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if they have not called down, this infliction of righteous cause, at the town of Barnsthe Divine pleasure. The disease which is ley, in Yorkshire. So that, whether now making progress in this metropolis is, as you are no doubt aware, most malignant and they pass the Reform Bill or not, here fatal in the poorest and most distressed districts
. we are, all of a mind with regard to this Want of sufficient food, clothing", aud warmth, most important matter. If I had my appears to be, next to intemperance, the chief choice given me in the following quespredisposing cause of its attacks. Under these
these tion, “ Will you have the Reform Bill, circumstances, it seems to be particularly required of us that we should sanctify our fast, “ and not an abolition of the tithenot only by bringiug before the Lord contrite" system; or will you have an abolition and penitent hearts, and a spirit of supplica- "
of the tithe-system, and not the Reform tion, but in the way which he has declared to
“ Bill?” I would answer without hesibe most pleasing to himself, by an increased measure of charity to our poorer brethren ; tation, Give me the latter, by all means. “ dealing out our bread to the hungry, and Judge you, then, of what importance I bringing the poor that are affl:cled to our deem this matter, and judge you how house." Isaiah lviii, 7.
I have, therefore, delighted I must be to behold what is earnestly to recommend that you should cause a collection to be made in your church or chapel, now passing in Ireland. Tell Mr. Clark after tlie sermon on the day appointed for the that he may begin to make his preparageneral fast, and that you should remit the tions for coming back, for that the land proceeds thereof, or such part as may not be in England will soon be as free as that required for the necessities of your own parish,
in America. to the general fund which will probably be raised for the relief of the more distressed dis- Do, pray, look at my petition, pretricts of the metropolis. That you may be sented the other day to the House of strengthened by the Holy Spirit to the faith Commons, on the subject of emigration. ful discharge of your important duties in this season of fear and trial is the earnest prayer
I defy the history of the whole world, of your affectionate brother in CHRIST, I defy a recital of all the freaks of all the
C. J. LONDON, madmen that ever lived, to produce any, There, now! think of that, Master thing equal, in point of folly; I defy all Woodward ! We have had fasts enough the nurseries in the world to produce any before ; but never had we fasts, until instance of childishness, equal to that now, accompanied with such earnest which is recorded in the aforesaid petiexhortations, on the part of the bishops, tion! Here is a country, the farmers to feed the hungry and clothe the naked! of which justly complain that there is Do pray look at this whole thing; and not a sufficiency of labourers to get in then remember the dreadful denuncia- the harvest in due season; and here is tions that used to thunder from the pul- a Government, having a Board of Compit, the horrible anathemas on "sedilion missioners paid by the public, the busiand blasphemy" that the bishops and ness of which Commissioners is to conclergy used to pour forth on those occa- trive the means of sending the labouring sions. You can see that every thing people out of the country at the public here is upon the change; every thing is expense, upon the alleged ground that upon the work, like wort in a tun-tub! they are too numerous !
Need you Not only the cholera is softening the wonder, then, at hearing that the coun. heart, but the universal cry throughout try is in a state of misery and confusion! England for abolishing the tithes, is also You have heard and read a great deal producing its most salutary effect. I about the FIRES ; and, you know what shall presently, in another part of this a kind intention this Whig Government Register, insert an article from a very had towards me with regard to those fires. excellent newspaper called the Brighton. It is these fires which have, in fact, proGuardian, giving an account of a lec- duced the whole of the apparently wonture delivered in the Isle of Wight upon derful changes which have taken place the necessity of abolishing tithes in Eng-within these fifteen months; and I will land. It was delivered on the 6th inst., tell you how they began. Take the map of on which very day I was, at nearly England, and you will see, in the northe three hundred miles distant from the eastern point of the county of Kent, &' Isle of Wigur, labouring in the same little circuit, called the Isle of THANET.
