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The Catalan has a national pride The Catalans have a tongue pe. peculiar to him: he secs nothing culiar to themselves; it is the ans above himself. He looks down on cient language of the provinces of other Spaniards, he esen despises a the south of France, the inhabi. part of the nation, and his hatred tants of which took Catalonia from of the Castilian is beyond all ex. the Moors, und, peopling it, intro. pression. He does not love stran. duced their laws, customs, and gers; the French, with whom he usages; and their patois, or dialect, has most occasion to communicate, called the Limousine tongue, has he hates the most; the cause of continued down to our days in which is very ancient; it takes its Gascony, Languedoc, and Pro. source in the old quarrels and fre. vence; where it has undergone al. quent wars between the kings of terations more or less remarkable, France and those of Aragon; the occasioned by the mixture of the wars of the last century increased modern French; it has remained it; Catalonia gave itself to France, purer in Catalonia and Roussillon, and the Catalans can never forgive but with a mixture of Castilian ia the French for giving it up to its the former of these two provinces. old masters. The war of the suc- The Catalan tongue has lost that cession at the beginning of the last agreeable sweetness which forcentury completed the animosity; merly characterized it, and which the French sacked Catalonia, sube is better preserved in the kingdom dued the spirit of its inhabitants of Valencia; it has taken, in the and compelled them to acknow. mouth of the Catalan, hard termi. ledge the legitimate authority of nations and a rough and disagree. their king. The facts are impres. able pronunciation: it has like. sed on the minds of these people wise at present a great resemblance with indelible characters, and they to the modern french tongue, in retain in their hearts an invincible the construction and turn of ex. arersion to the nation that brought pression, in the grammar rules, them into subjection.
and in the sameness of a great many The mantle and round hat, com. of its words, which differ from the non in the other parts of Spain, are French only in the termination. not worn in Catalonia ; and the It is spoken throughout Catalonia Mayo jacket is scarcely ever seen; with considerable variation, ac. a close coat, in the French fashion, cording to the different districts : is the usual dress in almost all con. with greater purity in the moun. ditions. The peasants who live in tains, and more altered in large the mountains wear a double towns. The national projudice of breasted waistcoat, and over it a the Catalan makes him prerer his kind of wide great coat, which language to that of the Spaniards, goes no lower than the knees; they the Castilian is therefore little in call it a gambeto. There is besides use in Catalonia, and when it is these a variety of dresses, among heard there, it is disfigured and the common people of both sexes, scarcely to be known in conse. the details of which would be tou quence of the mixture of Catalan long for insertion here.
pbrases and turos.
Character, Manners, Customs, several of the conquerors of Am.
and Habits of the Estramadu- rica, Fernando Cortez, Francia rans. [From the same.] Pizarro, che Marquis del Valle de
Goanaca, and some other of tica The inhabitants of Estramadura companions in arms, live in a country which seems to be The labourers or workera e insulated from every other, and this province are likerise acondi where opportunities of communi. of an excessive slo-h. The coup cating with the different parts of appears to be true ; but iba 4 the Spanish monarchy are not fre. to be treated with igualget. quent. Hence this province ap. when it is known that they ait" pears to be concentrated in itself, cessarily led into the habit of t. and to think only of its own exist. ness, being, in spite of these-its ence. The people of it neither without work, without regt* know the comforts or the conveni. for two thirds of the year, encies of life, nor the means of without any means of iadastr. procuring them. Little habituated support their existence. Este to the world, they dread mixing paid for their work a ver with it, and avoid society. Hence rate price, living in 2 COUNT they appear taciturn, and are, per. where commodities are very da haps, the gravest of all the Spa and out of their reach, that niards. They fear to be accosted hope of ameliorating their team by strangers, shun their company, tion or their lot, they siak and take a pleasure in confining listlessness. If they are obcy themselves, all their lives, to their when they are employed, they s. own province. A certain distaste be found alert, indefatigable, wurde for employment, and the want of ing without relaxation at one knowledg, keep them from work,' day, in a burning climate, and uudi and make them constantly idle, a scorching sun.
