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prevails here among the free co. got spared; but, to prevent any dis. loured wonen, who will sometimes order at such numerous meetings challenge one another, when they some of the police officers are al are offended, before a tribunal of ways in attendance. their own sex. They appoint a The free negroes are esteemed 12 day, and fix a place, which is in ge. be about equal ia pember at Para. neral a handsome garden, where a maribo to the people of colour: large tent is erected, and in the they are handicrafts, such as black. evening is well lighted up. The smiths, carpenters, tailors, shee. lady who first gave the challenge makers, &c. but they work es. is seated in the principal part of tremely slow, and are very bez. the tent, surrounded by her own ligent, so that little dependeace slaves, and those of her friends, can be put in most of them. finely dressed. A circus of chairs There is, however, a great difer. is placed for the visiters. The epce between those who have been lady (or to whom she gives the instructed in the Christian religion, commission) sings a line contain by the Moravians and the others: ing part of her complaint, or some and I have found by experience Teflection upon her antagonist; how much more their word m2 and this is repeated in a chorus by be relied oo; but in general al the attending female slaves, and the free negroes are reported to be followed by other lines until it be. very idle, and will only labour comes a complete song, between just for a present subsistence. the different parts of which there is The negro slaves often declare that a dance; and the negro females they are better off than the free accompany the movements, and negroes. In the songs which the mark the time with fruit.sheils plantation negroes frequently sing strung on a string like beads. This there is one of a very lively tune, method of treating the dispute gives and is always accompanied with at least, to the adversary, a fair op. much laughter and mirth; the portunity of knowing what is spo. words are, mackarele Saneda, ken of her, and, of course enables mackarele Monday, mackarele her to answer it. The next week Tuesday, mackarele alleday, &c.; she invites the company, when it the meaning is, mackarel Sunday, becomes her turn to expose the mackarel Monday, mackarel Tues. character of her antagonist; and day, mackarel crery day, &c. this kind of alternate contention is Seeing the negroes so very merry sometimes carried on for several when they were singing this song, weeks, during which they are vi. I asked them the meaning of the sited by some of the principal in. words, when one of them answer. habitants, as the scene affords con. ed, "Mastera, when we have good siderable entertaioment. Some master, we fod ourselves more times, indeed, these females of co. happy than those free negroes are, lour will challenge a friend, in a and when we see one of them, we frolic, to arrange such parties make him hear this, for they fire against one another, and a great upon nothing but mackarel, whilst deal of humour is then displayed, we other negroes have plenty of in which even the visiters are often different provisions on the plants.


ions." Mackarel is a very cheap that even if he shonld be detected, liet here; and that the plantation his master would, from a regard to iegroes hare somo reason for their his own interest, screen him as xultation, I am inclined to think, much as possible from severe pu. is I have seen very few among nishment. he free negroes as strong and The great vivacity in the tem.

earty in appearance as they per of the negroes is never more re.

displayed than in their Sunday The custom which the free ne. amusements; you know the tirely sroes have of following their fun play which is performed in the perals, gives me an opportunity south of Europe, where one party of observing them collectively.* shews with his finger a certain non.

The number of slaves kept in ber, to which the other is to add the town are estimated, as I ob. with his fingers a number, and served in one of my former letters, quickly to answer how inany the at eleven thousand : they are not nnmber is together, which is per. only employed in the management formed with a great deal of gesti. of the house, but are also put culation, but the negroes here out to different mechanics, to learn have still a more lively game ; one those occupations of which their of them makes, with his fect, all the master stands most in need. But extraordinary figures that are pos. there is one method here of em. sible to be invented, and the other ploying the negroes, which should is to imitate them instantly, trying not be tolerated; some of the in- who can tire the other most. They habitants, when they find a slave play also with balls, but not in the possessing sagacity, will make him European manner, by turns, but a pedlar, or strolling trader, fur. he is considered the best who can nishing him with different articles, first catch the ball; and being all and leaving entirely the manage of them constantly employed toge. ment of the business to him; but ther, you may judge how fatigning he is obliged to pay so much perihis must be to the players. The week to his master, who cares not negro girls, while they are washing What means he employs to obtain the floors of the houses, are fre. it; now, when the man has been quently singing, and beating time some weeks without selliog enough to their merry songs, with the for his regular payment, instances cloth with which they are at have occurred of his endeavouring work. i. to supply the deficiency by impobi. The creole-negrocs, particularly tion : or even by theft, thinking the women, have in general a more

