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Powers and the King of the Belgians, which police of the kingdom, in the more effectual
I always said that we should have a
Bourbon GENDARMERIE; and now I period is not distant when that Sovereign will see the necessity of acceding to an arrauge - about it, however ; it cannot last long,
suppose we shall have it. I care nothing ment in which the plenipoteuliaries of the five and while it does last, it will be a curious Powers have unanimously concurred, and which bave been frained with the most care
spectacle for political philosophy to ex
ercise itself upon. ful and impartial attention to all the interests concerned. I have the satisfaction to inform Sincerely attached to our free coustitution, you that I have concluded with the King of I never can sanction any interference with the French a convention, which I have di- the legitimate exercise of those rights which rected to be laid before you, the object of secure to my people the privilege of discussing which is the effectual suppression of the and making known their grievances ; but in African slave trade; this convention, having respecting these rights, it is also my duty to for its basis the concession of reciprocal rights prevent combinations, under whatever pretext, to be mutually exercised in specified latitudes which in their form and character are incomand places, will, I trust, enable the naval patible with all regular government, and are forces of the two countries to acconsplish, by equally opposed to the spirit and to the provitheir combined efforts, an object which is felt sions of the law; and I kuow that I shall not by both to be so important to the interests of appeal in vain to my faithful subjects to second humanity.
my determined resolution to repress all ülegal Regarding the state of Europe generally, proceedings hy which the peace and security of the friendly assurances which I receive from my dominions may be endangered. Foreign Powers, and the union which subsists
This is what the French call a'bonne between me and my Allies, inspire me with a confident hope that peace will not be iuter- morsel' kept for the last. However, I
bouche ; that is to say, a sweet little rupted. These are matters of no importance to prevent or avert organization for
must say, that if the Ministers only mean to us, except the slave-trade affair, arming, I think, too, that that is inconwhich will only make the merchants sistent with any-thing worthy of the and planters of France hate Louis- name of Government; but, then, I inPhilippe and his Ministers, and that is a clude all volunteer armings; for, to good thing
suffer the rich to make a display of arms Gentlemen of the House of Commons, against the working people, is not only I have directed the estimates for the ensu. a villanous thing in itself, not only odiing year to be prepared, and they will in due ous and detestable in its very nature, time be laid before you. I will take care that but is SURE to produce a total shifting they shall be framed with the strictest regard of property from hand to hand; a total to economy, and I trust to your wisdom and breaking up of the community, preceded patriotism to make such provisions as may be by bloodshed, and followed by sufferings required for the public service.
which no tongue can describe : but this My Lords and Gentlemen,
is a large subject, which I shall treat of The scenes of violence and outrage which hereafter. In the meantime, I express have occurred in the city of Bristol, and in my decided dissent from what is consome other places, have caused me the deepest tained in General Cockburn's letter to affliction. The authority of the laws must be Lord Grey, and from all those who talk vindicated by the punishment of offences about National GUARD, and who ap, which have produced so extensive a destruc- parently forget what that National tion of property, and so melancholy a loss of Guard was which drove the Prussians life. I think it right to direct your attention out of France, and brought so many to the best means of improving the municipal haughty despots upon their knees. The
present National Guard in France is un James May is a more athletic man, of wiry worthy of the name; it ought to be make, and firm determined countenauce. He
was dressed in a fustian jacket with a yellow called the Fundholder Guard ; and we handkerchief, and appeared to his arraigument shall see, by-and-by, how these pot- with a rather compressed lip and stern couabellied fellows will run to corners when tenance. once the real National Guard shall make
The appearance of the prisoners as they were
called up amongst a batch of other prisoners, its appearance.
showed no emotion which could indicate that they were charged with a more heinous offence than the pickpockets and housebreakers
around them. TRIAL
The Court was by this time nearly filled
with fashionably-dressed persons, particularly of the monsters, wbo murdered a boy females.
