Court of Worcestershire, at Worcester. April 11 at 10.
Ezra Evans, Evesham, nailer.— Thos. Andrews, Ridgway, innkeeper.
At the County Court of Cheshire, at Chester Castle, April 12.
Daniel Briscoe, Ince, farmer's assistant.—Ambrose Clark, Mickle Trafford, in no business.—Henry Watson, Birkenhead, engineer.
At the County Court of Norfolk, at Norwich, April 12.
Thomas Leeder Daniels, Saxlingham, Nethergate, butcher. —William Johnson the elder, Downturn Market, out of business.
At the County Court of Leicestershire, at Leicester, April 12 at 10.
John Spooner the younger, Earl Shilton, saddler. At the County Court of Berkshire, at Reading, April 13.
George Jarrett, Wickham, Welford, builder. At the County Court of Herefordshire, at Hereford, April 13 at 10.
Caleb Gilbert, White Heywood, Craswell, Clodock, dealer m cattle.
At the County Court of Derbyshire, at Derby, April IS at 12. James Topliss, Ticknall, accountant.
At the County Court of Sussex, at Lewes, April 18. James Crisford, Westfield, grocer. At the County Court of Warwickshire, at Coventry,
April 19 at 12. Joseph Bay lis, Birmingham, maltster.—John Bond Cooke, Manchester, oat of basiness.— Wm. J. Scott, Birmingham! attorney's clerk.—James Tame, Birmingham, dealer in glass. —John Shaddoch, Redditch, shoemaker.— Wm. Hackwood, Shelton, manufacturer of earthenware.
At the County Court of Gloucestershire, at Gloucester,
COURT FOR RELIEF OF INSOLVENT DEBTORS
IN IRELAND. The following Prisoner is ordered to be brought up before
the Court, in Limerick, April 12 at 9, to be dealt with
according to the Statute:—
John Hassett, Limerick, mineral water manufacturer.
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LAW FIRE INSURANCE SOCIETY.—Offices, No*. 5 and 6, Chancery-lane, London. Subscribed Capital, £5,000,000.
The Right Hon. the Earl of Devon.
The Right Hon. Lord Truro.
The Right Hon. the Lord Chief Baron.
The Right Hon. the Lord Justice Knight Bruce.
The Right Hon. Sir John Dodson, Dean of the Arches, fcc.
William Baker, Esq., late Master in Chancery.
Richard Richards, Esq., Master in Chancery. Insurances expiring at Lady-day should be renewed within fifteen days thereafter, at the Offices of the Society, or with any of its Ageou throughout the country.
E. BLAKE BEAL, Secretary.
GUARDIAN FIRE AND LIFE ASSURANCE COMPANY, No. 11, Lombard-street, London.
Sir Walter R. Farquhar, Bart., Chairman.
Stewart Marjoribanks, Esq.
| Henry Sykes Thornton, Esq. I John Henry Smith, Esq. George Keys, Esq , Secretary.—Griffith Davies, Esq., F.R.S., Actuary.
Life Department. —Under the provisions of an act of Parliament, this Company now offers to future Insurers Four-fifths of the ProPits, with Quinquennial Divisiox, oi a Low Rate or PsxuitM without participation of Profits.
The next Division of Profits will be declared in June, 1855, when all Participating Policies which shall have subsisted at least one year at Christmas, 1854, will be allowed to share in the Profits.
At the several past Divisions of Profits made by this Company, the Reversionary Bonuses added to the Policies from One-half the Profits amounted, on an average of the different ages, to about One per Cent per Annum on the sums insured, and the total Bonuses added at the four Septennial Divisions exceeded 770,000/.
Foreign Risks.—The Extra Premiums required for the East asd West Indies, the British Colonies, and the northern parts of the United States of America, have been materially reduced.
Invalid Lives.—Personswho are notin Buch sound health as would enable them to Insure their Lives at the Tabular Premiums, may han their Lives Insured atextra Premiums. ^
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Court Of Appeal In Chancery.