It is a spot of about ten miles in diame- monstrances were in vain. At last, it ter, pretty nearly as fat as a pancake, came to actual force ; and though the and in the month of August, covered all attacked party had hooks and knives, over with beautiful crops of corn of all these were of little avail against the bats, sorts, or with crops equally beautiful of which are green sticks four or five feet turnips, clover, sainfoin, lucern, or some long, the thickest end being about the other herbaceous or root crop. Now, size of your wrist, which is not a small mind, while our wise Government has one. The invaders were thus marched been proclaiming, in all sorts of ways, in bands to a bridge at one corner of the that the misery of the working people Island, on the Canterbury road, and arose from their excessive nunbers; were compelled to cross the bridge, with while Ricardo and Brougham and the an injunction not to return into the whole of the Scotch crew, have, in order Island on pain of the bat, of which seto prevent taxes from being repealed, veral of them had just had a taste by insisted that the misery of the working way of warning. people arose, not froin the weight of l'he invaders being driven out, the taxation, but from an over quantity of " Kentish boors," as Dr. Black called working people ; while the Government, them, returned to their work, and carled by the nose by the impudent and igno- ried through the harvest completely, at rant Scotchmen, have been proclaiming, the prices at which they began it. But, in all manner of' ways, that the working as is always the case, under similar cirpeople suffer only on account of their cumstances, one victory points out the excessive numbers; while this has been way to another. The same principle dinned in the ears of the working peo- which pointed out the necessity of drivple, they have seen, every year, thou-ing out the Irish invaders, pointed out sands upon thousands of Irishmen, sent the necessity of putting down thrashingover by the base and cruel SQUIREARCHY machines. Here also the proclamations of Ireland, to come here and wipe away of the Government applied; for, if the the cream of the English labourers sufferings of the working people arose year, by doing the harvest work at half- from their numbers being excessive in price; and by sleeping and feeding like proportion to the quantity of employhogs. In the month of July, 1830, just ment, the thrashing machines, which after the harvest hind begun in the Isle took away the labour from men, and OF Tuaner, several scores of these gave it to iron and tv horses, must be an wretched slaves poured into the Island, evil which ought to be abated. Thereand agreed to work at less than half- fore, upon precisely the same ground price, were lodged in barns by the farm-that the Kentish men had expelled the ers who agreed with them, and fed them Irish, they resolved upon expelling the upon potatoes. Instantly the English thrashing-machines in the Isle of Thalabourers received notice that they inust net; and as these were inanimate subwork at the price of the Irish. Feeling stances, the breaking of them to pieces the injustice of this, and having before was the readiest means of expulsion. them the proclamations of the Govern- To this end the men assembled in large ment, declaring thnt all their sufferings bodies, some carrying bats, and others had arisen from their excessive num- sledge-himmers and crow-bars. Those bers, and seeing no redress from any farmers who were wise, at once conother quarter, they took the giving of sented to the breaking: those who were the redress into their own hands. They not wise, locked their machines up in armed themselves with what they called barns, and applied for soldiers ‘o defend BATS; they went to the several barns, their premises; and those premises, where the poor Irish fellows were without, I believe, one single exception, snoozled in among the litier and rubbish, in the eastern part of Kent, were set on roused them up, and told them, that fire ; and the fails were once they must march out of the Islunil. The heard in the barns. The labourers had poor Irish fellows remonstrated, but re- now discovered that their wages also might be raised. In the Isle of Thanet, with very little indeed purloined from they reared a banner or standard, on the labourers in Lincolnshire. It is inwhich was inscribed: “WE WILL possible that the invasion should not NOT LIVE UPON POTATOES;” now be put an end to. You will partiwords as terrible to the present system cipate with me in feelings of sorrow for of taxing and tithing, as were to King the lot of these poor creatures from John and his satellites the words which Ireland, who have no poor-laws to prothe barons inscribed on their banner. tect them ; but you must also particiThe barons declared that the laws of pate with me in the joy which I feel, England should not be changed; and that the labourers of England are better the men of Kent declare that the food off than they were before. The Irish, of England shall not be changed.