The counsel engaged for the prosecution in order to sell his body to those who
were, Messrs. Adolphus, Clarkson, and Boddeal in dead bodies to cut up.
kin ; for the prisoners, Messrs. Curwood and
The iudictment charged that they, John TRIAL OF JOHN BISHOP, THOMAS being malicious and evil-disposed persons, and
Bishop, Thumas Williams, and James May, WILLIAMS, AND JAMES MAY, FOR THE MURDER OF THE ITÁLIAN uut having the fear of God before their eyes,
but being under the instigation of the devil, BOY.
did, on the 4th of November last, in and upon At an early hour on Friday morning the the body of Charles Ferrari, otherwise called courts of the Old Bailey were almost in a Carlo Ferrari, in the parish of St. Matthew, state of sieze. Every approach to it was 50 Bethnal-green, feloniously and maliciously, crowded as to render the effecting an entrance and of malice aforethought, commit an asby those wbo bad business a matter of con- sault; and that they with a certain wooden siderable difficulty at half-past seven o'clock. staff of po value, there the said Charles Ferrari, The galleries, it was stated by the officers of otherwise Carlo Ferrari, did strike and beat on the Court, had been completely taken over the back of the deck, and that they did by night by members of the nobility, and a guinea such sıriking and beating, feloniously, wilfor a seat was said to have been repeatedly fully, and maliciously, give to the said Carlo refused. Mr. C. Phillips was expected to have Ferrari divers wounds and coutusious, of conducted the defence, but having cases in the which wouuds and contusions the said Carlo other Court, we understand that he declined, Ferrari then and there did die. They were in cousequence of this eriai being likely to also indicted for another murder of a male occupy the Court till ten o'clock at mght person, whose name was unknown. Thirty-one witnesses were suhpoenaed for the The clerk of the arraigos then asked, “John prosecution, and twenty-two for the defence. Bishor, are you guilty or not guilty?" Bishup The whole of these parties were in attendance answered, without any emotion, “Not guilty,'' at eight o'clock, and con:lucied to a private as did also the others. room. One person, named Mortimer, who The prisoners were then told, that if they was to be a witness for the prosecution, cat his ubjected to any of tbe jurymen, they must do throat, and now lies in a very dangerous state: su before they were sworn. The vames of the
At ten o'clock Lord Chief Justice Tindal jurymen were then called over, and none of (who came expressly to try this case), Mr. them ohjected to. Barun Vaughan, and Mr. Justice Littledale, At a few minutes after ten the Lord Chief entered the Court, with the Lord Mayor apol Justice of the Common Pleas entered the Sheriffs. The bench was instantly crowded Court with Mr. Baron Vaughan and Mr. with nobility and geotry, among whom we Justice Littledale.
were then perceived his Royal Highness the Duke of charged, and Mr. Boukin openied the pleadSussex. The prisoners then being again placed ings for the prosecutiun. at the bar, the Jury were charged with them. Mr. Adolphus, in detailing the circum
John Bishop was dressed in a smock-frock, stances, said the jury could not but be aware and presented nearly the same appearance as that this was a case of great importance, from an agricultural latourer, except that his ex- what had taken place for many days past; he pression of countenauce, if we may so express was aware that no person could be unit, was more tiuged with inetropolitan cuu- acquainted with the foul crime with wbich ping.
the prisoners were charged, but he implored Thomas Williams was dressed in a fustian the jury to remove from their minds all that jacket, with a brown haudkerchief. He is they had previously heard respecting it, and rather a simpie-looking man, under the to deliver the prisoners as they would deliver middle size, and of extremely inoffensive ap- their cousciences; and he hoped they would pearance. He seemed to be as litle affected not allow their minds to be biassed by what as any of the spectators.
they had heard or read out of di o.s. He ub
served that in this case no revenge, none of the declined that and left them. He returned in usual incentives to commit crime, had influ. about a quarter of an hour or twenty miuutes. enced the unhappy prisoners in committing The meu remained. Mr. Maybew had in the the murder, if it should appear they did com interim got a body of police and apprehended mit that offence. It was solely a desire to them. Wheo witness' was leaving the room possess themselves of a dead body, in order to Bishop said to bim privately, “Pay me in dispose of it to the surgeons.
