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took possession of it, and esta. facility. They are, in the mai, blished themselves there. Yet high-minded, proud, and ind there is a tradition of long stand. pendent; they are said to be very ing in Scotland, and generally self.conceited, obstinate, ai credited at present in England, made angry, very irritable and is. that the Irish are descended from patient. the Caledonians. It is easy to re. These defects are compensati coocile the two opinions. The by several good qualities: they at Caledonians may have subjected or in general laborious, industrious peopled Ireland in very remote active, ingenious, studions, faits times, and the Biscayans may have ful to their word, humane, borz established themselves there at a table, noble in their proceedings later period.
gay, lively, and sociable. The Biscayans consider them. The inhabitants of Alara in p selves as the descendants of the an. neral devote themselves to ap cient Cantabri, who were a rustic culture ; those of Biscay and GI. people, high spirited, brave, intre. ' puscoa are as much merchants 3 pid, passionately fond of inde. farmers; they are considered # pendence, who would sacrifice the best sailors in Spain. W: their lives, the lives of their wives have already noticed their eypes and of their children, to their love tion to Ireland in remote tice of liberty; who resisted for a It is said, that with a fleet cos. length of time the forces of the posed of boats made of the trans republic of Rome, who defeated of trees, hollowed and comerci its armies, who were subjugated with skins, they then conqueret without being subdued ; in short, that country: which is not ke?? who were the last people of Spain credible. After that period this that yielded to its different con. carried their commerce into rei querors.
distant countries ; at the ends The Cantabri are described in the fourteenth century, they like history as an active and robust factorics, and a consol at Azoff, people, having a ferocious temper, the mouth of the Tenais, on the and extraordinary customs; unac. confines of Europe and Asia. quainted with mancy, endowing The inhabitants of the provine the women whom they married, of Biscay are generally of the cevery constant and firni, resisting mon stature; they have a fret obstacles, facing every kind of colour, an animated, lively, and danger, and easily supporting sa chcerful face, and an open cout tigue and labour.
tenance. They live to a gone The modero Biscayans are old age, to which the tranquil 24 represented as still preserving healthy life they lead a great deal strongly-marked traces of the contributes. Their domestic han character of their ancestors, but piness too is founded upon a so considerably softened by civiliza. basis, the social virtues; the well tion. They are equally robust men appear to be good, faithful and strong, brave and active, and attentive to their domestic con Very light in running, they climb cerns; the children obedient and the mountains with the greatest respectful. Their ideas rarely ea
tend beyond the narrow circle of play the same energy, if there were their duties, as their sight extends occasion for it. Their features no further than the enclosure of are in genccal regular, and their their mountains : they are per.' complexion fresh, brown, yet haps right in not attempting to ruddy, bespeaks vigour and health : paşs either the one or the other. a bold countenance, a lively eye, a
The Biscayans are not reputed confident look, and a certain to have the sobriety of the Spa. haughty air, mark in them the niards in general; it is said of sentiment of independence which them, that they consume the pro. has reigned in this province. duce of their wine in buying fo. The Cantabrian women used to reign wincs ; they cat and drink a carry the heaviest barthens; they great deal, but are seldom in. cultivated the lands, ploughed the toxicated. The idea of a nobility fields, and did erery kind of work ; descendiog to all the natives of they got up soon after their lying. Biscay, has a striking influence in, and oursed their husbands, who on the character of the people of went to bed in their stead, a cus. the three cantons ; it preserves io tom which was likewise common their bouscs a priociple of dignity, among the inhabitants of Navarre, which, even in the lowest offices, and for which it is impossible to gives them a noble mein and ag give any reason. elevation of soul.