Trustee's own private Fundi) 273
Rolls Court. Yorag v. White.—(Plea—Sufficiency—Infringement of Patent—Discovery—Materiality of Allegations
—Evidence before a Jury) 277
Vice-chancellor Kindersley's Court.
In re The Marvl. bone Bank.— ( Winding up—Call).. 281
Vice-chancellor Stuart's Court. Atkinson v. Grey.—(Covenant for future Payment— Contingent Debt—Specialty Creditor—Legal Assets—Principal and Surety) 282
Vice-chancellor Wood's Court. Joy v. Aipinwall.—(Trustee— Unlawful Trust) .... 284
Court Of Queen's Bench.
Quotas—38 Geo. 3, cc. 5, 60) 285
Court Of Common Pleas.
— Wrongful Act—Estoppel) 291
Exchequer Chamber. Gilpin v. Fowler.—(Libel—Privileged Communication —Malice— Question for Jury—Sector of Parish—
Court Of Exchequer.
—Judge's Order—Action) 295
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LONDON, APRIL 8, 1854.
We believe that the time has arrived when the question of legal education may be considered to some extent apart from the exclusive and peculiar interests of the Profession. No doubt it is a matter of great importance that we should possess in this country an order of advocates, distinguished by their learning, acquirements, and general ability—an order from which our judges are selected, and an order which has given many of our greatest statesmen and orators to Parliament. The question which has recently been suggested, rather than definitely stated, in Parliament, on this subject, is, whether it would not be possible so to improve the curriculum of legal education, by giving it & more general and scientific character, as to attract to the Legal University those young men who are candidates for appointments in some of the higher branches of the public service. This point was well put by the Solicitor-General in the course of the discussion which took place on Mr. Napier's motion for a commission to inquire into the system of legal education provided in the Inns of Court. The honourable and learned gentleman said " he hoped to see the time when a great Legal University would be constituted, to act in co-operaVol. XVIII. , M
tion with Oxford, Cambridge, Dublin, and the London University, the degree in which would be considered a test of competency previous to admission to certain of the more important of the public departments." It will be remembered that the Government of India Act of last session established the principle, that all appointments in the civil service, and in the scientific branches of the Indian army, should be thrown open to merit; and, acting on the same principle, Sir Charles Trevelyan and the Rev. Mr. Jowett have prepared a plan, somewhat of the same kind, with respect to the organisation of the civil service in this country. One portion of the plan, to which a great objection has been urged, is, that this immense mass of patronage would be practically transferred from the heads of departments to a board of examiners. Into this objection we do not propose to enter, for if a degree were received as a test of competency, the head of the department would be enabled to make his patronage and his responsibility still go together. Of course, we do not propose that every clerk in the Customs or in the Post-office should be a graduate well up in classics, mathematics, and in public and private law; we confine our observations to those departments of the public service in which a knowledge of law is not a mere gentlemanly accomplishment, but an absolute and indispensable necessity. Anciently England possessed a Legal University, which is described by Lord Coke "as the most famous university for the profession of the law, or of any3vjr«af£: -*s science, that is in the world, in which th«jae'a«Ungs anvfc'/ . other exercises of the laws therein used aremost excellent and behoofful for attaining to the knowledge of these laws." When " the readings, mootings, boltings, and exercises," so much commended by Lord Coke, became mere forms, all scientific instruction in our own common law—which was the o»tjr branch of
jurisprudence taught in the Legal University—may be 'said to have departed the realm. A Bystem of instruction, however, insensibly and necessarily grew up, which was found convenient, and eminently successful in forming the mere technical lawyer—we mean the system of reading in chambers; and we could cite many illustrious instances of men of superior intellect and indefatigable industry, who, almost by their own unaided and undirected endeavours, by hard reading and the irksome task of copying pleadings, have become profound masters of particular branches of jurisprudence. Within the last ten years various attempts have been made to improve the system of instruction which exists in the different Inns of Court. Lecturers have been appointed, scholarships have been established for the most distinguished students—in short, a great improvement has been effected; but still the examination is not compulsory, and therefore any person who wishes to acquire the status of a barrister can do so by payment of a certain sum, by eating so many dinners, and by attending so many lectures. When he is called to the Bar, not the slightest test is required for the purpose of ascertaining whether he has ever opened a law book, or whether he knows the commonest principles of that Profession of which he is thus permitted to become a nominal and an honorary member. If we are to have an efficient system