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men of war anchored in front of On the 5th of January, the Nervi. In the evening a deputa- Regency and Cortes removed to tion of the inbabitants arrived Madrid, where they were received with a request that his lordship with all the solemnity due to the would not bombard the town, and national representation and goo' desiring a suspension of arms verninent. The Cortes comfor a few days, as by the accounts menced its session on Jan. 15th, from France it was probable that and on the 17th were waited peace must soon follow. The upon by general Villacampa, goreply was, that these were argu- vernor of Madrid, accompanied inents to use with the French ge by his staff. In a subsequent norrl, who ought to abandon a sitting they were informed try the place which he could not defend; Regency, that the emperor of and on the next day, after several Austria had sent an envoy with a "communications, a convention was note, in which he expressed a signed, by which Genoa was to desire for the re-establishment of be evacuated by the French troops, the ancient relations between the and to be taken possession of by two countries. About the beginthe combined English and Sicilian ning of the year, Napoleon, senarmy, and three ships of war were sible that Spain had been effec. to enter the harbour. The maga tually rescued from his grasp, emzines and property of the French ployed his art to work upon bis · goveroment were to be placed captive Ferdinand's mind by a
under the seals of tbe British go. treaty, in which his restoration ***vernment, and every thing be. was covenanted on the condition
longing to the French marine, lo of his procuring the evacuation of be delivered to the British navy. Spain by the English, with other The losses on either side in mak- articles favourable to the views of ing this acquisition were not con- the French ruler. The treaty was siderable.
in consequence signed, and sent · The military occurrences in to Spain by the hands of the duke
Spain during this year have been de San Carlos, the Spanish pleni. of little importance. The greatest potentiary, who brought two let. part of their country being freed 'ters to the Regency, one from from their invaders by foreign aid, Ferdinand, the other from Napothe Spaniards appear to bave been leon. The former they read; the content to wait for the course latter was returned unopened. of decisive events to effect their The Regency communicated the total liberation, whilst the French business to the Cortes at a secret were reduced to a merely defen- sitting, which body expressed its sive part, with forces continually entire satisfaction with what the diminishing by draips for service other had done, and framed a at home. The civil affairs of decree which was publicly read at Spain will make a very interesting a sitting on the 30th. After a chapter ; but at present, we shall preamble expressing the desire of confine ourselves to those which the Cortes to give a solemn teswere previous to the resumption timony of good faith towards their of monarchical government. allies, and perseverance against
the the enemy, it confirms the decree tions were tumultuously made for of the extraordinary Cortes in calling him to account. At length, 1811, by which the king was not Reyna being ordered to leave the to be acknowledged as free, or hall, after some further discussion, obeyed, till he had taken in the the affair was voted to be referred bosom of the national congress to the consideration of a comthe oath prescribed by the consti- mittee. It is to be added, that tution; it directs what is to be the Regency communicated to the done by the generals on the fron- English ambassador an explicit tiers upon intelligence of the account of all that had passed king's approach, prohibiting the relative to the treaty, of the conadmission of any armed force with tents of Ferdinand's letter, and of him, or of a single foreigner about their own conduct in consequence, his person; and it specifies the than which nothing could be more ceremonial to be observed on pre- honourable and decided; as on senting the constitution to the the other hand it was manifest king, and receiving his oath on from the terms of the treaty, its acceptance. The reading of which were published, that Ferthis decree was accompanied with dinand bad entirely lent himself the applause of the auditors. A to the designs of Napoleon conversation ensued, respecting the Intelligence arrived at Madrid publication of documents for the from the Baron d'Eroles, that the information of the people, when a French garrisons of Lerida, Memember named Senor Reyna rose, quinenza, and Monzon, capituand announcing that he had a lated on Feb. 18th, remaining notion to make, began with say- prisoners of war. It was aftering, " when our Sovereign Fer- wards announced that Gerona, dinand was born, he was borá Olot, and Puycerda were freed ; with a right to the absolute so- that the blockade of Barcelona vereignty of the Spanish nation." was become more strict, the He was immediately called to, enemy, after having severely suforder by a number of voices; but fered in a sally, remaining quiet ; insisting on his liberty as a repre- and that the French were in possentative of the people to utter his session of only three or four forseotiments, he proceeded to assert tresses in Catalonia, together with that it was indispensable that Peniscola and Murviedro, · Ferdinand VII, as having by the The state of affairs in France abdication of Charles IV, acquired would now no longer. permit the the rigbt of being king and lord detention of Ferdinand. On March of his people, should be in the 24th, a message was sent by the exercise of absolute sovereignty secretary of state to the Cortes, the moment he crossed the fron- informing them of the receipt of tiers. The greatest indignation a letter signed by king Ferdinand was excited against the member VII, acquainting the Regency by this unqualified declaration of with his intention of setting out the highest monarchical principles, on the 13th, from Valencey for both among the deputies and the Perpignan, and bis anxiety to auditors in the gallery, and mo- arrive speedily in Spain, coming