The Biscayan females of the The wives of the ancient Canta. present day have not degenerated. bri were as courageous as their They work in the field as well as husbands; they did not carry the men, and more diligently : at arms, or fight, but they attended the sea.ports they are more employ. on them in battle, supported their ed than the inen; they manage the courage, and provoked their pen. boats, and likewise act as porters. geance, Animated by an heroic Bilbao particularly is the place to pride, they resolved to be free, and judge of them. Without shoes or spurned crery idea to the contrary, stockings, with a short petticoat, preferring death to servitude. They their arms naked to the shoulders, sacrificed all that was dear to and displaying vigorous muscles, them to their independence. Care they are not dismayed with the rying always a dagger about them, heaviest burdens ; it often requires they were often seen, during the the assistance of two stout men to wars of the Romans against the help up the load, and, while the Cantabri, to plunge it in the stranger is terrified to look on, breasts of the children whom they they run off with it as if it were suckled, at the moment they were nothiog. After working in this about to fall into the power of manner all day, they shew no si:n8 their enemies, preferring the grief of fatiguc at night; they often of losing them, to that of sceing return home, several of them toge. them in slavery.
ther, holding hands, dancing to a The Bisca yan women are still tambourine, They are sometimes high.minded, courageous, and de. seen working on the sides of mouna termiacd, and would perhaps disa tains, climbing rapidly orer sleep
rocks, running along them, and employed themselves in bothing coming down with incredible bold. but war and hunting ; and such as Dess.
were not strong enough for that kind of life, occupied themselves
in fishing. Their wives ploughed Character of the Asturians, the land, sowed, gathered the bar. [From the same.]
vest, and took care of their fam. A strong attachment to their lies. When they lay in, their country, an unshaken fidelity to husbands took to their beds in their their sovereign, a passive obe. 'stead; a custom as ridiculous as dience to the laws, an ardent zeal absurd. for religion, and a probity, proof The modern Galicians do not against all temptations, are the he. preserve the wildness of those of reditary features of the character those primitive natives, but merely of the Asturians, to which we may a distaste to what is called in gene. add boldness and courage. They ral civilization. Wé find in their have no vivacity in their manners; mountains only simple and pare they may be accused, and they arc, manners, a quiet and hospitable of dullness; and yet the Asturias people, without any idea o have given birth to distinguished luxury. men of every kind. The Asturian's The Galicians are large, strong, probity may be considered as pro. very muscular, and robust; they verbial; he is even disinterested, easily support fatigue. The wo. taking this word in its strictest men are fair, tolerably handsome, sense. Theft is unknown amongst with black hair and eyes, five these honest mountaineers, and teeth, and regular but not very with regard to what is called dissi. expressive features. The men, pation, amusement, or pleasure, women, and children, go bare. their simile manners differ from foot. As in Biscay and the As. those of the other Spaniards. They turias, this kingdom is entirely do not know what is every composed of the Christianos vie. where else called the highest de. jos (old Christians), who have gree of civilization ; they are shel. never iutermarried with converted tered from it behind their rocks, Jews or Moors. where, happy and peaceful, they The Galicians, like the Astaconfine theinselves to their duties, rians, very frequently quit their and in general live to a good old fire-sides, to seek at a distance the age, because their constitution is means of fortune, or to acquire a healthy and robust.
greater degree of ease; they are attached to religion, and faithful to the king. Serious, grare, free,
sober, and prudent, they lead a Characler, Manners, Genius, and melancholy life, and keep little language of the Galicians. company.' In other respec
company. In other respects they s From the same.] : distinguish themselves by their
The Callaici were the oldest in. probity and courage. habitants of Galicia. Those people The Galicians furnish a great
number of soldiers for the army. of dejection and poverty. It must Every year, in the month of Octo. be acknowledged they have little ber, the militia is assembled, and relish for the pleasures of society; the young men are taken for it they are serious, grave, reserved, from the age of fifteen years. The and somewhat stately, and in their peasants are scen running with movements are perhaps more so. pleasure to the place of assem. lemn aud slow than any other peo. bling, delighted to see themselves ple in Spain; but it must be admit. armed, and treated as cavalleros, ted also, that their morals are innoblos soldados del rei. They corrupt and ingenuoys; that they are naturally disposed to arms; are upright in conduct, strangers the inhabitants of the county of in artifice, and unpractised in "čun. Montforte are remarked for this, ning or duplicity'; probity is their as well as those of Lemos, which birthright; they are naturally is watered by the little river Cabe, obliging; they are also disinterest. and the capital town of which is ed, and so perfectly free from af. situated upon a steep and lofty fectation that they may justly be mountain. This town is reputed called the honest people of Spain. to have been founded by emigrant Placed in one of the poorest pro. Greeks; and what supports this vinces of the Spanish empire, with. opinion is the vivacity, wit, and out wealth, and without the means bravery, of the inhabitants of this to obtain it, their energy is con. canton. . * .
