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not distinguish its southern or the whole of the country around western declivity. Mr. Escolar as- it which forms its base, were pro. sured me they are similar to, duced by that inmense crater callthough more rapid than, the side by ed Las Canales, the shape and magwhich we ascended : from this side nitude of which I have before taken flowed the basaltic lavas of 1704 police of when traversing the puand of the last eruption in 1797 : mice plains; it it also well worthy this latter stream of lava flowed in of remark that there is no volcano a remarkably slow currept, for not in action at all to be compared in withstanding the sharp descent of size of crater to those that are exthe mountain, and the length of tinct. The ancient crater of Vethe lava not exceeding three miles, suvius is considerably larger than several days elapsed before it reach the present, and those in the vicied the spot where it stopped; how nity of Naples, the eruptions of little fluid this lava must have been which probably created that district is evident, when it is remembered of Italy, are of enormous extent. that the lava of Vesuvius in 1794, The crater of the Camaldoli is which destroyed Torre del Greco, somewhat more than two leagues reached the sea from the bottom of in circumference, and the superfi. the cone, a distance of eight miles, cies of the Cauales is estimated at in little more than six hours. M. 12 square leagues. These vast Escolar further told me that there craters were probably capable of is on this south-western side of the ejecting from their bosom those Peak an ancient lava, at present not stupendous beds of lava, which beat all decomposed, of several miles ing so much more extensive than in length, and in a perfect state of any that have flowed from more vitrification : the whole of this recent eruptions, have led some perstream has the appearance of obsie sons to deny the former to be the dian. All these lavas appear to effects of a central fire. That all have fowed from the bottom of the the Island of Teneriffe was volcacone, and to have run from its base pically produced no man who exin the same manner as that of Vee amines it can have any doubt, and suvius in 1794, the crater of which though the smallness of the exist. vomited out ash and pumice, and ing crater of the Peak may lead one large pieces of rock, while the cur- to imagine that it alone could not rent of lava issued from its side. be the effective cause of all the It is not however improbable that phænomena, yet the innumerable the cone itself is of anterior forma. volcanoes op all sides of the island, tion to this vitrified Java, as the the appearance of Las Canales, and summit of the Peak is similar to its elevation, are able to account for the lava of the Mal Pais, and that the extent of the streams and beds being porphyritic is considered as of lava, and of the deposits of tufa of more ancient date than the one and pumice, of wbich the island is above-inentioned, which is basaltic. composed. Having no data to

If one might bazard a conjecture proceed upon but wbat is given by upon a subject where the data are the measurement of the eye, it is so few, I should be inclined to sus- not easy to determine the magoipect that the Peak itself, as well as tude of the cone at its base; one


may say at a venture, it is about created no small uneasiness in the three miles in circumference, lungs. The respiration became though towards the S. S. W. the short and quick, and repeated balts descent is much more abrupt, and were found necessary. The idea the plain from which the cone also of extreme height was to me springs not perceptible. The view more determinate and precise than from the summit is stupendous: we on the mountains of Switzerland; could plaioly discover tbe whole and though the immediate objects form of the island, and we made of vision were not so numerous, out distinctly three or four of yet as the ascent is more rapid, the the islands, wbich together are declivity sharper, and there is here called the Canaries; we could not no mountain like Mount Blanc however see Lancerotte or Foerte- towering above you, the 12,000 ventura, though we were told that feet above the level of the sea apother travellers had distinguished peared considerably more than a them all.

similar elevation above the lake of From this spot the central chain Geneva. We reinained at the of mountains that runs from south- summit about three quarters of an west to north-east is easily to be hour: our ascent had cost us a ladistinguished. These, with the suc- bour of four hours, as we left the cession of fertile and woody vallies, Estancia at ten minutes before commenciog from San Ursula and three, and reached the top of the ending at Las Horcas, with the long peak before seven; many indeed line of precipitous lava rocks that of our halts were needless, and lay on the right of our ascent, and M. Escolar told me that he had which traverse that part of the twice ascended to the summit in island, running from east to west somewhat less than three hours. from their point of departure at Our thermometer, which was gra. the Canales to where they end in duated to the scale of Fabrenheit, an abrupt headland on the coast, was during our ascent as follows: with their forests and villages and at Orotaya, at eight in the morn. vineyards, the port with the ship- ing, 74o; at six in the evening, at ping in the roads, the towers of La Estancia, 50°; at one in the fol. Orotava with their spires glittering lowing morning 42°; at La Cueva, as the morning sun burst upon at half past four 32°; at the botthem, afforded a cheerful contrast tom of the cone 360; at the top of to the streams of lava, the mounds the Peak, one hour and a half after of ash and pumice, and the sul. sun-rise, 389. The descent down phurated rock on which we had the code is difficult from its extaken our seat. The sensation of treme rapidity, and from the fall extréine height was in fact one of of large stones which loosen themthe most extraordinary I ever felt; selves from the beds of pumice, and though I did not find the pain Having at last scrambled to the in my chest arising from the rarity bottom, we pursued our march of the atmosphere, near so acute as down the other course of the lava, on the mountains of Switzerland, that is to say down its westerly yet there was a keenness in the side, having ascended its eastern. air, independent of the cold, that The ravines and rents in this