“ Meal thus penned up in their own island; and bread, or fire." seemed to be the thus prevented from coming to carry general resolution of the labourers in the away the cream from the English laeast of Kent. In the greater part of the bourer's milk-pan, will compel the landcases the employers gave way; they holders of that country to make just yielded to the dictates of self-preserva- provision for them, so that they may tion if not of justice. From the north- not starve amidst that great abundance east corner of Kent, the demands of the which has sprung up, and which is labourers spread swiftly over the whole always springing up, in their own fertile of ihat beautiful county, over Sussex, country, and under the labour of their and then over Hampshire, Wiltshire, own hands. There is no question that Berkshire, and across into the important this expulsion by the English labourers counties of Norfolk, Suffolk, and Essex, has had a great hand in producing that and into Cambridgeshire, Huntingdon- resistance of the payment of tithes, which shire, and Livcoloshire. The last har- is the first great step in the producing of vest has been comparatively little vi. measures (measures now actually prosited by invaders from Ireland, who have posed) which must legally put an end scarcely shown their faces in the south to the whole of this prodigious hierern counties; and, in Lincolnshire, archy, which is the main cause of the where the invasion was considerable, Corn Bill, and of numerous other evils troops of horse soldiers were employed that afflict the country. Manifold are to protect the poor creatures against the evils which have been produced by the bats of the natives, who, as the keeping the two countries in a state of newspapers told us, not only attacked half-haired of one another ; these evils the invaders in a most furious manner, will now cease ; for, never will the but who, in one instance, proceeded to English be prevailed on to think ill of do that to them which they knew to be the Irish, bucause they resist the parthe most effectual way of preventing ment of those tithes, which the English them from being instrumental in adding themselves are so impatient to be freed t) the evils which the Government and from. Peter Thimble (who is their great guide
The fires of which you have read, as in these matters) had ascribed to a “sur- having taken place in the last fall and plus population !" You will be glad to this winter, are from the lowering of learn, that this was, however, a neuspa- wages. The formidable attitude of the per lie; and that Englishmen were in- chopsticks, and the numerous fires capable of such barbarity, though goaded blazing at the same time, induced the on by provocation to a greater extent farmers to promise to keep up the wages than human beings had ever before ex-i in future, so that the working people perienced. Notwithstanding the troops might have meat and bread. lu mioy of horse, the invasion was, in fact, ren- instances the parsons agreed to lower dered useless to the farmers, who em- their tithes in proportion to the rise in ployed the invaders, who had to re'urn the wages of the chopsticks. But imaback to their Squires with very little gining, I suppose, that the terrible hang. Lincolnshire money in their pockets; ings and transportings had so terrified
the labourers as to make them again of the parish; that is to say, for the submit to a potato-diet, the farmers benefit of the rich: they want their due in many instances reduced the wages to share of the produce of the good lands; a potato standard ; and whereve: new and this scheme whenever it shall befires have blazed, this appears to have come talked of amongst them, will been the case. To talk therefore of only make them see the more clearly want of «ducutiim amongst the labour-that they do not possess that which ers, to talk of their having been se- they ought to possess. Here lies the duced by cheapi publicatiims, argues great difficulty of the THING! By a degree of ignorance equal to that jails, by treadmills, by troops : by which dictated a board of commission- means of one sort and another, the ers to get rid of the people at the very ruing could get over every other diffitime when there were not enough of cultv, as long as it remained at peace them to get in the burvest ! Just as if with other nations ; for people assemcheap publications or dear publications bled in masses of scores of thousands, were wanting to coovince men that they the ruing need not, and it does not, were entitled to some little portion of care a straw. As far as public opinion the meat and of the bread, the whole goes, while that is allowed to have any of which had been produced by their weight, great masses are formidable to own labours !
but when we come to I have the pleasure to tell you, that something beyond that, the great masses the labourers in the east, and in the are nothing: The chopsticks are every south, and in the west, are a great deal where; without them there is no such better off than they were in the year thing as fvoil, raiment, or property; 1830; and that it is my opinion, that against universal discontent and hatred the thing will go on (Retorin Bill or no) in them there is no defence, and no proReform Bill) till they again have their tection. They are as prevalent as the due share of the pro:luce of the land. air, anıt as darkness and light. There It is curious to observe the many won is this circumstance belonging to them, derful effects produced by that memora- that they are ac:uated by no caprices ; ble strife, which, as I have stated, began they are rendered discontented by no in the Isle of 'Thanet. It is surprising imaginary wants. In the language of how solicitous the landd-holders have Scripture, they say, “ Give us food and hecome to provide for the well-being raiment convenient for us.” If they of the labourers. Amongst other cu- have these, no persuasion will urge them rious instances of this, is a bill, now to deeds which bespeak discontent: if actually before the House of Lords, for they have them not, in England, nothing making allotments of land to the chopo will make them contented. How often, sticks; and thus hushing them into con- good God! have I warned the Governtent. You have heard in England, and ment against proceeding upon the beI dare say you hear your own wife now, lief, that Englishmen would lie down singing to the children in the cradle : and starve quietly! I warned the Duke Hushy, baby bunting!
