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Dupin is the principal labourer in this field; but he has able coadjutors. Independently of various distinct treatises published within the last two years, the “ Revue Encyclopédique," and the “ Bulletin Universelle," contain a great mass of the most important statistical facts. From these various sources, compared with our own Parliamentary Returps, wę may derive pretty accurate materials for a comparațive view of the statistics of France and Great Britain ; and we may not improperly devote some pages of the last number of our work for the current year, to the detail of facts, which may furnish abundant data for future inquiry and contemplation.
The surface of the French soil amounts to 52,562,300 hectares, or 154,000 square geographical miles. It
be divided as follows: Arable Lands
22,818,000 hectares. Vineyards
7,072,000 Pasture land
3,525,000 Meadow land
3,388,000 Wastes, marshes, roads, &c.
Total 52,562,300 The kingdom of France contains 86 towns, which are capitals of departments, and 38,479 communes. The population, in January 1827, amounted to 31,845,428 inhabitants, of which number two-thirds, or thereabouts, were devoted to agriculture, and one-third was engaged in trade and manufactures.
In the third report of the Emigration Committee the following table for Great Britain is given :General Statement of the Cultivated, Uncultivated, and Unprofitable Land of the
46,522,970 | 15,000,000 15,871,463 77,394,433 Of the cultivated land in Great Britain, it has been estimated that 14 millions of acres are arable, and 20 millions meadow and pasture.
The United Kingdom contains, according to the returns for Great Britain made in 1821, and the best returns for Ireland, 117 county towns, and 13,885 parishes, and possesses a population of 21,238,580 souls, constituting 4,253,416 families employed as follows: In Agriculture
1,198,186 families. Trade, manufactures, &c.
1,677,886 Not comprised in either of the preceding classes 1,377,344
There exist no exact data of the population of France. prior to the year 1780. At that period, according to the calculations of M. Necker, the kingdom contained 24,802,580 inhabitants. In 1821, the population amounted to 30,451,187, which gives an increase of about 23 in every hundred in the space of 40 years.
At the same epoch, 1780, the Three Kingdoms contained a population of 12,400,000 souls, or thereabouts; in 1821 the number of inhabitants had increased to 21,238,580, giving an increase of 61 in the hundred, an augmentation almost treble that which occurred in France.
This difference in the progress of population between France and England is attributed by French writers on the subject, and perhaps justly, to the effects of the war and of the civil dissensions which, in the interval between 1793 and 1815, cut off two millions of Frenchmen,—to the military conscriptions, which, by engrossing the flower of the youth of the country, suspended the natural production of the species,—and to the general relaxation of morals, as evidenced by the number of natural children, who in the year 1824 alone amounted, taking the whole of France, to 71,174 in 984,152) births; and in Paris separately in the year 1826 to 10,502 in 29,970 births.
The increase of population in France, therefore, has only been 6,536 in the million of inhabitants ;. while the augmentation in England is 16,667 in the million. In Prussia the increase is 27,027 in the million; in the Netherlands 12,372 ; in the kingdom of the two Sicilies 11,111; in Russia 10,527, and in Austria 10,114. Supposing the annual increase of population to continue in the same proportion in the respective countries just named, the estimate would stand thus:The population of,
Prussia would be doubled in 26 years.
105 And thus France, says M. Dupin, would descend by degrees in the scale of nations below all the other countries, and would continue to nourish only 5,688 inhabitants in every square myriametre or 381 miles English, while in the same space, Great Britain, with a climate less genial, and a soil less fertile, would nourish 8,107. But this result is inconsistent with the progress which manufactures, commerce, arts and sciences have made in France since the overthrow of the empire.
In the interval between 1803 and 1815 twelve campaigns had deprived France of upwards of a million of men ; and had consumed
than 6,000,000,000 of francs, or 240,000,0001. sterling. Two invasions by her enemies had taken from her all her recent conquests, and destroyed or consumed on her very territory to the amount of 1500,000,000 francs of her actual substance or produce in houses, manufactures, instruments, and animals indispensable to agriculture, manufactures, or commerce.
Between 1815 and 1818, 200,000 foreign
soldiers had remained encamped on her soil, and 1500,000,000 of francs of indemnity had been paid to her conquerors. Thus in twelve years 9,000,000,000 of francs (360,000,0001. sterling) were drawn from the productive industry of France, and lost for ever.
In less than nine years, that is to say, from 1818, these injuries, great and profound as they were, have been recovered from. The population of France has increased since the peace 2,500,000 souls. The houses and farm buildings demolished by the enemy have been rebuilt; the contributions have been paid ; the live stock of the countries shows an augmentation of 5,000,000 head of sheep, and of 400,000 horses, since the period of the invasion. A year of scarcity had occurred immediately after the return of the Bourbons, but in the following year France recovered from the effects of this calamity, and her losses were repaired. The products of the soil of France in 1812, may be thus stated :* Wheat
51,500,200 hectolitres.t Rye
35,000,000 In the last fifteen years the produce of agriculture in France has increased more than a tenth, and its total annual amount may be stated at 5,313,000,000 francs, made up as follows: Wheat, annual produce valued francs
288,600,000 Millet, and other small grain
141,440,000 Chestnut plantations
21,540,000 Field fruit-trees
350,000,000 Manufactures, however, have in France made much greater progress than agriculture. The foreign occupation had subjected them to immense losses, especially in the northern and western departments, where establishments which employed several hundreds of hands had
* M. le Comte Chaptal on French Industry.'
