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lightened, and at no distant period, a great nation, to give to mankind the magnanimous and too novel example of a people always guided by an exalted justice and benevolence. Who can doubt that in the course of time and things the fruits of such a plan would richly repay any temporary advantages that might be lost by a steady adherence to it? Can it be that Providence bas connected the permanent felicity of a nation with its virtue? The experiment at least is recommended by every sentiment which ennobles human nature. Alas ! it is rendered impossible by its vices.

“Harmony and a liberal intercourse with all nations are recommended by policy, humanity, and interest. But even our commercial policy should hold an equal and impartial hand; neither seeking nor granting exclusive favors or preferences ; consulting the natural course of things ; diffusing and diversifying by gentle means the stream of commerce, but forcing nothing; establishing with powers so disposed (in order to give trade a stable course, to define the rights of our mcrehants, to enable the government to support them) conventional rules of intercourse, the best that present circumstances and natural opinion will permit, but temporary and liable to be from time to time aban. doned or varied, as experience and circumstances shall dictate; constantly keeping in view that it is folly in one nation to look for disinterested favors from another-that it must pay with a portion of its independence for whatever it may accept under that character—that by such acceptance it may place itself in the condition of having given equivalents for nominal favors, and yet of being reproached with ingratitude for not having given more. There can be no greater error than to expect or calculate upon real favors from nation to nation. It is an illusion which experience must cure, which a just pride ought to discard.

“In offering to you, my countrymen, these counsels of an old affectionate friend, I dare not hope they will make the strong and lasting impression I could wish—that they will control the usual current of the passions, or prevent our nation from running the course which has hitherto marked the destiny of nations. But if I may even flatter myself that they may be productive of some partial benefit, some occasional good—that they may now and then recur to moderate the fury of party spirit, to warn against the mischiefs of foreign intrigue, to guard against the imposture of pretended patriotism—this hope will be a full recompense for the solicitude for your welfare by which they have been dictated.

“Though in reviewing the incidents of my administration I am unconscious of intentional error, I am nevertheless too sensible of my defects not to think it probable that I may have committed many errors.

Whatever they may be, I fervently beseech the Almighty to avert or mitigate the evils to which they may tend. I shall also carry with me the hope that my country will never cease to view them with indulgence, and that, after forty-five years of my life dedicated to its service with an upright zeal, the faults of incompetent abilities will be consigned to oblivion, as myself must soon be to the mansions of rest.

“Relying on its kindness in this as in other things, and actuated by that fervent love toward it which is so natural to a man who views in it the native soil of himself and his progenitors for several generations, I anticipate with pleasing expectations that retreat in which I promise myself to realize without alloy the sweet enjoyment of partaking in the midst of my fellow-citizens the benign influence of good laws under a free government–the ever favorite object of my heart, and the happy reward, as I trust, of our mutual cares, labors, and dangers." BY COMMAND OF MAJOR GENERAL MCCLELLAN:

L. THOMAS, Adjutant General.


Generat Orders,} HEADQR's of the Army, AD IN GENERALES OFFICE:

Washington, February 201862. I.—Paragraph II. of “ General Orders" No 102 from the Headquarters of the Army, dated November 25, 1861, directing the transfer of Volunteers, held as prisoners by the enemy, to skeleton regiments, is hereby revoked.

II.-The temporary department of New England, constituted in paragraph I. of “General Orders" No. 86, dated October 1, 1861, is hereby abrogated. The authority heretofore given to Major General B. F. Butler, United States Volunteers, by the War Department, in regard to raising and equipping volunteers in New England for certain purposes, is withdrawn. All contracts made by authority of General Butler, and now in the course of execution, will be completed. He will, however, enter on no new ones. BY COMMAND OF MAJOR GENERAL MCCLELLAN:

L. THOMAS, Adjutant General.

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No. 18.

Washington, February 21, 1862. The following orders have been received from the War Department:

I.—The Governors of States are legally the authorities for raising Volunteer regiments and commissioning their officers. Accordingly, no independent organizations, as such, will be hereafter recognized in the United States service. Copies of the Rolls of muster into service will be sent as soon as practicable to the Governors of the States to which they belong by the commanders of all brigades, regiinents, or corps heretofore recognized as independent of State organizations; and all vacancies of commissions in such regiments and corps will be hereafter filled by the respective Governors according to law. Wherever a regiment is composed of companies from different States, it will be considered as belonging to the State from which the greatest number of companies was furnished for that regiment.

