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CHAPTER VII.

Return of the Pope lo Rome. His measures for restoring the Ecclesias.

tical Authority and property of the Church.-Re-establishes the Order of Jesuits.-Festivals renewed.-Suppression of Freemasons and other secret Societies.Re-establishment of the regular Orders.-King of Sardinia restored to his territorial Possessions.-Genoa annexed to his Dominions.-Austrian occupution of the rest of the North of Italy, Milan. Venice. Italian regiments removed to Germany.-Naples. -Measures pursued by King Joachim. His Occupation of part of the Papal Territory.-Alliance with Austria.-Sicily.-- Resumption of Authority by the King.Proceedings of its Parliament.. .

F all the Sovereigns whom 15, declared in the name of his U the subversion of the tyranny Holiness the abolition of the Code of Buonaparte restored to their do- Napoleon, and the restoration of minions, no one appears to have the former pontifical, civil, and resumed his authority with the re- criminal code ; also, the suppres. solution of exercising it more fully sion of what was called the civil to its former extent, than Pope state; and that all the funds, rents, Pius VII. In his proclamation is- &c. of every corporation shall be sued at Cezena, on May 5, pre- placed under the administration of viously to his return to Rome, he a commission formed of ecclesiasapplied to himself the ancient title tics, which commission is imme. of “God's Vicar on Earth;" he diately, “even previously to the spoke of his temporal sovereignty examination of the respective and as essentially connected with his legitimaterights,"to restore tbe yet spiritual supremacy; and acquaint- un-alienated property of all relied his people, that although he gious establishments, and to cause could not at this moment resume the regulars of each sex to be paid the exercise of it in all the ancient a two months' pension, and to pro. possessions of the churcb, he did vide for the public service in the not doubt shortly to recover them, churches. The Pope, on resuming being confident not less in the in- his functions in person, at his ca. violability of his sacred rights, than pital, at first contented himself in the justice of the Allied So- with requiring the retraction of vereigns.

those who had taken part in the A proclamation issued at Rome late usurped government, and forby the apostolic delegates on May bade by a proclamation all inquiCHAPTER VIII.

Switzerland.-Federal compact published. Opposition of the canton of

Bern.Dissentions in the cantons.- Interference of the allied powers. -Diet assembled.-Compact amended and signed.--Its principal ar. ticles.-Geneva restored to independence. Its constitution and union with the Swiss confederacy.-Seven United Provinces.-Meeting of the States General. -- Specch of the Sovereign.-State of finances. Dutch colonies restored. - Catholic Netherlands.Their projected union with Holland.-Prince of Orange constituted their provisional governor .-His address to the Belgians.-Occupation of Belgium by troops.-Decree concerning French settlers. Decree respecting the press.-Garrisons in the different towns.--Session of the Dutch StatesGeneral.

TUHILST the greater part of vetic body, which, however wise

V the subordinate states on in theory, as conducive to a solid the European continent were waits union, could scarcely fail of exing, io suspense, and under pro- citing discontent in such of the tisional occupation, the decision cantong as were reduced in their of the great powers respecting relative importance, and espetbeir future condition, the Swiss cially those which had possessed coofederacy was employed in set- subjects. At the head of these tling at a national diet the terms was Bern, long the most wealthy on which they were hereafter to and populous of the cantons, and exist as an independent commu- the sovereign of several dependent aity. In the beginning of July, districts which it had ruled as a a Federal Compact of the Cantons master. Not long after the publi. was accepted by the Grand Coun- cation of the federal compact, the cil. The sovereign cantons com- Avoyer and Council of the reposing the confederation, in num public of Bern issued a proclamaber nineteen, were thus enume. tion addressed to “ their faithful rated : Uri, Schweitz, Underwald, and dear subjects of the Canton," Lucerne, Zurich, Glaris, Zug, which began with reciting the inBern, Friburg, Soleure, Basil, fraction of the ancient Swiss conSchaffbausen, Appenzel, St. Gall, federation by the power of France the Grisons, Argovia, Thurgovia, in 1798, and the restoration of Tessin, and Vaud.

