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docile than the native of Old Cas. qaent in Catalonia, and stigmatizos tile, who pertinaciously retains the - its native by the name of rebel. inflexibility of his ancestors, whilst the other readily assimilates with the character of the neighbouring provinces. In general the observer Character, Manners, and Cus. anay trace ia him a complexional toms of La Mancha. [Frome resemblance to the country he ap. the same.] proximates; he is most civilized in the environs of Madrid; most,

The manners of this province useful in the borders of Andalusia ;

differ little from those of Castile. mnost active and industrious on the The people are more grave and so. confines of the kingdom of Valen.

Jemn in their deportment, and more cia ; most arrogant and rude on

attached to ancient customs, etithe frontiers of Aragon and the quette, and old fashioned ceremony. Sierra de Cuenca; most indolent in

and their constitutions are more the neighboured of Estramadura, robust and hiter for labour; their whilst generosity, noblegess, and

tempes in general is mild and peace. benevolence, are the boods that

able, and they are truly good.hu. unite him to Old Castile. In par.

moured. Persons in the higher ticular we should select for praise

ranks pass their lives in case and the inhabitants of Alcarria, distin.

apathy; on the other hand, the guished by their frankness and sim.

common people are laborious and plicity; ibeir cheerful love of la.

frugal; and both orders take no bour; their social affections, and

pleasure in any sort of dissipation, ready hospitality.

or even of diversion. Every thing In the course of several centuries is grave and formal. the character of the Castilian has scarcely undergonc any change. From the era of 1230 it has been Character, Manners, Custons, fully developed ; the priaciples of Dress, and Language of the magnanimity, generosity, fidelity, Aragonese. (From the same. valour, and integrity, which thea entered into its constitution, are The Aragonese, proud and se. still apparent in all the revolutions rious, speaks little, and defends his which have convulsed the country, opinion with firmness. He extols The Castilian has still preserved his country above all others; por that decorous composed gravity, does he spare hyberbole in boasting that calm reflective prudence, that of its beauties aod advantages; and fortitud in adversity, which cha the least contradiction irritates him. racterized bim in the fifteenth cen. He is blind to its faults, and to tury,

those of his countrymen; he has a The Catalonian hates the Cas, natural asperity iä his voice and tilian, who requites the sentiment manners; and his address consewith detestation and contempt. quently is not prepossessing. His The loyal Castilian burns with in. haughtiness, his dry reception, his digaation against the revolts so fre. Serious air, cold manners, and ab

rupt rupt tone, have something very copied from their neighbours : repulsive to those who do not confounded with their old habits. know him. This is what he is charged with; but truth obliges us to observe, that these defects are fully compensated by truly estima. Character, Nanners. Habiti, a: ble qualities. . .

Customs of the Valencia If the Aragonese are cold and [From the same.] serious, they are considerate, pru.

" Valencia, take it altogether,

Valencia dent, possessed of solid judgment and good sense. Their preposses.

an agreeable town, inhabited by a sions in favour of their country do

opulent nobility, a great number 1 not blind them tò the advantages

rich 'merchants, an active aod i.

dústrious' people, and a wealta, possessed by others; they know them, and readily pay respect to

clergy; it has play-houses, 2 the merit of foreigners.

other places of resort; a taste fi If they

pleasure is manifested every where; are proud, they are likewise civil; their reception of strangers, al.

: the streets are clean, the house though cold and scrious, is perhaps'

ne agreeable, and we meet with si. more sincere than the politeness

= ing'faces; all is gaiety, pleasure met with in other provinces. They

are multiplied, and feast succed have a lively imagination, and quick

feast: we scarcely believe tha: conception. They are skilful cous.

we are in Spain, on finding oui, tiers without falsehood, courage.

selves in the midst of an air, ous without ostentation, and brave

lively people, passionately fond to rashness: their soldiers have

of singing and dancing, of it always distinguished themselves in

that can amuse them, and who ou!. the Spanish army, and the province

wardly appear warm and cordial. has produced many excellent com.