presence of Williams only eight guineas, and Wm. Hill examined by Mr. Clarkson-He give me privately the other guinea, and I will stated that he was a porter at the dissecting. give you half-a-crown." The body was taken room of King's College; on the 5th of No- to the police-office by Mr. Thomas ; it bad vember last the bell of the gate rang at about not heen laid out, as there was no saw-dust on a quarter past twelve o'clock; found Bishop the back of the head. and May at the gate. Had known them be Cross-examined by Mr. Curwood-Williams fore. When wituess opeued 'the door, May did not appear, and these conversations were asked him if he wanted any thing; wituess in the presence of May and Bishop alone. said, Not particularly. Asked bim what he had By Mr. Clarkson—The conversation about got. He said a male subject. Witness asked the 501. note was before Williams. of what size, and what price. He said it was Mr. Richard Partridge, demonstrator of a boy of 14, and that he wanteil 12 guineas for anatomy at the King's College, was there on it. Witness said he did not want it inuch, but Saturday, the 5th of Nov. His attention was he would see Mr. Partridge, the demonstrator, first called to the body hy Hill. Examined tbe who came down to see the body. Witness took external appearance of the body, aud found them to the room appropriated to them, and some marks and circumstances of suspiciou. Mr. Partridge joined them. They did not tben These were the swollen state of the jaw-tbe produce any body. There was a differeuce at blood-shot eyes—the freshness of the body first about the price, but witness afterwards rigidity of the limbs. There was likewise a cut agreed with them. May said they should have over the left temple. Looked at the lips, it for ten guineas. Mr. Partridge then left which were swollen. Noticed Dothing else in witness aloue with them. Wituess went to the appearance of the body. Witness went to Mr. Partridge to kvow whether he would the police before the 501. note was produced. decide upon having it. When witness re. On bis return witness showed May and Bishop turned, he told then that Mr. Partridge would a note, at the bottom of the stairs leading to give them nine guineas for it. May said he the anatomical part of the college. Proposed would be d-d if it should come in for less that change should be got of the 501. note, with than ten; he was tipsy at the time. May a view to detain them till the police came. Saw went outside the door. Bishop they said to the boily afterwards, when in the custody of witness, “ Never miud May, lie is druuk; it Mr. Thomas, in company with Mr. Beaman shall come in for nine, in half an hour." May and other gentlemen. The muscles were then was Dear enough to hear him. They then rigid. The wouud on the temple was super went away, and returned in the afternoon, all ficial, and did not injure the bone. That was three together, with the purter Shields, who the only appearance of external injury; at least has been discharged. When witness saw them there was no other external mark. 'Between the bamper was on the head of the porter. the scalp and the bone there was some blood They were received in a room, and May and congealed. On opening the body the whole of Bishop took the bamper into another roon, the contents of the chest and abdomen were in where they opened it; the body was in a sack; a healthy condition. Did not know what were May and Bishop said that it was a very fresh the contents of the stomach, which was filled. one; May was tipsy, and turned the body The spinal part of the brain at the back of the carelessly from the sack; saw that the body head and the whole brain were also examined; was fresh; but saw something else about it the brain was perfectly healthy as far back as which induceil him to go to Mr. Partridge; the spine ; in cutting through the skin and he asked them what the body had died of muscles of the neck there was discovered a May said that that was no business of theirs great deal of coagulated blood, and upun re or of witness's; it was nut in such a form as moving the back part of the bony canal which bodies usually are when taken from a cuffin ; | concludes the spine of the back, a quantity of the left arm was bent, and the fingers were cougealed blood was also found in that; tbas clenched; witness told Mr. Partridge what he was opposite the place where the blood had had seen, and what he thought'; Mr. P. been found in the muscles of the neck; uu. returned and saw the burly, without seeing congealed blood was also found in the rest of them; he examined the body, and went to the the spine; the spinal marrow or cord apsecretary. He returned to May and Bishop, peared perfectly healthy; thought that those and showed them a 501. nute, telling them marks of violence were sufficient to have that be must get that changed and he would caused death. That violence had been exerted pay them. Bishop, seeing that Mr. Partridge which had affected the spinal
cord. Believed had some gold in his purse, said, “ Give me that those appearances bad been caused by what money you have in your purse, avd I, some violence on the back of the neck. Bewill call for the rest on Monday." May also lieved that a blow from a stick would have offered to get change for it, bus Mr. Purtridge produced similar effects. Could not say whe
ther that would produce instant death, but to examine the spinal marrow, a quantity of it certainly would have produced a rapid one. coagulated blood was lying in the canal,
Cross-examined-Saw nothing in the ex- which, by pressure in the spinal marrow, must fernal appearance that indicated a violent have caused death. There was no injury to death. Spoke from belief, which was more the bone of the spine. All these appearances, than suspicion. Did not think that any other and the death, would have followed the blow of applications of force tban a blow would have an obtuse instrument of any kind. The chest produced those appearances. A fall would have and the cavity were minutely examined. There been a blow. Thought that it could not have was about an ounce of blood in the spinal been caused by a violent pressure of the knee canal. The heart was empty, which is very or band.
unusual, and denoted sudden death ; meant Re-examined by Mr. Bodkin—The beart was nearly instantaneous death, in two or three empty and the face flush.
minutes, and not longer. The stomach conBy the Court_These appearances indicated tained a tolerably full meal, which smelt that a person had died rather suddenly, and in slightly of rum, and digestion was going on many cases, of a natural death.
