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for transferring the examination of ter on the table of the house of West India accounts from the au- commons, might conduce, in a dit office to the commission, was, very high degree, to the benefit of the necessity of inquiry and in- the public. If indeed the im. Tastigation on the spot, which the portance of such boards were to be auditors were unable to effect. It measured by the quantum of resti. pas also declared to be temporary tution that might be extorted from and directed to a specific object. peçulators by force of law, they Yet, notwithstanding the avowal would do but very little, if any of these plain grounds for its ori. thing at all, more than repay the ginal establishment, another com- expence of the establishments. mission of much greater extent, But they may be of infinite serand attended with much greater vice in unmasking the tricks of expence, had been formed, the peculators, in tracing the ease, segreater part of which, with a large cresy, and safety with which they establishment, is fixed in London; have gone on from year to year and seems, from the report of the up to some specific abuse or demilitary commissioners, to have fect in the different departments no other employment than that of of government, and enable ininisreceiving, and transmitting to the try, if they are so inclined, to lords of the treasury the reports new reform or new model them they received from their colleagues They will facilitate the detection in the West Indies. As the whole of frauds and peculation, and thus, of the ninth report of the com- by diminishing the chance of semissioners of military inquiry re- cresy, lessen the number of pub. fers to the acts of the first com- lic delinquents. Nay, if such acmission, it appears that the prac- curate and minute reports should tice or system of peculation in the not be made any use of by governWest Indies, though brought un- ment, still the nation will bebenefitder the notice of government has ed by their publication. There are Bot been effectually, altered. Nor few men who, for the sake of acdoes government appear to have cumulating wealth, would encounhitherto acted with any degree of ter public and universal indignavigour and efficacy, if at all, on tion, scorn, and contempt. It is the reports of the second commis in fact a desire of being the obsion; which burthens the nation jects of attention, distinction, and with an annual expence of £13,000 of the sympathy or complacent rea year.

gards of mankind, that is at the There does not appear to be bottom of most of the cares, and any indolence or remissness on the the whole of the bustle of the part of the different boards of in- world. It is this sense of honour quiry, whose importance, continu- and dishonour, that is, in a luxu. ation, or permanence, may be sup- rious, corrupt, refined, and sceptiposed to depend, in some mea cal age, the grand cement of sosure, on their own conduct. They ciety. It pervades, in a greater or are diligent and active, and suc. less degree, all ranks and classes. cessful in their researches; which, It is stronger, as well as more geif not suffered to lie as a dead let. nerally prevalent, than any practi

cal cal sense of duty, cultivated by the denounced torments of hell, and soundest and finest speculations yet tremble at the apprehension of of moral philosophers on the con- the pillory, or even of being thrust stitution of the human mind: out of creditable society? It is, stronger, for the most part, than therefore, a duty which all writers, the faith of professors of religion. especially periodical writers, owe How many professed Christians to the public, to brand, by publishare there, who, for the sake of ing and recording, public crimes the gain to be obtained by an act and delinquencies. of perjury, would brave all the

CHAP

CHAP. VI.

Measures for the Augmentation of the Regular Army.Militia Comple

tion BillThe Effects of Lord Castlercagh's Plan, for this purpose, compared with that of Mr. Windham's.--State of the Regular Army at the present moment.--Deficiency of Numbers in the Second Battalions~ To Supply this deficiency, the Object of the Militia Completion BillThis Bill Passed.-Marine Mutiny Bil.- The Corps of Matines recommended to Public Notice and Favour, by Sir Charles Pole.

IT had been recommended, aswe friend having been adopted, he I have seen in the speech from relied that, in this too, he should the throne, to both houses of par- besuccessful. His majesty's speech, liament, to proceed with as little at the opening of the session, cer. delay as possible, to consider of tainly recommended to parliament the most effectual measures for the every attention to the increase of augmentation of the regular army. the disposeable army of the counSo early, therefore, as the 2d of try, that was practicable without February, lord Castlereagh rose in impairing the means of home de. the House of Commons to move fence. But he thought it impossithe order of the day, for the se- ble to accomplish the former by cond reading of the militia inlist- means of this bill, without materi. ment bill. But, as this bill differ- ally injuring the latter. He did ed nothing in principle from the not condemn the colonels of the bill of last year, and as he had regiments for their anxiety to already given his opinion at length adopt the readiest means for filling on its various details, he should up the ranks of their corps. But abstain from troubling the house he did most decidedly condemn with a repetition of those details, the principles of a bill, the operaand reserve himself for any objec- tion of which would inevitably tions that might be made to it.- tend to the dissolution of all disci. Mr. Elliot wished to know the rate pline, both in the regular army of bounties proposed by his noble and militia, as well as to the injury friend. Lord Castlereagh answer- of morality throughout the couned, from six to eleven guineas. try : for such would be the effect Mr. Elliot said, that this bill at of high bounties, given to the re. forded a striking lesson to the cruits from the militia to the line, house and the country, of the and to the substitutes who were to evil consequences of adopting a fill their places in the militia, as bad precedent. Heretofore, pre- had been fully evinced by experiviously to the introduction of a si- ence. By the present bill, the mi. milar bill, there was much of de- litia officers were required to retail and preparatory communicati- cruit at a bounty of ten guineas, on with colonels of regiments; but for which, it was obvious, that, unthe former measure of his noble der the present system of bounties,

