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THE most important circumstance of the present year was, the entire liberation of the territory of France from the chains under which it had been hitherto held by the occupation of a large part of its domains by the great Powers who had taken possession of it. In November 1818, these sovereigns, having now completed the three years during which France had been considered as in a foreign possession, entered into a resolution of withdrawing their respective forces from the common territory, and leaving it entirely and absolutely free. This state of affairs was fully made known to France, by the change which in the ensuing month took place, announcing an entire alteration of the ministry, in consequence of a royal nomination.

The state of Spain appears to have undergone a process of deterioration, in which the financial system has been gradually more and more involved, so that it has at length sunk into almost total ruin. Among other projects, that of establishing ports of deposit, as a means of commercial encouragement, has been thought of; in the mean time the fluctuation of ministers has kept pace with the other plans of misgovernment.

In the kingdom of Portugal, the territory of Montevideo still remains attached to the national dominion. The king, who is at present at Rio Janeiro, whence there is no prospect of his return to Portugal, has published a royal alvara, or

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the session of the States-General which

is on the 19th of October, gave, upon the So wery view of the state of that united govern.. vk als er in a speech delivered by his Majesty.

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de Santom of Sweden, which was deprived of its inich vu the 5th of February 1818, to whom a new Waitist succeeded under the name of Charles John, recogmniech both by its own people, and by the kings of Europe, We unde au dressed on the 31st of July, at the Castle of Stockhein, by a speech in which the new king expressed himself :18 well pleased with the general state of affairs.

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The affairs of Germany, considered in the mass, appear to have undergone but little change during the last year. The prime movers have seemed to keep back from any direct alteration; and future events are still to be looked up to for the decision of matters of importance. We have been told that a very severe ordinance has lately been issued at Milan by the Austrian government, which has directed that no book shall appear without the permission of the Censure, who must even appoint a special commission to reprint books already published in the Austrian monarchy. We are also informed that in Germany itself considerable dissentions are taking place between the students of several universities, and those who consider themselves as their directors ; and that in several places the number of students has been reduced to a small proportion. What will be the final result of these quarrels, time alone must determine.


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Two of the most remarkable documents will be found
relating to North America, and to the English govern-
ments in the East Indies. The first gives a particular
account of the war with the Seminole Indians, and of the
discussions in which the American government was engaged
with respect to Spain. The President, Mr. Monroe, informs
the Senate and House of Representatives, of all that has
occurred since the American General Jackson entered Flo-
rida in pursuit of the Seminoles; and he takes into his consi-
deration the civil war, in which the Government of Buenos-
Ayres has long been conflicting with the court of Spain ;
which, on its part, has never yet agreed to a pacific
arrangement. Many other subjects have been touched upon
in this paper, which, upon the whole, will be found to be well
worthy of a perusal.

The East Indian governments, which began with a severe
attack, on the part of the native powers, upon the English
territories, were at length completely overmatched by a
number of able commanders, who drove them from post to
post, and finished with their entire subjugation. The mode
by which this was effected, has afforded a series of narrative
which, it is presumed, will be thought peculiarly interesting.

Her Majesty, the Queen of England, after a long and
severe illness, which she underwent with great resignation,
was finally removed from this world on the 17th of November,


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