* By the laws of Surinam, it is enacted, that if a master wishes to emanci. pate a negro, he must first prove how the negro is to gain his future living; or to give him a house with some land attached to it; besides which the master must give security to the value of three thousand forins, in case the negro should hecome so poor or infirm, or otherwise as to prove a burthen to the colony. It is observed, however, that the free negroes, whatever be their condition at first, decline too often in their condition, particularly their posterity ; but some who merit to be excepted from this reproach, I know myself.


cheerful countenance than those part of Guiana, The Arraworla brought from the coast of Africa, were never known to be guilty and though they cannot be com- the horrid custom of killing the pared to a beauty of a fair com. prisoners and devouring thean, plexion, yet if a statue of a fine fi. is related of the Caribs, with who gured nymph executed in black they were often in hostilities; zi marble can please you, then some gentlemen who have had the best of these sable females might like. opportunities of getting infore! wise engage your admiration, tion of the disposition and bad. There are here also some Indian of these people, have assured slaves, but they are only allowed that they are not addicted to: to be purchased when those Indian crime which the Abbé Rayoal k nations, who live on the territory charged upon all the Indian E of the colony, have been at war tions, without any exception: with some distant tribes, and have Arrawoukes cannot, without taken prisoners from them; the justice, even be suspected of the inhabitants of the colony who buy as they are far from a state of bro them, employ them only as hunts. tal savageness, and still furtze men, or servants, as they are never from a degenerated stage of or.! used for tilling the ground, for lization ; they therefore are both though they are very active, yet abominable as to be addicted to they do not possess any remark- most disgusting of all vices. able bodily strength; and be. The greatest fault of the Ars sides they are in their disposition woukes seems to be an inordinas rather of a melancholy turn. fondness for strong liquors, thoar They sometimes feel an unusual they generally drink water, a eagerness to return to their own use spirits only at public festivas nation, but will not venture the but when they come to Paran. passage, for fear they might fall ribo, the greatest part of what they into the hands of Indians, who do sell is exchanged for rom, in wake not belong to their own tribe, and they then indulge themselves, se thus become their slaves again, far as to become completely is.' therefore they rather prefer to stay toxicated; but even then it hap with their European masters; pens that some among them are but then they soon fall into a de. quité sober, and take charge of cline; grief and stupor end their their inebriated brethren; so tha! lives.

it seems either there are som of them who never fall into this

excess, or that they get drunk by Arrawouke Indians of Surinam. turns. Notwithstanding the toz [From the same.] great inclination for strong liquors

which the Arrawoukes have in The Indians who are mentioned common with all the other Indian in this letter all belong to the Ar. nations, yet in other respects IN rawoukes pation, who are in every comparison is much in their favou, respect the best among the differ as they possess more taleats, and ent tribes that have settled in this it is to be wished that more pain

Pre taken for their civilization. complained of ; its pronunciation he M oravians have lately engaged is hard, sharp, and dry, and it often

this good work; but as I have utters the tenderest and most empas. ot yet visited those parts of the sioned sentiment, without grace or suntry where these missionaries delicacy. bour, I can give you no further Activity is the basis of the Cata. count of them or their success; lan character; it is blunt in per. ut I intend to visit them as soon sons who have not received the s I can get an opportunity. polish of education. But we must

do the Catalans justice : this pro.

pensity to motion, this natural vi. Character, Manners, Customs. vacity, impelled them to great un.

