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ly versed in the Language; and are therefore usually omitted in all their Dictionaries, where only the radical Consonants, which are rarely more than three (Vowels in this Case not being minded) are alphabetically set down. All these Conjugations have each their determinate Sense; tho' perhaps in every Verb not just those which I have already specified.

The Chaldean and Syriac Languages form their Verbs much after the same Manner; only they have but six of these Conjugations, whereas the Hebrew has seven.

The Arabians e have diversified these Conjugations to the Number of thirteen. These all vary in Signification, and are not, no more than the Hebrew, all used in one and the same Verb, but some in one Verb, and some in another. It may not be unpleasant to see the Manner of them, as it is described by their Grammarians, in the Conjugations of the Verb Phahala, he made, which they usually make their Paradigm, as our Grammarians do Amo, Doceo, Lego and Audio.

Here then I, The Root it fdfPhahala, (de

• These Conjugations are as radical Notes in Mufick, which are 13 in Number, as in this Arabic Verse.

Walama phatanatsa Belddsa ÆlahS.

{ It may be questioned whether our Fa-la- in Musick comes not from the Arabic Phaala i^*» to makcy and so

D 2 notes

notes the bare Action without any Reference or View to any Thing else, He made. II, Phahhala, and IV, Aphhala signify a Change of an absolute Verb into a transitive one. Thus Hhazana is He was sorry. But Hhazana and Ahzana are, he made sorry. In Verbs that are originally Transitives, these Conjugations make the Signification more intense than it was at first. So dharaba, he beat with a Cudgel; Dharraba, and adhraba, he caused to be beat with a Cudgel. III. Phdhaia, implies Reaction, and supposes two Substantives, as, Batrosb dhdraba Baulosa, Peter beat Paul, and was beaten again, where Peter is supposed to strike first. So in Neuters, Batrojbkdhada Baulosa. Fetersat down by Paul, and he sat down by Peter. VI. Taphdhala signifies such a Cooperation as the La*tins express by the Preposition con, as I'adhdraba Batrojb wa Baulcso, Peter and Paul beat cue another. V. Taphahhala. VII. Inphahala. VIII. Iphtahala, are absolute Passives. The V. and VII. come from the II. as Hallamtoho, wahowa tahallama, I taught him, and he was _ taught. The VIII. from the I. as Katsarto dalika phdktatjara, I shortened this, and it was Jhortened. IX. Iphhalla, and XI. Iphhdlla relate to Intension of Colours; as, Itj'pharra, he was very yellow, Itsphdrra, he was most extra

owe its Rife to the Arabic Conjugations, which are Musical Notes. And in their Dirges they often use the Musical Note IjjU Hazana to mourn,

ordina,'V

ordinarily yellow; and to Verbs of Deformity, as Idhjamma, and Idhjdmtna, his Mouth was awry more or less. IJlaphhala relates to begging any Thing. As, IJlathama, he ajkedfor Food, from tahama, to tajl. XII. Iphhauhala, and XIII. Iphhawwala, which are very rarely used, signify great Intension; as Ihlaulata, and Ihlawwata, from Halata, he adheredJlrongly.

This is the Method by which all their trill— teral Verbs are formed. For here also as in Hebrew, the Consonants only are regarded. They have also a quadrilateral Form, whose Conjugations are altered after this Manner. I. Phahlala. II. Taphahlala. III. Iphhanlala. VI. Iphhalalla. Every one of these Conjugations has its own Preterperfetls, Futures, Imperatives, Participles and Infinitives.

Now as the English Verb Drub, comes from the Arabic Dharaba, so we form it our own Way; to drub, to be drubbed, drubbing, and the like. And if there were such a Latin Verb as darabo, the passive would be darabor; and it would be formed accordingly. In short every Nation takes the Word which it adopts into its own Language, and alters and forms it after its own Model; and from that Model, more than from the Words which it has in common with other Languages, we are to judge of its Original, and perhaps of its Antiquity. In a Word, the essential Difference of one Language from another, is to be taken from

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their respective Grammars, rather than from their Vocabularies.

These are some of the principal Characteristics, by which the Hebrew and its KindredTongues differ from the Greek and the Latin, and the Languages that are derived from the 'Teutonic Stock.

Another Mark of Distinction, in which the 'Eastern Tongues all agree, is, that they have no Verbs, that are compounded with Prepositions in such a Manner as to accompany them in all their Moods and Tenses by which their Signification may be vary'd. Their Verbs are all simple, and though they may, and' very often have in Arabic especially, many and those very different Significations; some literal, some figurative; yet still the Verbs themselves are not compounded ; and the same too holds in the Nouns, whereas in the Western Languages it is quite otherwise. An Instance in both fully explain my Meaning. In Hebrew Satahh is the Verb which is used in your Specimen of the Lord's Prayer, for forgiving. Shabak in Chaldee. The same in Syriac. Giafara in Arabic. These are all original and oncompounded Verbs. On the contrary in Greek, the Verb for forgiving is d^iy/M, from lr,fit, to fend, and Ato, away. To fend away, to dismiss, and metaphorically to forgive. In the modern Greek it is the same, only in some Dialects, it is <rvy£«£«V, which is compounded

pounded from aW and %uf>iu g. In Latin to forgive is express'd by dimitto, and remitto, both compounded from mitto, to send, and re, which in Composition signifies back; or dt a Contraction of dis, which in Composition signifies something that may be divided in order to parting,asunder, which by an easy Metaphor will agree with our Notion of forgiving. Pursuant to this Pattern, all the modern Languages which come from Latin, use compounded Verbs upon Occasion, as readily as they do simple Ones. The Word Pardon, which runs through most of them, comes from Perdonare, which is compounded of donare, to give, and per, which in Composition often signifies throughly, and thereby heightens the Sense of the simple Verb- In Languages derived from the Teutonic, it is the same; in the AngloSaxon, it \sf orgy f. In Islandisti, Fiergeff. In Junius's Gospels (which you know the great Restorer of die Northern Learning in Europe, Dr. Hickes, thinks was written in the Lan

E In the Collection of. Lord's Prayers, which was printed at London by Mr. Motte, in the Year 1700, I find a Copy of the Lord's Prayer which he calls Graeca Barbara, which is different in many Things from the others in the modern Greet, which he there produces. There eu^ogc/tat is put for forgive; and Qi%a&cfojdi<j for we forgive. Allowing it to be truly printed, though there must be a Fault in one of them, then Qi%o£?&v, or Cu^°e91'^HV rnust have been corrupted from the common Word evf^wgmv.

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