the legitimate governinent in Bern, The plan of confederation, con under the influence of the allied sisting of a pumber of articles, powers, in the last December. It was based upon a principle of then complained of the renewal of equality of rights among all the all the former acts of injustice tocommunities forming the Hel. wards the canton by the new

federal

federal pact, which had parcelled Sargans, the ministers of the allied out the canton of Bern still more powers thought it proper to inthan heretofore, had stripped it of terpose by a cote addressed to the rights over countries acquired by Diet on August Sth. In this, the their ancestors, and separated it ministers express their regret for from its ancient subjects. After the doubts they bave been com. stating some other grounds of com. pelled to entertain of the firmness plaint, the proclamation proceeded with which they hoped that body to mention the sacrifices which would maintain the arrangements the canton had been willing to of their circular of May 31st, make tor the sake of union. The wbich established the immutagrand council had not only aban- bility of the status quo of the doned the rights of the state over possessions of every canton, and the ancient common seignories, of the political relations of their but had expressed their intention inbabitants, till the definitive sete to leave, upon equitable condi- tlement of affairs in general; and tions, its liberty to the country of in a tone of autbority they require Vaud. They could not, out of the preservation of the public gratitude to their subjects of Ar- peace by a vigorous execution of govia for their fidelity, renounce that provisory law. This interthe Bernese part of that country, position, together with the disbut they had opened a plan for turbed state of Switzerland, aptheir npion with the canton, and pear to have excited very serious had offered them a share in all the apprehensions in the political rights and advantages of Bernese leaders, and on August 16th, the subjects. The paper concluded President of the Diet addressed in with expressing a desire to de- his own name (that body not then fend the constitution and rights sitting) a circular to all the goof the canton against all attacks, vernments of the cantons. After and called upon all to whom it reciting the violent opposition was addressed, for their support. which the Federal Compact bad

Switzerland was at this time far met with, and the necessity under. from being in a tranquil state, which the Diet had found itself The Vaudois and the Argovians of framing a new plan with vari. were resolute in asserting their in- ous modifications, the President dependence on Bern. Some time warmly exhoris the cantons to before, a conspiracy was formed unanimity, and proceeds to say, at Solcure for taking possession of “ A note of the ministers of Austhe town, and deposing the ruling tria, Russia, and England, offici. party, which was disconcerted by ally communicated to the deputa. an accident; and its ill success tions in our sitting of this day, was said to have prevented the shews the danger which a longer execution of a similar plot at Bern. division may draw down upon The canton of St. Gall having our country. The opening of the made a demand of a federal aid General Congress, a period of the from the Diet, on account of a greatest importance to Switzerspirit of disobedience manifested land in particular, as well as to in the districts of Uznach and Europe in general, is approaching.

Switzerland

Switzerland attracts the attention not being articles of the Grst neof foreign powers; and it daily cessity. In case of danger, exterbecomes more probable, that if the nal or internal, each capion is Swiss confederation be not fixed entitled to claim the aid of the at tbat time, her constitution will confederates; and all differences no longer depend on herself, but or claims between canton and canher fate be determined without ton, not provided for by the treaty her participation." He then an- of alliance, are to be decided by nounces the intention of the Diet the confederation. No alliance is to return to Zurich on the 4th of to be made between separate canSeptember, in order to resume its tons unfavourable to the general deliberations on the following day, confoderation, or to the rights of and take the necessary steps to ob- other cantons. The confederation tain the guaranty of the indepen- admits the principle, according to dence of Switzerland at the gene- which, having recognized the 19 sal congress, and regulate its poli- cantons, there is no longer any subtical interests.