The Valencians are described as manders. Their character is na.

light, inconstant, and only sociable turally decided, firm, and immove.

for the sake of pleasure, not asso. able: they are haughty, daring,

ciating through affection. This is and ambitious, to which they often

5. the picture drawn of them througt add indocility; and they never yield

ad out Spain, the picture given by when it is necessary to fight for

their own authors : « The agree. the defence of their privilege and

" able town of Valencia,” sare their laws; this has often given

Gracian, 6 noble, handsome and rise to the reatest troubles.

“gay, replete with all that is uD. This character of the Aragon.

< substantial.” Jiurillo has paint ese influences their habits and cus.

ed the Valencians as' " light both toms. They have always an air of

“in mind and body.” It is even reserve and ceremony, which gives

become a proverb among the Spa a gloomy appearance even to their

niards, who say, in speaking of la. amusements. Every thing among

ng lcncia,

each them is done by rule and compass; La carne es yerva, la yerva agua, every thing influenced by ancient Los hombres mugeres, las mugeres nada usuages; and the little they have

that is, the meat is grass, the grass families who have been made gran, water, the men are women, the dees, and to some other houses women nothing. But they have thought entitled to it. Red blood been judged too harshly; the con. comprehends families of great trast of their manners with that of antiquity, and the old titles of Cas. the rest of Spain, of their lively tile and Arragon. Yellow blood disposition, ever ready for plea. comprehends the modern titles of sure, with Spanish gravity and Castile, and families, the date of reserve, have been the grounds of whose nobility extends no farther this opinion.

i į back than two centuries. . This It is true that the Valencians division generates envy in the se. have a great degree of levity, a cond class against the first, and in fickleness of disposition, and a ga. the third against the two others, so iety in their manners; that they that no attachment takes place are swayed by the love of pleasure; except among the nobles of the that thcy are fond of singing, danc. same class, ing, banquetting, and all kinds of The tradesman of Valencia loves feasting; that these are perpetually pleasure and good living ; so would running in their head, at work or the lowest class of people if they at prayers, abroad or at home, in had the means of gratification. the streets or in company; the very These appear gentle, but are chargfestivals of the church become with ed with conccaling their hatred : them objects of recreation; but, they were formerly accused of notwithstanding all this, they can making frequent use of the dagger, be serious when circumstances re. and it has been cven said that there quire it; they are not the less were a great number of professed active in commerce, the less indus. assassins for hire in Valencia. Onc trious in the arts, the less assiduous shudders in passing through the in agriculture, or the less profound streets, particularly those near the in the sciences; Valencia can ad. Mercado square, at the sight of duce scholars, literary men, artists, crosses on the walls with inscripand able merchants enough to tions containing the names of peroverturn the imputation of frivo, sons assassinated near the spot. lity, which the imposition of ap. We must, however, do justice to pearances only could have given the modern Valencians: they are rise to.

more civilized; there are no assas- . The women are still less deserv. sins for hire among them; the dag. ing of reproach, they are mild and ger is no longer used; and mur. amiable, and sometimes show more ders are much less frequent, though, courage and energy than the men, they are still heard of now and then.

On juster grounds are the nobi. The Valencian women are na. lity of Valencia charged with an turally gentle, but the ascendancy excessive pride, which the preju. they have acquired over the men dices of an erroneous education renders them at times imperious; keep up. They are, by them. they know their superiority, and selves, divided into three classes, some of them abuse it. The more blue blood, red blood, and yellow active and industrious the men of blood. Blue blood is confined to the middle classes are, the more

lazy

Jazy are the wonen of every class, the plague, St. Anthony against the more do they f, from every kind fire, St. Barbara against lightning; of occupation. The women of the St. Casalida cures the lass of blood, lowest class work against their in. St, Appollonia the tooth.aeh, St. clination to gain their living; bu', Augusta the dropsy; St. Raymond the moment- they can do without has the care of pregnant women, working, they give themselves up St. Lazarus of lying-in women, and to sloth, till uecessity com pels them St. Nicholas of marriageable giris. to work again: those of a higher Every waggoner carries about bin class never think of work at all, not the image of a saint to whom be even of such as belong to the sex, expresses his gratitude if his joar. or of reading: this indolence is ney be fortunate; but should any the fault of their parents, who ac. mishap overtake him on the road, custom them to idleness from their woe bc to his protector! he tram. infancy.