They possess, in other respects, No kind of dissipation or plaexcellent qualities; they are frank, sures are known in Estramadora: sincere, full of honour and probity, there is no variety ; erery things slow in planning enterprizes, but regular, and melancholy. Perswa firm in their projects, and consist. of high birth, and those who bare ent in their notions. They have fortune, or are at their case, $8 always been excellent soldiers; doin associate, and that but acum they are strong, vigorous, and ro. dentally. bust, supporting, without murmur. It is still worse with the con ing, thcfatigues and dangers of war; mon people; they are so poor ET they have always displayed an as they are constantly experiencing tonishing courage; they prefer the deprivations of every kind, 300 cavalry to the infantry.
often want the necessaries of lilás This province has produced se. without looking forward to any veral great captains, who did ho. favourable change of this pitalie nour to their country by brilliant condition. This excess of porc exploits It gave birth to the fa. which spreads from family to fida mous Garcias de Paredes, and to mily, oppresses the soul, and cook.
tes the body. What a situation air, their gestures, their customs, -" seek for pleasure, and to be carry the stamp of it.
de to give oneself up to the gaiety. But these qualities are not which attends it!
equally conspicuous in every part We find in this province a sin. of Andalusia ; they are carried to alar example of what may be the highest pitch in the kingdom
lled a democratic constitution, of Seville ; and higher nearer the i bich excludes all superiority of sea than in the interior of the
en over one another. The inha. country. They are stronger, though tants of the little town of Casar less evident, in the kingdom of e Caceres, two leagues from Ca. Grenada, and become consider. res, who are in number about ably weaker as we go farther 000 persons, consider themselves into the kingdoms of Cordova and nong each other, all equal in Jaen. ink, quality, and condition ; Their country is a country of ley take the greatest care to pre. boasters, who distinguish thement this equality ever being al. selves from others by their dress; ered by any exterior sign of who speak in a high and menacing onours or distinction. In short, tone; who bully when they are hey have carried their vigilance in feared ; who fawn when they fail his respect so far, that, some to inspire terror; who are always ears ago, they had an inscription, dangerous when they can strike phica had been placed over the without risk: in a word, of that grave of one of their fellowciti. kind of coxcombs, known by the ens, renoved, though he was ge- appellation of mujos. Jerally esteemed and regretted. Is is likewise the country of
majas, or of women, who ought not, from the name, to be con.
founded with those beings that Munners, Habits,Customs, Dress, have been just mentioned ; and
and Language of the Andalu. who are as engaging as the majus. sians. (From the same.] are repulsive. A free air, an easy
turn, a noble mien, a lively, ata The Andalusians are the Gage tracting, animated eye, an arch cons of Spain ; they have neither and pleasing smile, a slender shape, the reserve of the Castilians, nor neatness about the feet, a light and the cold haughtiness of the Ara, elegant dress, various graccs, an gonese, nor the petulance of the 'harmonious voice, a natural soft Biscayans, nor the roughness of -ness, and expressive gestures, are the Catalonians, nor the nullity of the attributes of these women, as the Valencians; they sprak a great dangerous as they are lovely. deal, and particularly of them. Skilled in the art of seducing, they selvcs, of their merit, their wealth, are acquainted with all the ineans or of the valuable or pleasing of gaining their aim; they use it things which they possess. They with address, and in general suca have a natural propensity to boast. cessfully; free in their expressions, ing; their conversation is full of and freer still in their behaviour, it, the turn of their phrases, their they allure, they attack, they in.
vite, and it is very difficult to rea of those, the women of Malaga sist them.
have the superiority. Andalusia was formerly the re. They smoke more in Andalusia fuge of the Gitanos, that dangerous than in any country in Spain ; the and perfidious race, irreligious and men have a strong passion for it, dishonest vagabonds, without either and many of thc wonen indulge faith or law, who were the curse in it sometimes. of Spain, the disgrace of the nation in the kingdom of Grapada the which suffered them, the terror of men think little of their excellent the roads and of the country, and wines, they prefer the mistela apd whom the government of Spain the rosolis, of which they driok to have at last proscribed by severe excess ; yet it does not appear laws. They were countenanced that they ever suffer any incoare. by the Andalusian nobility, who nience from it. were in their turu protected by In Andalusia there are three them; these Hoblemen furnished maestranzas, or associations them with asylums, where they the nobility, the principal end of could secret themselves with their which appears to be, that of keepbooty from the pursuit of justice; ing up the ancient spirit of cbivabut, in turn, they spared in their ry, but the true motive of which is incursions their estates, property, a combination of pride and the persons, servants, and farmers ; love of pleasure. There is one of they were the agents of their ven. them at Granada, one at Sesille, geance, and afforded them as and one at Ronda, in the kingdot many satellites as there were Gi. of Seville. tanos.