of legal education, the first measure will be to require an examination in all cases, as a test of competency; and the second will be to increase the number of the professors. The existing chairs are those of civil law, constitutional law, real property, equity and common law; to these there should be added chairs of commercial law, comparative law, international law, medical jurisprudence, and logic and rhetoric. It will readily be admitted that a knowledge of commercial law is most important in a country like England, with its enormous trade in every quarter of the world; and the events which are passing around us at the present time shew the absolute necessity which exists, not only that lawyers, but that our merchants generally, should be acquainted with those laws of war which affect so directly their personal interests. In the diplomatic and consular service, it is a matter of the highest importance that all attaches, secretaries of legation, and consuls should have a competent knowledge, not only of the municipal law of their own country, but of international law, commercial law, the interpretation of treaties, the rights of belligerents and neutrals, &c.; for it has sometimes happened that an individual in a subordinate position has been obliged, in the absence of his superior, to undertake, upon the instant, the conduct of most difficult and delicate negotiations. To clerks in the foreign and colonial office, as well as to candidates for diplomatic employment, the degree of the Legal University, we are persuaded, might be required with great advantage to the public service. With regard to medical jurisprudence, a knowledge of that most important subject is only to be acquired by attending medical jurisprudential lectures at some of the great hospitals; and this circumstance has, on many occasions, led the public to appoint members of the medical profession to the legal office of coroner, solely on account of their medical knowledge, and without regard to the important con
sideration, that a coroner should also be equally acquainted with the rules of evidence and the general principles of criminal law. Under the proposed measure for the establishment of public prosecutors, a course of this description would be most valuable, as well to magistrates as to all other persons concerned in the administration of criminal justice. This system would, in fact, be nothing more than a substantial reconstitution of the Inns of Court as a great Legal University. Fortescue, C. J., says," that the Inns of Court consisted of two sets of collegiate houses—one called the Inns of Chancery, in which the younger students of the law were usually placed, learning and studying the originals, and, as it were, the elements and principles of the law, who profiting therein as they grew to ripeness, so were they admitted to the greater inns of the same study; and in these inns of both kinds, barons and knights, and other grandees and noblemen of the kingdom, were accustomed to place their children, though they did not desire to have them thoroughly learned in the law, or to get their living by its practice." We trust, therefore, that the effect of Mr. Napier's motion will be, not only to improve the course of instruction afforded in our Inns of Court, by enlarging its basis, and rendering it of a more scientific character, but that it will attract to the study of the law those public servants in the higher departments of the State, to whom, we repeat, some amount of legal knowledge is an absolute necessity. We would not, however, confine these advantages to the Legal University; we hope that Oxford, Cambridge, and the London University will offer to students the same course of instruction; and that, for the future, no man will have the opportunity of saying, as the Solicitor-General stated before Mr. Wyse's committee, "that it is obvious to every person who is thoroughly acquainted with the tone and manner of the education of young men, that their habits as students are directed by what you may denominate merely practical attainments; and that you can scarcely find an instance of a young man who has commenced his legal studies by laying anything like that broad foundation of the study of jurisprudence in such a manner as you would desire it to be done as a preparative to the practical details into which the student must almost immediately enter." In almost' every other profession and calling a preliminary test of competency is required. The physician, the surgeon, the apothecary, the master of a ship, and the solicitor, are required to undergo some preliminary and compulsory examination, necessary both for themselves and for the benefit of the public at large; and we are at a loss to conceive on what principle an individual should be allowed to purchase the status of an advocate without the slightest or the most indefinite test of competency. Mr. Napier deserves the thanks of the Profession for having called the attention of Parliament to this subject; and we trust, that by means of the inquiry which is now to be instituted, the Inns of Court will at length be restored to their ancient and dignified position as integral portions of the Legal University, and that they will exercise that general and systematic control over the instruction of students which is as necessary for the interests of the Profession as for those of the public at large.