Habits, Dress, and Language dertakings; it frequently rendered of the Catalonions. From them victorious in the times of the I doorde's View of Spain. 7 counts of Barcelona and kings of

Aragon; it led them into Greece, The Catalans are charged with and gained them important con. asperity of character, roughness quests; it carried them to the is. of expression, and vehemence of land of Majorca, and there de. action. There are grounds for stroyed the empire of the Saracens, this charge; but if wc inquire into it established the dominion of the the cause, and at the same time re. kingdom of the kings of Aragon collect the good qualities which in the island of Sardinia ; it guided atone for thosc defects, we shall them on the scas, and carried them perhaps be less disposed to blame to every part of the new world ; them.

it opened the career of the sci. The Catalans,accustomed, under ences to them; it turned their gethe kings of Aragon, to share the nius to commerce, and expanded it legislative power with the sove in every branch; it rieveloped, reigt, to look upon their prince sustained, and increased their in. only as Count of Barcelona, and to dustry; it improved their agricul. pay no taxes but such as they chose ture; it was the grand spring of to grant, considered themselves as the establishment of their manu. all partaking of the supreme au factures, and, in fine, of the oputhority, and each in particular as a lence of their province. little sovereign. In those days The Catalans are indefatigable they had ideas of independence in their undertakings; they have a which they long cherished, and horror at illeness; no obstacle which at length degenerated into a can deter them. The activity of republican spirit. Hence the their genius, and the ambition that haughtiness peculiar to the inhabi. attends it, lead them to every part. tants of this province, the autho. of the world: there is not a town, ritative tone, the repugnance to not a port in Spain, india, or Spa. whatever has the slightest appear. nish America, where Catalans are ance of command in another, or not to be found ; they are to be even of subordination.

met with in France, Italy, Eng. The Catalan tongue contributes land, Germany, io ai! the ports of to the roughness of expression Europe, and throughout the cules

jies. They are valiant, and some who knows how to gain his lote. Limes even rash; they are not to At the commencement of the war be terrified by the greatest dan. with France, Catalonia made the gers ; in war they never fly, nor do king an offer to defeod him thes. they ever give up an enterprize. selves against all the troops of the They, the Aragonese, and Gali. enemy. In the number of the tocians, are the best soldiers in Spain. lunteers there were thirty thousand Their bravery and firmness have monks or priests; this offer was not been so often proved, that for ages accepted, chiefly on account of the past no doubt has ever been enter. nature of the war, which was to be tained of them; they have several an offensive one, and required as times displayed them with the army çf regular troops. Catalo greatest energy, and in the re- nia, far from having suffered by motest periods; and in the begin. the campaigos of which it was the ning of the eighteenth century theatre, grew rich by the sums es. they sustained the united efforts of pended in the province, and it is the armies of France and Spain obvious that a war with France is aguiost Catalonia.

as useful to it as one with England After what has been just said, it is disastrous. will be easily inagined that they The Catalans are charged with have very violent passions: in fact, an eagerness for money which is. they can encounter any thing to duces them to undergo any labour satisfy them. The desire of wealth in the acquisition of it, and to take makes them industrious; emulation the greatest care to keep it. But makes them active, leads them to the fact is, they spend as readily as every part of the world, and ena. they earn, and are capable of gebles them to brave the perils of nerosity, of which they gave à loog voyages; and glory blinds striking proof in the unhappy pethem to every kind of danger. riods of the French revolation. When they love, they love warm- A multitude of French people, ly; but their hatred is implacable, men, women, and children, of all they have rarely sufficient strength ranks, found help and consolation of mind to stifle their resentment. in this province, Reuss, Mos. But we are not, therefore, to ima blanc, Blanas, and the frontiers to. gine the Catalan disposed to mis. wards France, particularly dis. chief; he is not so naturally. He tinguished themselves in that se. works himselt into a ragc, and spect. is foud, but seldom commits acts The inhabitants of Catalonia of violence. In a political point have a decided taste for the ceremo. of view the Catalan is restless and nics of the church, for processions, factions; he is for ever sighing for public fcasts, assemblies, balls, a liberty, or rather independence, dances, and other mectings. The which he has often attempted to romcrias are in great vogue; these acquire, and which has so frequent. are journeys on certain days to so. ly impelled him to take up arins. litary chapels, and to hermitages, But, as devoted in his attachment whither the people flock in crowds. as terrible in his hatred, he is ready The bull-feasts have scarcely found to make every sacrifice for a prince their way here.


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