ples him under foot, loads him siti However, in consequence of the abuse, and sends him a Dimonio mutability of disposition peculiar sunta Barbara! a los Diasoles to the country they live in, the Va. S. Francisco! al inferno nostra lencian women are always in mo. senora del Carmen! There are tion; they walk about the streets, sereral other superstitions, but we go from shop to shop without shall only notice that called the mo! boying, and frequently into the de ojos, fascination: the Valen. churches; the festivals, and the cian women secure themselves from variety of appointed times and oc, it by little irory hands, moles' feet casions for prayer afford them ex.. or scarlet tufts, and likewise tie cuses for their trips. They have them about their children's necks. a singular predilection for St. Though the Valencians, in ge. Catherine-square, which is a place neral, are rich, they do not know for the men to mect in; they how to make life agreeable: each never go abroad without passing class of nobility, as we have said, through it, if it be crer so much live among themselves; they have out of their way. If a man were to a great many useful servants. They remain a whole day in the square, are pillaged by attorneys and ad. he would see three.fourths of the vocates, whoin they cannot do women of Valencia go throug! it without; drained of their money twice or thrice.

by priests, convents, churches, and The Valencians are among the saint days, and ruined in their in. most superstitious people in Spain: come by the excessive luxury of they mix religious works with pro. the women; so that at the end of fane customs, and think by exte. the year happy is he who is not in rior observances, which harc 1o. deht. Sometimes they gire enter. thing to do with the worship due to tainments in which gallautry and the Divinity, to obtain pardon for magnificence unite; these, hore their sins. They have particular, ever, rarely take place but on to ly great confidence in the saints to occasions, where a uobleman mar. whom they attribute the power of ries, or when it comes to his tura protecting from accidents and dis to take the licutenancy of the eases. St. Roche protects against maestranza: in the latter case,

tournaments,

tournaments, balls, and refresh. these assemblies strangers are ad. ments thrice a year create a great mitted without much difficulty, expense, but nothing equal to that the party meet because it is neces. incurred by the old Freuch lords sary, and separate with indiffer, in the feasts they gave.

ence, going away with minds as The merchants are not surround. vacant as they came. The second. ed by ihose apoderados, those rate societies are much less nume. lawyers and agents who prey upon rous, but are perhaps more amus. the nobility: they transact their ing: they often makc parties to go own business, and of course know and dine at Grao, or other adjacent better how to turn their wealth to places, and spend the time agreea. account.

bly enough. The tradesmen would all be in There was formerly a play-house easy cirumstances if they knew at Valencia said to have been very how to make a better u:e of their handsome. An archbishop of the business; but their gaios are squan. town, through a mistaken zeal, dered in expenses for the table and caused it to be demolished. After in gaming; in gifts to monks, con. the death of that prelate, a tempo. Tents, chapels; in payments to rary one was erected, decorated pious societies, in illuminations of simply but with taste. There are altars, and in alms to sturdy beg. plays in it every night, and the gars, by which a great many per. prices of admission are moderate. sons who would rather live by The women of every class carry begging than by honest labour are the luxury of dress to the highest supported in idleness and vice, and pitch: those of the first and see consequently it is impossible to go cond never wear Spanish clothes into the streets, particularly in the but when they go out on foot or night, without being assailed by a to church ; at home, in visiting, erowd of those wretches. . in parties, at balls, or plays, in

Valencia, in spite of its opulence, carriages, or on the promenade, of the taste of its inhabitants for they dress in the French fashion. pleasure, and of their natural affa. Their stuffs are handsome and bility, is far from being an amus. choice; they are elegantly made ing town. It is difficult to gain ad. up, and arranged with taste: they mission into private houses; and, come from France. In their head. without great intimacy, no one dresses they wear flowers and fea. sees the ladies but from twelve at thers, and they are very attentive noon to one o'clock. There are to their shoes and stockings. With no coffee-houses; some ont of the all this richness of dress, their ear. way places, called botetlerias, rings and other trinkets are of supply their place, but are not false stones : there are very few used for sociable meetings. The who wear diamonds. Valencians seldom give dinners. The women are not more elegant The nobility moet generally in than the men are simple and inolarge and boisterous parties, in dest in their dress. The nobility which they do not converse but find the uniform of the maestranza play, an amusement of which the very economical, as it exempte women are passiquately food. In them from following the fashions.

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