at the time of death. Should think that death Mr. G. Beaman (hy Mr. Adolphus), Sur- occurred about three hours after the meal, geon, of James-street, Covent-garden-First from the appearances. Removed the stomach. saw the body on the 5th of November, at 12 The centre of the stomach appeared perfectly o'clock at night. Examined it carefully. It healthy. Ascribed the death of the boy to a appeared to bave died very recently. The wea- blow on the back of the neck, from the whole ther was then favourable to the preservation of of his examination, and verified by precisely bodies. By his judgment the body had not the same appearances as witness had seen on been dead more that 36 hours. The face ap animals. peared swollen ; the eyes full, prominent, and Cross-examined by Mr. Barry-Did not blood-shot; the tongue swollen, and protruded think the body was dirty; did not cleanse any between the lips; the teeth had all been ex other part than the back of the neck ; if a tracted; the gums bruised and bloody, and stick or beavy staff had been used on the back portious of the jaws bad been broken out of the neck, it would have left some mark or with the teeth. There were also appearances external contusion, unless the boy had lived of blood having issued from the gums. Thought some time; believed that the emptiness of the that the teeth must have been taken out heart and the flush state of the face might wiibin two or three hours after death. Exa- have appeared after a natural death; bad mised the throat, neck, and chest, very particu- never before seen the heart empty after death. larly ; no marks of violence externally apparent No blow on the top of the head could have there. Saw a cut on the forehead; it was a from any accident, such as from the fall of wouod over the left eyebrow, abont three timber or a stone, produced those appearances. quarters of an inch long, through the skin to If a person bad fallen in apoplexy hy accident the bone. Pressed the part, and a small quan on the ground, he thought it was hardly poslity of blood oozed froin the wound. Blood sible to have caused such appearances, except might have issued from the wound if the latter the person fell on some projecting substance. bad been caused by throwing the body out of a Could not swear to two or three hours, in sack after death. It was serum, tinged with speaking of the time the teeth had been reblood. Saw the body again at two o'clock on moved. Could not positively swear that they, the Sunday afternoon. The limbs were de- had been removed within 12 hours. cidedly still on the Saturday night, but not Re-examined by Mr. Adolphus-According 50 stiff on the Sunday ; should think that it to the best of his judgment they must have had not been laid out. It was lying on a board heen taken out within three or four hours. irregularly placed when witness first saw it Had seen po marks on the brain that would in Covent-garden church-yard, Dear the station indicate apoplexy. There was nothing to inbouse. Soon after eight on that evening, dicate a predisposition to apoplexy. Persons witness with Mr. Partridge and other gentlemen have died of apoplexy without marks on the further examined it. He cleapsed with a sponge brain. If the subject had died within a few the neck and chest ; found no scratch or any minutes there would have been no external otber mark of violence there. He tben removed mark, and there was no mark in this case. the scalp, with the top of the skull. They The foregoing testimony was corroborated by detected a patch of blood, of the size of a P. 'Tyrrel, Esq., one of the surgeons to St. erown-piece. This appearance must have been Thomas's Hospital, John Earl Rogers, an in caused by a blow given duriug life. The braiu spector of police, spoke to the identity of the was next examined, and its appearance was body; and John Wilson, a policeman, de-, perfectly healthy; the body was then turned, scribed the apprehension of the prisoners. for the purpose of examining the spinal mar Joseph Sadler Thomas, the superinteodent row, and on removiog the skin from the back of police-Ou the 5th of November received part of the neck a considerable quantity of information at the station-house which induced @agulated blood (wiress thought at least four him to dispatch a party of police to the King's ources) was found among the muscles: that College. Ibey brought back with them Bishop blood must have been effused while the subject and Spields, anda:t:rwards May aud Williams. was alive. Ou removing a portion of the spice Shields has been ci charged. When the body