stream of lava are deeper and more and the texture porphyritic; the formidable ; the descent into them colour brown like that of the other was always painful and trouble- branch ; it is but slightly cellular, some, often dangerous : in some and contains no extraneous subplaces we let ourselves down from stances. rock to rock. I can form no upi. We descended the pumice bill nion why there should be these with great rapidity almost at a run, strange irregularities in the surface and arrived at La Estancia in little of this lava; in places it resembles more than two hours. We then what sailors term the trough of the mounted our mules, and following sea, and I can compare it to no- the track by which we had ascendthing but as if the sea in a storm ed the preceding day, we reached had by some force become on a about four o'clock the country sudden stationary, the waves re- house of our hospitable friend Mr. taing their swell. As we again Barry. approached La Cueva there is a The difficulties of this entersingular steep valley, the depth of prise bave been much exaggerated : which from its two walls cannot be the ascent on foot is not a labour less than 100 to 150 feet, the Java of more than four hours at most, Jying in broken ridges one upon the and the whole undertaking not to other, similar to the masses of gra- be compared in point of fatigue to nite rock that time and decay have what the traveller undergoes who tumbled down from the top of the visits the Alps. That the ascent Alps; and, except from the scoria, must be hazardous in a storm of or what Milton calls “ the Fiery hail and snow there can be ne Surge," they in no degree bear the doubt, but to cross Salisbury plaio marks of having rolled as a stream may sometimes be dangerous. Yet of liquid matter. This current, stripped of poetical terrors, and dilike that of the eastward branch, has vested of the eloquent description no resemblance to any lavas I have of some writers, there is perhaps seen elsewhere ; it it hardly at all no mountain in Europe, the ascent decomposed, full of laminæ of of wbich does not fornish more diffeldspar, the fracture conchoidal, ficulties than the Peak of Teneriffe.


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JUDGE FLETCHBR'S CHARGE, except as to an increase of wealth

... and population, and an improveDelivered to the Grand Jury at the ment in agriculture, which has - County of Wexford, at the Sumu ameliorated its condition and mulmer Assizes, 1814. - tiplied its resources. The county

of Wexford was then a moral cuGentlemen of the Grand Jury, riosity. When other parts of the TT is with sincere pleasure I con- country were lawless and dis

I gratulate you upon the ap- turbed, this county had a peasantry, pearance of the state of your industrious in their habits, social county ; I say appearance, because in their disposition, satisfied with I have no means whatever of their state, and amenable to the knowing any thing upon the sub- laws, cultivating their farms with ject, except from the calendar pow an assiduity which insured a combefore me. In that calendar I pelency. Their conduct was find very few numbers indeed, peaceful; their apparel whole; two, or three, or four crimes, of their morals improved; their lives general occurrence in the country: spent in the frequent interchange one homicide, which appears to of mutual good offices. It was a have been committed certainly state of things which I reflect with circumstances of atrocity ; upon with pleasure. Each sucbut, as far as I can collect from the ceeding circuit shewed me wild examinations, originating in pri- heaths and uncultivated tracts, vate malice and individual re- brought under the dominion of venge; and not connected with the plough, and producing corn for any of those disturbances of which the sustenance of man. As it was we have heard so much, in dif- then, so it continued for many ferent parts of the kingdom.

years; until those unhappy disGentlemen, it is matter of turbances, which burst out in this great congratulation, that after a county with such a sudden and unperiod of thirty years, (at the com- expected explosion. I knew what mencement of which I first knew the state of things was then, and the county of Wexford), I have how that explosion was produced. reason to say, it is precisely in the Professionally I knew it, because I situation in which it was then, enjoyed peculiar advantages of Vol. LVI.

2 L

knowledge, knowledge, which other men did of disturbances have been much not enjoy. For several years I mis-stated. In what I now say, . conducted the prosecutions for the or shall say, I do not impute any Crown at Wexford; and hence I thing to any individual of this derived an intimate knowledge of county. I will not meddle with those transactions. Besides, I was its internal politics; but this I connected with no party, I was in know, that its situation bas been different about party. But here I variously represented. Several stop, I willingly draw a veil over advertisements in newspapers now the events of those days, and their before me (The Wexford Journcauses. God forbid ! that I should als of last March and April tear asunder wounds, which, I describe this county as being in a hope, are completely and for ever most alarming state of disturbance. clased.

Other advertisements affirm, on I have now been absent from the other hand, that the country this county twelve years, (with has never enjoyed more profound the exception of onç Assizes, when tranquillity. These advertisements I came here in the King's Com- have been, I understand, repubmission, but upon that occasion I lished in the prints of Dublin and did not sit, as I now do, in the London; and have naturally ex. Crown Court). I can say, how. cited strong sensations. It is not cver, with the greatest truth, tbat for me to inquire into the motives at no period from my earliest ac- of those opposite statements. I quaintance with your county, know them not. It is not my indown to the present time, do I tention, it is not my duty, to im. remember to have seen it in more. pute any particular motives to any profound tranquillity, more per- individuals : but it is within the fect peace, more complete security sphere of my public duty to state, than at present, a state of things for your instruction, what I have indicating a due administration of observed as the origin and grounds the laws by Magistrates, neither of similar reports and misrepre. over zealous and too active on the sentations in other counties, wbione hand, nor too negligent and ther the discharge of my public šupine on the other.

duty has called me, and where I Such, I do hope, is the true and have had judicial knowledge of actual state of your county; for, what bad passed. It may be not Gentlemen, I have, I repeat it, no upinstructive to state what apmeans of knowing the fact, except peared to me to be the causes of from the quantity of alleged crime, those disturbances, which have the number of persons charged, occasioned those misrepresentaand the nature of those charges, as tions and exaggerations ; together are set out in this calendar. But, with the reasons which have imwhy, gentlemen, have I entered pelled the Legislature to swell the into this detail ? I answer, for Criminal Code, session after sesthese weighty and cogent rea- sion, with new statutes, for vinsons; because much exaggeration dicating the peace of this country. and misrepresentation bave gone In my circuits through other abroad, and the extent and causes parts of the kingdom, I have seen


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