+ The hectolitre is equal to 2.84 Winchester bushels, or in wine to 26} gallons, imperial measure.
been completely destroyed. These losses have not only been repaired, but have been succeeded by an opulence previously unknown.
In 1812, the manufactories of France worked 35,000,000 of killograms* of French wool : they now use 42,000,000, besides 8,000,000 of foreign wool. In 1812, the quantity of cotton spun in France was only 10,362,000 killograms : in 1825, the quantity spun was 28,000,000, The manufacture of silk, also, has increased considerably, and the population of Lyons (an infallible sign of the prosperity of this branch of industry) has increased 50,000.
Thus the progress of manufacturing has in France surpassed that of agricultural industry; this, again, has been exceeded by that of industry employed in the working of minerals.
In 1814, the manufacture of iron in France amounted to 100,000,000, killograms; in 1825, it reached 160,000,000 of killograms. In 1814, there were extracted from the mines of France 1,000,000,000 killograms of coal (houïlle); in 1825, the produce was upwards of 1,500,000,000, an increase of one half.
The produce of French industry is now estimated at 1,770,000,000, francs, composed of the following branches, at a calculation in round numbers : Thrown silk, silk stuffs, gauzes, crapes
150,000,000 Cloths and woollen stuffs
240,000,000 Linen cloth of hemp and flax, and thread lace 200,000,000 Stationery
10,000,000 Metallic substances, iron, brass, steel, copper, lead 115,000,000 Coal, and other produce of mines and quarries
30,000,000 Watch and clock making
30,000,000 Goldsmith's work and jewellery
80,000,000 Glass, plate glass, china, pottery, brick-making 80,000,000 Lime and plaster
15,000,000 Salts and acids
30,000,000 Soap manufacture
30,000,000 Sugar refinery
30,000,000 Tanneries, leather-dressing
160,000,000 Dye and varnish
15,000,000 Bookselling, printing, &c.
60,000,000 Cider and perry
75,000,000 Upholstery, musical instruments
1,770,000,000 To this abridged statement of the progress of French industry it should be added, that the interior trade of the kingdom has increased one-half since 1818; that the land-carriage of goods has doubled; that water-carriage has almost trebled; that the stamps, which are a kind of barometer of the amount of commercial transactions, have experienced an increase of 24 per cent. ; that the tenth exacted by the government from the produce of the municipal duties, which is a criterion of the consumption of the principal towns, has augmented a fourth; that the produce of the customs has increased a fifth ; that of the ports a sixth; and that in 1826, the revenue of the state exceeded the expenditure by about 2,000,000 of francs. Yet, on a comparison of this progressive improvement of French industry with that of Great Britain, the advantage is still found to be on the side of the latter.
* The killogram is equal to 23 lbs. English avoirdupois,
The entire produce of British agriculture, valued according to French prices, exceeds the entire produce of French agriculture by 947,000,000 of francs, that is to say, nearly a sixth part; and this notwithstanding the difference of a half in favour of France in respect to extent of territory. Again, the produce of British manufactures exceeds that of the French manufactures 1,500,000,000 of francs, that is to say, nearly one-half.
In 1810, Great Britain paid 6,000,0001, sterling to the foreigner for her supply of grain ; in 1814 she paid no more than 2,000,000..; and in 1827 the produce of her own territory was nearly sufficient for her consumption, notwithstanding a considerable increase in her population.
In 1814, the British manufactures worked up 60,060,239 lbs. of cotton, 15,490,154 lbs. of wool, and 2,280,223 lbs. of silk ; and there was not exported more than to the value of 24,300,0001. sterling (official value) of the merchandise so manufactured. In 1825, Great Britain consumed in manufactures 215,000,000 lbs. of cotton, 38,700,000 lbs. of wool, and 4,200,000 lbs. of silk, and exported to the value of 38,300,0001, sterling of her manufactured articles.
According to the calculations of M. Heron de Villefosse, in the beginning of the year 1826 there were in activity in France 379 furnaces, yielding 1,614,402 metrical quintals of smelted metal ; of these 375 were heated by charcoal, and 4 by coke. There were, besides, in a state of construction, or already constructed, 28 new furnaces, of which 15 were destined for the use of coke, and 12 for that of charcoal.
In 1788 there existed in England 26 furnaces heated by wood, and 60 heated by coke; which together produced annually 70,000 tons of smelted iron. In 1806 there were reckoned 227 coke furnaces and 2 charcoal furnaces. Of this number 161 were in operation, and yielded 245,000 tons of iron. In 1826, however, the number of furnaces in Great Britain was 305, all served by coke. Of these 280 were in activity, each producing at the rate of 50 tons a week, and the whole giving the enormous annual aggregate of 7,395,000 metrical quintals; a manufacture exceeding four times that of the French furnaces, and which exhibits the immense advantage still possessed by this country over France in this important branch of public wealth.
These data show the immense difference existing between the industry, agricultural and manufacturing, of Great Britain, and that of France; and what immense strides the latter country has still to make, before she can hope to rival the greatest manufacturing and commercial country of the world.
We have proved by the most incontrovertible of all tests, that of figures, the superiority of Great Britain in agriculture and manufac tures; we now proceed to produce evidence that this superiority is in