was in the hamper witness asked May what be all right then." They say witness there is bad to say, as he was charged on suspicion of the corner at the time. May sat down, and having improper possession of a subject. He had a handkerchief rubbing in his band. Wilsaid that he had nothing at all 10 do with it. liams came in, and Bishop said, “There he It was the property of Bishop, whom he merely is; I knew he would come; I knew he was a accompanied to get the money. Bi-hop said game un'.” Bishop seemed to have been that it was his, avd that he was merely taking drinking, Bishop and Williaros went out first. it from St. Thomas's Hospital to King's Col. Just after Bishop came in, he said to May, lege. Asked Bishop in the first instauce what just before May went out for the bandkerchief, he was; he replied that he was “a b You stick to me, and I'll stick to you." body snatcher." Williams said he knew no James Seagrave, che driver of a cabriolet, thing of it, but merely went to see the King's stated, that on the evening of the 4th be was College. Bishop and May appeared in liquor. on the stand in the Old Bailey; had put bis May was brought in by all fours, struggling borses' nose-bags on, and had gone to the violently. The body was placed on the table. watering-house to get his own tea. May and It appeared to bave recently died; blood was Bishop came in at the time. May asked if he trickling from the mouth, and the teeth were wanted a job, and said that he wanted a cab. gone. Went to the house of Mr. Mills, New-He led wituess by the skirt of his coat to the jogton-causeway on the following Tuesday ; side of a cart. May said he wanted witness to received from him 12 teeth. (Witness here fetch a stiif uu', which witness believes meaut produced the teeth in a paste board box.) Went a dead body. Witness asked him wbat be before that to Nova Scotia-gardens. Weut to would stand. He replied, “A guiaea.' No. 3 there. Found in the back room of the Tuli him that he had not finished his tea, and ground floor a trunk (producer). Went again the horse had not eaten his corn. May thea on the 20th and made further examinations. said, “We will take tea together.” Bishop Found in the froot parlour a bairy cap covered iben joined them, and they went into the with dirty linen, not apparently by design. house to tea. A person in the room budged Took possession of the cap, che hamper, and witness's elbow, and told him that he must the sack. (All these articles were produced. miud what he was at, as they were soatchers. The hamper appeared not more than three feet went out afterwards and drove to the bottom long by two broad and two deep.)
of the rank to get out of their way; looked. Hen. Luck, waiter at the Fortune-of-War, round and saw day and Bisbop going up knew the prisoners. Saw the prisoners there the rank of coaches. Lest them appareutiy on the Friday, with a man who was a stranger bargaining with a coachman. to witness. They stayed till twelve o'clock, Cross-examined by Mr. Barry-Koew that and then went away. The prisoners returned it was on Friday, because he was summoned og about three o'clock, without the strange man. that day to Essex-street. They then stayed till about five o'clock, and Re-examined-All the conversation was went away again till about eight o'clock ou when witness and May were alone. the same evening with another man, who ap. Tbus. Taverner, waterman to the coachpeared to be a coacbman. The latter bad stand, saw on the above day May and Bishop, something to drink, aud left them. They were who came to hiin on the stand and asked hiin until vine o'clock in the tap-room ; before the where the cab-man was, meaning Seagrave. coachman left, one of the prisoners said he May asked the question, and wituess told him had had a ride ; at nine o'clock May went to that he was geling his tea. Fetched out the bar, and had something in a silk hand. Seagrave from the watering-house. Both the kercbiel, which wituess asterwards saw to be prisoners had smock-frocks on. It was just the teeth ; May poured water on the outside of dark in the eveving. Seagrave came out and the handkerchief, and rubbed the bandker-spoke to him, but wirdess did not koow what chief together; they looked like young terth, it was. Seagrave, however, said, “I'll have and witness said that they were worth a few nothing at all to do with you," and weut in to shillings, when May said that they were worth get his tea. two pounds to him; they all left together a Edward Chandler - Was on the 4th of Noshort time afterwards ; on the vext evening he vember last waiter at the King-of-Denmark, saw Bishop, Willians, and Shields, at about in the Old Bailey, which is the watering-bouse. eight o'clock ; Bishop asked Williams wbal Served Bishop and May with tea at about five they sbould do for a hamper, and asked Shields o'clock. Saw Seagrave ebere ; May and Bito go and fetch one ; Shields refused, and shop had half a pius of gin. Saw May put Bishop then went and got oue bimself, some giu into Bishop's tea. He said, “ Are
Thomas Wigley-Was at the above house you going to hocus (or burk) me?" Had at about half-past seven o'clock on the 4th of knowu May aud Bishop before. November. Bishop aud May came in and sat Cross-examined by Mr. Barry--Could not down opposite each other. They entered into say whether Seagrave had part of the gin or conversation together. Bishop said to May, uut. " What do you tbink of our new one? Did Heury Mann, a backuey-coachman-Was, he not go up to him well? Wasu't he a on the 4th, on the staud ju Bridge-street, game un'?" . May replied, “I dou't know Blackfriars. Knew May before then. Saw what you mean." Bishop rejoined, " That's him that night with a strauger to witness.