II.—Paragraph 1121 of the Revised Regulations for the Army, of 1861, is amended by adding as follows: In special cases of hard service or exposure, the Quartermaster General may authorize the ration of grain to be increased not more than three pounds, upon a report recommending it by the Chief Quartermaster serving in a Military Department, or with the Army in the field.

III.-It has been brought to the notice of the Secretary of War that officers of the Volunteer forces frequently correspond directly with the authorities of the States in which their regiments were raised, and thus procure supplies of clothing and other stores in excess of Regulation allowance. All requisitions should be made as pointed out in the Regulations, upon the Chief Quartermaster of the Department or Army corps, who will transmit them, through the regular official channel, to the officer in charge of the depot from which the supplies are to be drawn. All clothing provided heretofore by State authorities and not yet issued, will be turned over to the officers of the United States Quartermaster's Department, who will, as far as possible, issue supplies provided by the States to the troops of the same respectively. The allowance of clothing, &c., which is prescribed in the Army Regulations should never be exceeded, except in urgent cases; and when exceeded, the circumstances making such extra issues necessary should be distinctly and fully set forth on the requisitions, to enable the proper officer to act upon them understandingly. The articles of clothing issued to troops are charged against each man, and must be paid for on final settlement of his pay accounts. BY COMMAND OF Major GENERAL MCCLELLAN :

L. THOMAS, Adjutant General.


} No. 19.

Wushington, February 22, 1862. The following order has been received from the War Department:

It is ordered that there shall be inscribed upon the colors or guidons of all regiments and batteries in the service of the United States the names of the battles in which they have borne a meritorious part. These names will also be placed on the Army Register at the head of the list of the officers of each regiment.

It is expected that troops so distinguished will regard their colors as representing the honor of their corps-to be lost only with their lives; and that those not yet entitled to such a distinction will not rest satisfied until they have won it by their discipline and courage.

The General Commanding the Army will, under the instructions of this Department, take the necessary steps to carry out this order. BY COMMAND OF MAJOR GENERAL MOCLELLAN:

L. THOMAS, Adjutant General.

No. 20.

Washington, February 23, 1862. A new military department, to be called the Department of the Gulf, is hereby constituted. It will comprise all the coast of the Gulf of Mexico west of Pensacola harbor, and so much of the Gulf States as may be occupied by the forces under Major General B. F. Butler, United States Volunteers. The headquarters for the present will be movable, wherever the General Commanding

may be.


L. THOMAS, Adjutant General.

Geveral Orders,}

No. 21.

Washington, February 26, 1862.
The following Act and RESOLUTION of Congress are published for the infor-
mation of the Army:
I.-AN ACT making appropriations for the Signal service of the United

States Army. Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Repre*ntatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That officers temporarily serving as signal officers shall receive, for the time they are so serving, the pay and emoluments of cavalry officers of their respective grades.

Sec. 2.- And he it further enacted, That the following sums be, and they are hereby, appropriated out of any money in the Treasury not otherwise appropriated, viz.:

For the manufacture or purchase of signal equipments and signal stores, to equip and supply the forces now in the field, twenty thousand dollars ; For contingent expenses of the signal department, one thousand dollars ;

For the manufacture or purchase of signal equipments and signal stores, for countersign signals, to prevent the collision of friendly regiments, thirty-four thousand nine hundred and fifty dollars.

Approved February 22, 1862. II.-A RESOLUTION tendering the thanks of Congress to the officers, sol

diers, and seamen of the Army and Navy for their gallantry in the re

cent brilliant victories over the enemies of the Union and the Constitution.

ved by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That the thanks of Congress are due and are. hereby tendered to the officers, soldiers, and seamen of the Army and Navy of the United States, for the heroic gallantry that, under the providence of Almighty God, has won the recent series of brilliant victories over the enemies of the Union and the Constitution. Approved February 22, 1862. BY COMMAND OF MAJOR GENERAL MCCLELLÁN :

L. THOMAS, Adjutant General.

General Orders,


No. 22.

Washington, March 1, 1861. The following Act of Congress is published for the information of the Army: AN ACT making additional appropriations for the support of the Army for

the year ending thirtieth of June, eighteen hundred and sixty-two. Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That the following sums be, and the same are hereby appropriated, out of any money in the Treasury not otherwise appropriated, for the service of the year ending thirtieth of June, eighteen hundred and sixty-two:

For pay of two and three years' volunteers, fifty million dollars.

