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shall be convoked as a matter of testified by foreign powers, and course, on the first Mondays in especially by Great Britain ; and Niay and December ; each session gave hopes of a speedier recovery shail last three weeks. The exe- from the injuries it had sustained cutive power is vested in a coun- than could be expected by many cil of state, composed of twenty- of its fellow-suffcrers. The mini, eight members, elected from a ster of finance afterwards Jaid Inong the nzembers of the legisla- before the States-General an active council only.

count of the expenditure and reOfficial intelligence of the union venue of the United Provinces, of this state with the Swiss confe- from which it appeared, that deracy, as one of the cantons, reckoning the ordinary and extraarrived on Sept. 19th, and was re- ordinary expenses for the year ceived by the whole population 1814 at 63} millions of guilders, with every expression of joy. there would be a deficiency of

The evacuation of the Low revenue amounting to more than Countries by the remaining French 25 millions. He then assigned garrisons proceeded slowly, and in reasons for expecting a consider, some instances not without mani. able diminution of charges, and fest reluctance; but in the begin- increase of revenue, in future ning of May, all the places which years, which turned upon the spo belonged to Holland in 1795 were liations, and losses of income which delivered up to the Dutch troops; the state had incurred in conse. and the Austrian general St. Vin- quence of the war, and the French cent assumed the military govern- occupation of the country. As ment of the former Austrian one proof of the sacrifice made Netherlands. On May 2, the day under the rule of Buonaparte of appointed for the first meeting of every other interest, to his warlike the States-General of the United projects, it may be mentioned, Provinces at the Hague, the mem- that the dykes of Holland, so bers of that body met in the palace essential to the very existence of of the sovereign prince, and took the country, had been suffered to the oaths prescribed by the consti. fall into such a state of dilapidatution. The president for the tion, that a large additional expen, session nominated by his highness diture would be required for their was Mr. Von Lynden Von Hoe- repair in the present year. verlaken. The assembly then An adjourned sitting of the proceeded to the hall of the Bin- States-General was opened on June nenhof, allotted for their sittings, 15 by a message from the Prince to which the Sovereign, accompa. Sovereign, congratulating them * nied by his youngest son, repaired, upon the conclusion of a peace be. faction in the event, and grateful confederacies in the reigns of Wil. acknowledgments to his Royal liam III. and Anne. When at Highness for his exertions in bring- Jength secured to Austria, they ing it to effect.

and addressed them in a speech in tween the allied powers and France, which he described the state of the in which the re-establishment of country, and laid before them the the state of the United Provinces necessity of their serious attention was confirmed and guaranteed by to retrieve its losses, and restore the most powerful sovereigos of its ancierit consequence and pros Europe. In answer to this comperity. He spokc of the generous munication, an address was voted friendship towards the country by the assembly, expressiog saris

faction

proved but an uneasy and unfruitOn July olh, an ordinance was ful accession to that power, on issued by the Prince Sovereigo, by account of their remoteness from which the people of the United the seat of sovereignty, the diver. Provinces were informed, that until sity of their interests, and the the period of the restoration of the constitutional privileges of which Dutch colonies, they would be per- they were justly jealous. The mitted, in consequence of negoci- infraction of these privileges by ations entered into with the British the emperor Joseph, and the viogovernment, to carry on commerce lence with which he urged ecclewith the colonies (enumerated) in siastical reforms altogether repugSouth America and the West In- vant to the feelings of a people dia islands, upon certain conditions singularly attached to their religion, which followed. The first of these occasioned a storm of resistance required the being provided with and disaffection, which induced licences from the British ambassa- that sovereign to form plans for dor at the Hague, and the remain- exchanging his dominions in the der chiefly consisted in regulations Low Countries for an equivalent for putting the trade on the same in Germany; but, like the rest of footing with that carried on between his multifarious projects, they Great Britain and the saine colo- failed in the execution. These nies.