by by the way of Catalonia. The mander in chief of Catalonia, letter, upon motion, was brought mentioned that his Majesty had to the Cortes and read. After been escorted to the left bank of 'acknowledging the letter from the the river Fluvia, by marshal · Regency, and expressing his sa- Suchet with a detachment of tisfaction with the nation's wishes French troops, and that having for his return, which was no less crossed the river with a suite of his desire, in order to promote the Spaniards only, he had been atfelicity of his subjects, he men- 'tended to Gerona by the general. tioned his intention of proceeding The following circumstance was as above stated, and concluded, communicated to the Cortes by “ with regard to the re-establish- order of the Regency. Marshal . ment of the Cortes, of which thie Suchet had wished to stipulate' Regency speak to me in their with gen. Copons, that the posletter, as well as every thing that session of the king's person should may have been done in my ab. serve as a guaranty for the delisence usefully to the kingdom, it vering up to the marshal of the will always merit my approbation, French garrisons of the fortresses as conformable to my royal inten- not yet in the hands of the Spa
tions." The letter was received niards, as well as those of Lerida, · with great applause ; but during Monzon, and Mequinenza; bat the reading, at the word subjects, as this proposal might have added in Spanish vasallos, a voice inter- 20,000 men to the French armies rupted the secretary, saying, “ we opposed to lord Wellington, the are not vassals !" A kind of apo- General had eluded it, and oblogy was made for the use of this tained the person of Ferdinand term, as proceeding from the without acceding to such a deking's ignorance of the constitu- mand. The thanks of the Cortes tion, by Senor Arispe, who made were in consequence voted to him. a motion for inviting the Regency In Madrid the greatest rejoicings to adopt the necessary measures were made on the intelligence of for the king's taking the oath to the king's return, in which all the constitution, which was ap- ' ranks and parties appeared to con
cur. His entrance into Saragossa At length, on March 24th, on April 6th, was attended with Ferdinand arrived at Gerona, the same manifestations of general whence he sent a letter to the joy. He proceeded on the uth Regency, written with his own for Valentia, accompanied by the hand. It contained a general as- Infant Don Carlos; and nothing surance of his wishes to do every as yet appeared externally to disthing that might conduce to the turb the feelings of national satiswelfare of his subjects, and an' faction in his extraordinary resto. expression of his happiness on ration. finding himself on his own ter. Another renovation of the anritory, amidst a nation and an army cient order of things effected by wbich had displayed so generous the prevalence of the allied arms, a fidelity towards him. A letter was that of the replacement of the froin general Copons, the com- head of the Roman Catholic Church
upon his seat of authority. The having arrived at Viterbo, stopped very first act of the French pro- at that place till the exiled cardi. visional government was an order, nals could be assembled in order that all obstacles to the return of to attend bim on his solemn enthe Pope to his own territories trance into Rome. The important should be instantly remored, and consequences of this event will every honour be paid bim on his afford interesting matter for the journey. His Holiness accord- remaining history of the year. ingly proceeded for Italy, and
CHAPTER CHAPTER IV.
Affairs of Norway - Treaties of Denmark with Sweden and England
Feelings of the Norwegians--Prince Christian Frederic repairs to Christiana-His reception--Proceeds to Drontheim— Returns to Christiana, and is declared Regent-His proclamatims--Count Rosen's mission from Sweden-Address of the King of Denmark to the Norwegians-Mr. Anker's deputation to England— Notification of the blockade of Norway by the English-Parties in Norway-Diet-Christian proclaimed King and the Diet dissolved-Mr. Morier, Envoy from England-Delegation from the three allied Powers-- drmistice proposed and rejected-State Papers-Envoy's return and preparation for warProclamation of the Crown Prince of Sweden to the NorwegiansCommencement of hostilities - Norwegian flotilla retreats - Swedes · cross the frontier-Actions Frederickstadt capitulales-- Further success of the Swedes-Frederickstein bombarded— Preparations to surround Christian's army-He resigns-Convention at Moss Christian's proclamation to the Norwegians — Tumult at Christiania-State of affairs before the Convention - The Diet assembled-Christian's departure Election of the King of Sweden to the Crown of Norway-Close of the Diet.
W H ILST the grand contest in a great part of her consequence.
V France was proceeding in a Her submission was sealed by treamanner that foreboded a speedy ties of peace concluded at Kiel, on termination, a cloud was gathering January 14th, with the Sovereigns in the North, which was to pro- of Sweden and Great Britain. · In duce a new storm of war, and for a the first of these, after a declaratime retard the restoration of the tion of the renewal of peace and general tranquillity of Europe. It amity between Denmark and Swewas clearly discernible at the close den, the King of Sweden engages of the last year that Deomark, de- his mediation for the same purpose serted by the ally to whose fortune with Russia and Prussia; and on her's had unbappily been attached, the other hand, the King of Denand invaded by a force to which mark engages to take an active she had nothing adequate to op- part in the common cause against pose, had no other part to take the French emperor. The entire than that of acquiescence in the" and perpetual cession of Norway conditions imposed upon her, of by Denmark, and of Pomerania which the most galling was, un- and the isle of Rugen by Sweden, doubtedly, the resignation of that is then declared, and reciprocal portion of her dominions to which stipulations are made for the pershe owed one of her crowns, and servation of the rights and privi