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men could not he had; but then need of additional force. For it there was the expedient of a little was childish to talk of danger of ballot, in case the bounty should invasion with our superior navy. fail, to be inflicted on the county He objected to the measure also where the quota of men could not on the ground of its changing the be induced to list within a given constitutional principle of the mi. period. And then, as a remedy litia. Mr. Bastard said, that the to the balloted men, who could former measure of allowing a transnot find a substitute at half price, fer of men from the militia to the ten guineas were to be given in line, had been a plentiful source aid. But this ballot, coming on of mutiny, drunkenness, and inthe heels of that for the local mic subordination. The secretary at litia, could not fail to create gene- war said, that it might be necesyal discontent in as much as it was sary for this country, in the prenot a regular tax, but must weigh sent circumstances of the world, oppressively on individuals.-Mr. to act a great part on the contiElliot compared the effects of nent. This was to be done only Lord Castlereagh's plan with that by increasing the amount of the of Mr. Windham's, which propos- regular army. But no other means ed to recruit men for limited ser than the present for answering this vice, instead of service for life: a purpose could be found, than a plan, the principles of which, was military conscription. Mr. Cal. founded on the feelings of human craft observed, that the papers nature. He was ready to admit, presented last year shewed, that that, for the first four or five the army then consisted of nearly months it was in operation, the 240,000 men, while the papers preference for unlimited service then on the table shewed its prepreponderated. But, it was a fact, sent amount to be only 210,000. that, out of 27,000 men, raised in How had this diminution taken 1807 for general service, about place? He defended and praised 19,000 were for limited service: a the military system of Mr. Windclear proof that, had that princi- ham, which had produced, while ple been adhered to, the country in force, a supply of nearly 24,000 would not only have avoided all men annually; a supply as great as the evils experienced both by the the circumstances of the population country and the army, under the of this country would admit of. Mr. balloting system, but that the W's. system had not had a fair triforce of the line would have been al. He did not look to our acting increased to any extent necessary, any great military part on the conwith a saving of nearly one half of tinent. This was the fourth inthe expence.

stance in which the militia had Sir T. Turton wished to know, been drafted to supply the army: before he could agree to augment a practice which had driven qualithe disposable force, what it was in- fied officers out of the militia. He tended to do with it. Unless we did not think it possible to recrujt meant to repeat such scenes as the the militia by the bounty proposed convention of Cintra, and the re. by lord Castlereagh. If men were treat in. Spain, we stood in no wanted for the public service, they

should

should be raised at the public ex- it followed that, whether any or pence. Colonel Frankland, said, what portion of our army was to It was true, parliament was pledg- be sent to the assistance of Spain, ed to increase the military means was a question purely military, of the country: but the question and only to be determined by the was, whether by the measures executive power. If ministers proposed, the regular army might should afterwards appear to have Dot be increased, at the expence given improper advice, or to have of our own defence. After the mismanaged the military means experience we had had, who of the Country, they were subject could say that an unbalanced army to a heavy responsibility.-Circumwas the best means of defence ? stances might occur, under which Lord Castlereagh's plan of recruit- it might be the duty of that house ing had a tendency to create dis- to give the most powerful assistorganization and disgust in the ance to the Spanish patriots. It home service, and to keep up all was still his opinion, that if the this when created. He praised Spanish people continued to disthe admirable, deeply-founded, play that energy which they had and permanent system of Mr. shewn not many months ago, Windham, and observed that it struggles in that country were by 753 impossible to discuss such no means at an end. But, if they measures as that proposed without were, did not other views, opening taking a view of that system. An to the minds of honourable gencircumstances that bore upon the tlemen, still shèw the necessity of question were to be considered. increasing our armies? Were we And upon the whole he thought to suppose that no occasion could that lord C's system of expedi- ever after occur, when they might ents was the most inefficient and be wanted on foreign service, or and burthensome that could be re- that the exertions of mankind sorted to.

were for ever to be tied down by Lord Castlereagh said, that mi- the tyranny and usurpation of one nisters, in the measures which individual? If no field of action they proposed for augmenting the presented itself in Europe, British army, had always two objects in interests might call them to the view. First, to increase the dis- defence of another part of the posable force; secondly, to take world: while, at the same time, care that the defensive force we must keep up an invincible arshould be so strong as that the my on our own shores to protect country should not be exposed to them from danger and insult. As peril from the manly exertions to the supposed diminution of the which his majesty's government army, in the present year, Mr. might think it their duty to recom- Calcraft had fallen into a mistake; mend for the assistance of other which probably arose from the nations. Whatever was the pre- artillery being included in the resent appearance of the cause of turn of last year, who were not Spain, yet as the principle of in- included in the return of the precreasing our disposable force was sent. There were in the army, agreed to on all sides of the house, organized as it is at present, one

hundred

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