provinces were among the first In the grand settlement of conquests of the French in their · Europe, which became the object revolutionary war; they had been

of the allied powers after they had declared integral parts of the expelled from his throne the per- French empire, which, by the son whose ambitious plans had so occupation of the Seven Provinces, long been employed in overthrow- had obtained a most important ing all former barriers, and estab- addition in this quarter. When Jishing his own irresistible predo- France was to be reduced to her minance, there were few points former limits, and Holland remore important, and at the same stored to its pristine independence, time of more difficult arrangement, the disposal of the Catholic Ne. than fixing the future condition of therlands became a matter of the ten Belgic provinces, usually immediate urgency. On the prindistinguished by the name of the ciple of restitution there could be Catholic Netherlands. Modern no doubt that they reverted to the history is filled with the wars and Austrian dominion; and we have negociations of which the disputed seen that teinporary possession of possession of these rich and fertile them was given to an Austrian countries was the source; and to general, as military governor. But prevent them from falling under the present emperor of Austria the dominion of France, and pre- had the same reasons with his serve them to the house of Austria, predecessor Joseph for wishing to was a leading principle of the po- get rid of a detached territory licy which formed the armed which had long been rather a

burden

burden than an advantage, and origin, and common industry and the future defence of which could virtues, which was destined by only be secured by a strong and the general interest of Europe; expensive line of fortresses. It is and assured them, that it would be therefore probable that a change rendered indissoluble, and their in the occupation of these pro- new condition would be secured vinces was early deliberated in the by the firmest guarasty that haman councils of the allied powers, power could give. On the same though difficulties would occur in day an address to the Belgians by assigning their new possessor. the Prince of Orange was pub

Hints had been thrown out in lished. After informing them that the public papers of the Low the allied sovereigns intended to Countries, of an intended union of give to Europe a political system the ten provinces to the state which would assure a long period with which they had the greatest of prosperity and repose to its nanatural affinity ; but it was not till tions, his Royal Highness said, the end of July that matters were “ The new destination of your fully prepared for an open disclo- beautiful provinces is a necessary sure of the design, and the mea- part of this system; and the nesures for bringing it to effect. On gociations which are going to be the 30th of that month, the Prince opened at Vienna will have for of Orange, sovereign of the Ne- their object to cause it to be re. Therlands, came to Brussels, where cognized, and to consolidate the he was waited upon by Lord Lyne- extension of Belgium on a basis doch and the superior officers of conformable to your interests, to the English and Belgian troops, that of your neighbours, and of all and had a long conference with Europe." He then announced his the governor-general Baron de being called to the goveroment of Vincent. On the next day, after their country during the short in. attending divine service performed terval before this desirable union, by a French clergyman, he gave and expressed his wish of being audience to the members of the assisted by the most estimable administration of the public boards, characters among them, and his and the principal civil officers; resolution to bend all his attention and received addresses expressive to their welfare. This change in of confidence and attachment. On the present administration and August ist, a proclamation was future prospects of the Belgian published by Baron de Vincent, in provinces seems to have been rewhich he acquainted the people ceived with great satisfaction at of Belgium, that the time fixed by Brussels, which enjoyed the exthe high allies for giving up the pectation of becoming one of the general government into the bands capitals of the United Low Counof the Sovereign Prince of the Ne tries, and by the concourse of civil therlands being arrived, he was to and military autborities and distake leave of them. He briefly tinguished strangers, was daily dwelt upon the advantages that resuming the splendor and gaiety would accrue to them from that by which it was characterized union with a people already con- when the seat of an Austrian nected with them by a common court. The country, as far as the VOL. LVI.