For payments to discharged soldiers for clothing not drawn, fifty thousand dollars.

For subsistence in kind for two and three years' volunteers, twenty-six mill ion six hundred and sixty-eight thousand nine hundred and two dollars.

For transportation of the Army and its supplies, fourteen million eight hundred and eighty-one thousand dollars.

For the purchase of cavalry and artillery horses, one million six hundred and sixty-one thousand and forty dollars.

For clothing, camp and garrison equipage, twelve million one hundred and seventy-three thousand five hundred and forty-six dollars and seventy-seven cents.

For regular supplies, incidental expenses, transportation, barracks and quarters, clothing, camp and garrison equipage, keeping, transporting, and supplying prisoners, and other supplies and services of the Quartermaster's Department, to the thirtieth June, eighteen hundred and sixty-two, and to be divided among the said several heads of appropriation herein named, as the exigencies of the service may require, seventy-six million five hundred thousand dollars.

For the armament of fortifications, eight hundred and thirty-four thousand dollars.

For the current expenses of the ordnance service, two hundred thousand dollars. For ordnance, ordnance stores and supplies, including horse equipments for all the mounted troops, one million nine hundred and twenty-four thousand dollars.

For purchase of arms for volunteers and regulars, and ordnance and ord nance stores, seven million five hundred thousand dollars.

For the medical and hospital department, one million dollars.

For amount required to refund to the States expenses incurred on account of volunteers called into the field, fifteen million dollars. Approved February 25, 1862. BY COMMAND OF MAJOR GENERAL MCCLELLAN :

L. THOMAS, Adjutant General.

No. 23.

Washington, March 3, 1862. 1.—The eastern limits of the Department of Western Virginia are extended so as to embrace the valley of the South Branch of the Potomac and of the Cow Pasture Branch of James River; the valley of the James River to the Balcony Falls; the valley of the Roanoke west of the Blue Ridge ; and the New River Valley. The eastern boundary of the said Department will be, then, as follows: commencing at the north-the Flintstone Creek, in Maryland; the South Branch Mountain ; Town Hill Mountain ; Branch Mountain, or Big Ridge; the North, or Shenandoah Mountain ; Purgatory Mountain ; Blue Ridge; Alleghany mountains to the borders of North Carolina.

II.—By direction of the Secretary of the War, the following addition is made to paragraph 9, page 10, Revised Regulations for the Army: Except commissions issued by the President to officers of Volunteer Regiments, which will be considered the same as if issued by the Governors of the States.

III.-In order to guard against the loss of valuable letters mailed by soldiers in the various camps, the following order is given, on the recommendation of the Post Office Department: The Commander of each Regiment or Brigade will appoint a trustworthy agent to receive all letters from soldiers containing valuable enclosures. Each letter must be prepaid by postage stamps, together with the registering fee of five cents. A failure to register valuable letters increases the danger of their loss. It will be the duty of the agent to deliver the letters intrusted to him at a convenient post office daily, or as often as mails are forwarded therefrom. He will, with the letters, deliver duplicate lists of the same, giving the names of the writers, and the address upon the letters; one of which lists, with the registering fee, will be retained by the postmaster. The other copy, signed by the postmaster or registering clerk, will be returned to the agent, as his voucher for the faithful execution of his office. BY COMMAND OF MAJOR GENERAL MCCLELLAN:

L. THOMAS, Adjutant General.


General Orders,


No. 24.

Washington, March 13, 1862. I.— The military post established by the troops under command of Colonel Henry Moore, 47th New York Volunteers, United States Service, at the “Point of Pines,” Edisto Island, South Carolina, will be called Fort Edisto.

The following Resolution of Congress is published for the information of all concerned: A RESOLUTION providing for the payment of the awards of the commis

sion to investigate the military claims in the Department of the West;

Resolved by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That all sums allowed to be due from the United States to individuals, companies, or corporations, by the Commission heretofore appointed by the Secretary of War, (for the investigation of military claims against the Department of the West,) composed of David Davis, Joseph Holt, and Hugh Campbell, now sitting at St. Louis, Missouri, shall be deemed to be due and payable, and shall be paid by the disbursing officers, either in St. Louis or Washington, in each case upon the presentation of the voucher with the Commissioners' certificate thereon in any form plainly indicating the allowance of the claim and to what amount. This resolution shall apply only to claims and contracts for service, labor, or materials, and for subsistence,

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