Andalusia has no language pe The Andalusians were formerly culiar to itself. The people speak celebrated ampong the Romans for Castilian, but it is altered, cortheir dexterity; they have often rupted, and very much disfigured shone upon the theatres of Rome; by a prodig:ous mixture of Ari. the young female Andalusians have bian words; it is still inore so by a very frequently attracted there the vicious pronunciation, which res. applause of the multitude by their ders the language difficult to be wanton dances, hare captivated the understood; it is more guttera hearts of consuls, tribunes, prætors, than in the other parts of Spain. senators, over whom they exercised It is also more full and thick ; å the most absolute dominion. The Castilian often finds it difficult to modern Andalusian women are not understand an Andalusian, though degenerated; they are now the he speaks the sane language 28 most agreeable and attractive himself. dancers in Spain. They are in ge. neral well made, thcir complexion' is delicate, their figuro slender; Character, Manners, Customs, &c. their turn of countenance arch, of the Murcians. From the their eyes black, lively, and full same.) of fire; they are affected but grace. ful. Those of the kingdom of The Murcian scarcely ever goes Gravada are the best made ; and out of the town which gave him
tth; he is not to be seen at makes its way into families, who Yurts or in canips, in courts of seldom if ever assemble together: stice, universities, or commercial Through curiosity to know fo. wns; he lives with apathy, a reigners and travellers, the Mur. e of sloth and indifference. He cian seeks them, but only to avoid ts, drinks, sleeps, counts his them afterwards with pointed af. ads, and drags his cloak to a fectation. Thus the society here ace where he sits himself down takes a complexion of that $2.
think of nothing. He does not vageness with which the Murcians en suspect that there is a more unaptly reproach their predeceso reeable life than that which he sors the Moors. w teads; that there is a greater This account is not overcharged stent of knowledge than that it is confirmed by the testimony hich he possesses; that there are of Cardinal Belluga, who long oca podes happicr than that which he cupied the see of this city, and habits; nay, he does not think who was distinguished for his learn. at there exist men more useful ing and virtue; he justly estimated jan himself. “We may conse. the character of the Murcians; he uently read the history of Spain said, and all Murcia knows it, El om one end to the other, without cielo y el suelo buenos, el entre nding any names of Murcians who suola malo; the sky and the avé distinguished themselves in ground are good, it is what is berms, or in the arts and sciences, tween them that is bad * An ex. 'he common people participate ception should be made in favour nis indolence; a countryman ora of the Murcian women ; they are orter employed to carry ever so mild and affable, and would be ght a load, if it even weighed no fond of society, but their hus. ore than twenty-five pounds, bands allow them very little lia Tould lay it on an ass, and refuse berty, and are always ready to O carry it bimself."
fund fault with their conduct, howIgnorance and sloth revider the ever innocent. anners of this town disagreeable: rejudices are carried to the great. st height, and the inhabitants are xtremely litigious. Each pries
Character, Manners, Customs, nto the actions of his neighbour,
&c. of the Biscayansi [From order to censure his conduct the same.] shence arises a general distrust; hey fear and avoid one another; There is an opinion pretty genes 'very one lives by himself and to rally received, that the Biscayans: himself, away from his relations, and Irish sprang from one origii. vithont friends or connections: Some historians assert that about : his detached life foments suspi. two hundred years before the 10n, sour's the temper, and pro. Christian æra, a colony of Bis. luces sataye habils: dissention cayans sailed to Hibernia, landed,
* The point of this saying is lost in English, but from the corresponderice If customs is preserveti in French ; Le ciel et le sol sont bons, l'entresel mauvais. . Da