stantly repressed by poverty, their - The Galicians were the first industry languishes from discou. poets of Spain. Before the dea ragement, and whilst they are stigscent of the Romans, they com- matized with apathy and sloth, posed and sung verses, some tra, they are in reality oppressed with ditions of which remain in their án. accumulated difficulties, and left by cient language, yet they made little an unfortunate destiny, to inacti. progress in this art.
vity and despondeuce. In general The present language of Galicia they are arorse to conversation, is a mixture of the ancient Casti, they have little intercourse with - lian, of the time of Alphonso the one another, and still less with
Wise, and of Portuguese, with se, strangers; their few amusements veral expressions which it has re- are of the same sombre cast; sùbtained of the ancient Roman lan. jected to an imperious etiquette, guage.
equally circumscribcd, constraioed, and monotonous, they afford no
variety, and inspire no gaiety, but Character, Manners, Customs, are uniformly characterized by
Habits, Dress, and Language circumspection, gloom and solem. of the Old Castilians. From nity; different shades of character the sume.]
are however often perceptible in
this province. The inhabitants of It is the remark of an acute the valley of Mena, in the country writer, that the Old Castilians are of Burgos, who believe themselves gloomy and taciturn, and bear in descended from the ancient Canta. their swarthy aspect the expression bres, still retain a large portion of
3 D 4
their constitutional courage and vicious; he devotes himself come vacity. The habits and manners pletely to the objects of his persuit, of the mountaineers of Burgos cor. but he is scldom capable of embru respond with those of the Biscayaus. ing more than onc at the same
ment; his genios only requires
culture and encogragement; bet ke Character, Manners, Customs, possesses not the power to obrza
Habits, Dress, and Larguage knowledge, and the governmen: of the New Castilruns. s From fails to alsord him the means of a the sume.)
With acute and virid feeling be It might naturally be expected, is more reflective than the native of that the infuence of the court Catalonia or Aragon; he is deve should operate on the manners of precipitate; he weighs, he delibe. New Castile, or at least on such rates, and is slow in forming his parts of it as are placed in its vicini. decision; and, consequently, is ty. It has been already observed, easily induced to leave his ori that Madrid is isolated from New sphere. Castile, the capital is always elevat. llis vivacity belongs to the mine; ed above the province. On leav. 'it impels not to activity or to per ing its walls you are instantly trags. sobal exertions. Hence his appa. ported from a seat of luxury to a rent sloth, and slowness, so fre. scene of iodigence; and instead of quently cited with reproach; or activity, iodustry, and wealth, are examination it will, however, ap. presented with a dreary picture of pear, that his failings have original. sadness, sloth, and beggary.
ed rather in his situation than bis The inhabitant of New Castile, character. It should be reme. though marked by a lofty aspect, bered, that the Castilian was foris not proud, and with the expres. merly devoted to the art of war, and sion of extreme gravity, is, in reali. taught to despise the occupations of ty, prone to excessive mirth. With agriculture and science, as inferior superior capacities for reflection, and ignoble objects. This preju. he thinks much but demonstrates dice has been transmitted from his little, and acts less; he is rather ancestors, and is perpetuated by slow in yielding his confidence, indigence and ignorance, Fort de but, when he trusts at all, it is with places a barrier to his progress in his whole heart and soul; he is science. The same adverse circutpeither prompt in enterprize, nor stances impede him in agriculture disposed to acquire the regular and the arts; he beholds a fertile habits of industry. There are, per. soil; but he commands no ports; haps, not many active occupations no marls to remunerate the care he is likely to pursue with success; and toil of assiduous cultivation, his aptitudes are to science, particu- The New Castilian possesses Jarly to such abstruser branches as qualities of genuine excellence; he are connected with speculation and is honourable and humane, sober yesearch ; his conceptions are strong and temperate, and revolts from and vigorous; his judgment solid; cvery species of falsehood or do. bis imagination vivid and viva. plicity. Tu his tem per he is more