of Wellington, upon his coming into Daddy's gone a hunting,
office as prime minister, to adopt meaTo get a liitle rabbit's.skin, sures to prevent things from coming To wrap baby up in !
to that state in which the labourer should I never see any of these projects find himself redaced to the choice of without thinking of this lullaby of the hanging or starving; for that, if things nursery. Ah! my good lords! it is were brought to that pitch, if the lanot that, that the chopsticks want! bourers once had the choice of hanging, They want to see the sinall farms that or certainty of starving, Englishmen they formerly saw: they do not want had shown, in all ages, that they pre- . to be set on to waste the marrow ferred the former to the latter. And, we of their bones, to break up poor lands, ' recollect well, that the newspapers told and to make them good for the benefit us, that the bands of chopsticks, going
to those who were at work in the fields, | This philosopher has lately put forth a put this question to them : “ Which sort of manual, to be the guide of his “ do you choose, to be hanged, or to be Majesty's profound Ministers. It would “ starved to death ?” The answer always be tedious to describe to you, in detail, was,
“ To be hanged.” Well, then, the contents of this very elaborate publicome along with us." Such and socation; but the substance I will state, strictly have my predictions been veri- because it will not only amuse you, but fied with regard to this inatter. will enable you to judge of the minds
However, I have, as I said before, of those of whom this Squire THIMBLE the very great pleasure to tell you, that is the guide. The Squire (of whom, byI now see reason to hope, that this the-by, you saw a good one in my cogreat source of trouble is likely to come medy of the surplus population) says to an end; that the land-owners are that which amounts to what is expressed convinced that the people of England in the following propositions :are not to be reduced to potatoes; and that they are disposed to adopt measures 1. That the people of this country are, of justice towards those, without whose in their sexual propensities, like hard labour their estates would not be the stock upon a farm, taking for worth a straw, while they themselves instance, the swine. would be helpless and ariserable crea- 2. That, if left to themselves, they tures, Be assured, however, that all would increase in the same manner their attempts will fail, until the taxes that swine would increase, if sufbe su reduced, as to make this go- fered (according to the American vernment as cheap as that under which phrase) to remain unaltered; that you have the happiness to live.
the increase of their numbers would This letter contains a great deal of not be so rapid as the increase of matter, very interesting to Englishmen swine, because the females have who are in the United States ; I there- generaliy but one at a time, and fore request you, if you can, to have it that only once a year, while swine republished in some newspaper of New bring from seven to fourteen, and York; and if you cannot do that, to bring them twice in the year. have a small edition of it published in a 3. That, nevertheless, the increase of cheap pamphlet, by that excellently the people would be so great, that, good man, Mr. Doyle, of New York; in about five-and-twenty years, and if he do not sell enough to cover there would not be room for them the expenses and to pay himself for his to stand upon the Island bolt up: trouble, I beg you to pay the balance on right. my account, and to add it to the amount 4. That the labourers in agriculture, who of the coRN. Ask Mr. Doyle to get for breed so fast and who rear up their me Ramsy's History of the American
young ones with so much care, and Revolutionary War : also the American whose young ones are so strong Kalendar for the present year or the last and vigorous, are the present great year,: also the newest edition of the source of danger to the country; American Tariff; and you will please to and especially since they have taken send them to me by the way of Liver- it into their lieads not to live upon pool; for, in this case, we have nothing potatoes and other refuse of the to do with Liverpool mariners.
ground. Upon looking over my letter I perceive 5. That, if they be suffered to feed upon that I have forgotten one thing, which meat and bread, there will be not a it was my intention to mention to you. sufficiency of food for the nobility, We have here a great political philoso- gentry, clergy, lawyers and doctors, pher, wbose name is THIMBI.E, and who pensioners, sinecure-people, retired really is the great pivot upon which the allowance-people, half-pay of army piesent Ministry turns.
and navy, and soldiers, and fundname,” as the Scotch call it, is Peter. holders.