[H]

Maese, try guarded, as during the Flem- establishment of so many branches ish wars of former times.

of the administration, might be The Prince Sovereign of the - wholly paid, all the accounts of Netherlands having returned to government services since bis acthe Hague on November 7th, he cession to power be liquidated, and opened the first ordinary session of a considerable sum left in the treathe States General with a speech, sury applicable to the expenses of He began with recounting the the next year. On the whole, the happy auspices under which their view given by his Royal Highness sitting commenced. Perfect of the state of the country was tranquillity reigns in every part of such as might gratify every pathe country, though scarcely rege. triot. nerated: the organization of the On December 8th, the secretary principal branches of the admini- of finance, Mr. Falck, presented stration is prosecuting conform to the States an estimate of the ably to the regulations of the fan- expenditure for the year 1815, damental laws, without obstacle which amounted to fifty-one milor even difficulty; every where lions of guilders. He acquainted the spirit of industry and commerce them, that by care and economy manifests itself more and more, the expense of the last year had which we had reason to fear might been reduced 3,700,000 guilders have been totally extinguished below the estimate, and that there and annihilated during so many would remain in the treasury, at unbappy years." His Royal High- the end of the year, a sum of abuut pess then proceeded to touch upon ten millions and a half. He gave particulars relative to their situa- reasons for the persisting at the pretion. He regretted, that till the sent time, in making extraordinary termination of the congress he exertions, and recommended the could not inform them with cer- continuance of the existing taxes, tainty of the extent of the territory with the exception of some alteraof the state, and of its possessions tion in that on patents. The States beyond sea, but adverted to the General, after deliberating on the arrangements with the crown of report, and on the plan of a law England, which had enabled him with which it was accompanied, to take measures for the re-occu- passed a resolution, approving of pation of the most considerable the same; and the patience with part of their ancient foreign domi- which necessary burdens are borne nions. He spoke with great sa- in this country, and the wise fru. tisfaction of the state of the pub- gality displayed in the administra. lic finances, by which, at the end tion of its revenues, are equally of 1814, sixteen months of the in- deserving of the applause and imi'terest of the national debt, and the tation of other states. vast expenses required by the re

CHAPTER CHAPTER IX.

Germany.-Hamburg.-Hanover, its erection to a Kingdom.-- Prince

Regent's Proclamation.- Hanoverian Diet assembled. --Speech of the Duke of Cambridge,-Free Constitution of Nassau.Prussia, its military regulations : alterations in the ritual of public Worship.-Congress of Vienna.Views of Prussia on Saxony.Declaration of the King of Sarony.- Frontiers of Turkey : cruel treatment of the Servians.

A S no country in Europe had tants in the condition of fugitives

undergone more changes or exiles, its finest suburbs demoduring the long war, of which it lished, and its population wasted was so often the seat, than Ger- by want and disease. It must, masy, so in none was the process therefore, have been with sensaof restoration more tardy, or more tions of true patriotic delight, that obstructed with difficulties, arising on May 26, the Hamburghers wit. as well from the actual state in nessed the resumption of the gowhich it was left at the period of vernmenc by their native constitutthe general peace, as from the ed authorities, and their independcomplicated nature of its political ence restored under the patronage constitution. So much, in fact, of the allied Powers. The Senate was to be done in order to re- on that occasion, published an ad. duce it to a harmonious and well dress to their fellow citizens marked balanced system, that the year by the spirit of wisdom and modeelapsed without settling some of ration. Though it was not yet the most important points relative thought proper to leave the city to the future condition of the Ger- without the protection of foreign mapic States. Some dispositions, troops, confidence was sufficiently bowever, were definitively made, renewed for the operation of those of which it will be proper to give an causes which are found so efficaciaccount.

ous in speedily effacing the wounds No city in Germany had so much inflicted on commercial prosperity. reason to rejoice at the subversion “Every thing (says an account of Buonaparte's power as Ham- from Hamburgh) here acquires burgh, which had suffered the ex- new life, activity, and cheerful. tremes of tyranny and spoliation ness. The Elbe is again filled under the rigorous and corrupt ad- with vessels of every description, mninistration of Davoust. From the and several richly laden ships have richest and most commercial city already entered our port. The in that part of Earope, it had been road from Altona to Hamburgh is reduced almost to beggary, and bad covered with an almost uninterrupt. seen many of its principal inhabi: ed line of waggons, laden with the

household

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