ject in Switzerland; whence the The Diet having assembled at enjoyment of rights cannot any the time appointed, was not long longer be the exclusive privilege in coming to a conclusion on this of any particular class of citizens. weighty point; and on September The Diet is to consist of nineSib made a decree, that the treaty teen members, one from each can. of alliance between the nineteen ton, every canton having a vote cantons, of which the tenor was by its deputy. The business of subjoined, should be signed and the Diet is to take care of the sealed as a true federal convention. affairs of the confederation. It The following are the most impor. declares war, makes peace, contant articles of this compact. The cludes alliances with foreign states, cantops reciprocally guarantee but in these important matters each other's constitution, as ac- two-thirds of the voices are recepted by the chief authorities of quisite for a determination; in each canton in conformity with others, a majority. It also decides the principles of the alliance; and on treaties of commerce. It names also their territories. For the envoys from the confederation. maintenance of the guaranty, a The cantons may severally concontingent of troops is appointed tract ireaties 10 furnish soldiers, to be raised, in a specified propor- and other minor engagements tion for each canton, calculated at with foreign powers, not infringtwo men in every hundred, and ing the general confederation. amounting to a total of 30,006; Such was the main substance of which proportion is subject to re- this compact, which was ratified vision in 1815. A contribution by the agreement of a majority of for defraying the expenses of war tbe cantons, and on which the and of the confederation is next Diet received the congratulations allotted for each canton, the of the ministers of the three allied whole sum being 490,507 francs; powers. An union of Geneva, in addition to which, a federal Neufchatel, and the Vallais, with treasury is established, to be sup- the Helvetic body, was afterwards plied by duties on foreiga goods, effected,

The The restoration of the repub- to the provisional government lic of Geneva to a state of inde transmitied by M. d'Ivernois from pendence, was a consequence of the Mr. Suraiford Canning, minister overthrow of French usurpation, plenipotentiary from the Priuce which cannot fail of giving plea. Regent to the Swiss Confederasure to all who have been inte. tion. In this paper his Royal rested by the moral and literary Highness expresses in the most character of that eity. Occupied obligirg terms his friendly senti. provisionally by the Austrian troops ments towards Geneva, and proon their entrance into France, and mises his efforts at the congress to burdened by the usual military bring to effect the purposes in its requisitions, it was soon permitted favour declared by his allies to entertain bopes of a favourable On August 18th, two companies change in its condition. On May of Zurichers arrived at Geneva to Ist, the envoy's extraordinary of form its garrison; and on the same their imperial and royal majesties day was published the constitution addressed a declaration to the syn- of the Genevan republic. The foldics and council of Geneva, in lowing are its most important which, referring to an address pre- articles. The Protestant religion sented by the citizens of Geneva is the predominant. There shall on April 22d to the provisional be at Geneva a church appropriacouncil, expressing their wishes for led to the Catholic worship; it the restoration of the republic, shall be maintained at the expense and its aggregation to the Hel- of the state. The constitution vetic body, they congratulate the recognizes neither patricians nor Genevans on the accession of the privileged classes. All the Geneprovisional council to their desires. vese are equal in the eye of the They affirm that the allied powers law. The liberty of the press is are desirous that the republic of acknowledged, but every work Geneva, strengthened by a libe. must be signed. Should circumral constitution, and by a suit- stances require it, the representaable increase of territory, should tive body shall have power to limit offer itself to Switzerland as a the exercise of that liberty. The co-estate; for which purpose they legislative power is vested in a advise that the provisional council representative council, composed should employ itself in preparing of 250 members, or 268, includthe plan of a constitutional act foring the syndics and council of the republic, the cantons be- state. The legislative council shall ing now engaged at Zurich in conform to the general laws of the drawing up their federal compact; Helvetic confederation; it shall and they declare that Geneva sball possess authority to fix the taxes be authentically acknowledged in annually, to accept or reject treathe possession of its political rights, ties, to coin money, to appoint to and of the territory which the allied the administrative and judicial ofpowers intend to assign it.

fices that are reserved for it, to The full concurrence of the regulate all matters relative to the court of England to this dispo- ordinary and extraordinary diets, sition of the other allies was made and to name the deputies to the known on August 4th, by a note - latter. The representative council

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