Phylogenetic Methods and the Prehistory of Languages
Evolutionary ('phylogenetic') trees were first used to infer lost histories nearly two centuries ago by manuscript scholars reconstructing original texts. Today, computer methods are enabling phylogenetic trees to transform genetics, historical linguistics and even the archaeological study of artefact shapes and styles. But which phylogenetic methods are best suited to retracing the evolution of languages? And which types of language data are most informative about deep prehistory? In this book, leading specialists engage with these key questions. Essential reading for linguists, geneticists and archaeologists, these studies demonstrate how phylogenetic tools are illuminating previously intractable questions about language prehistory. This innovative volume arose from a conference of linguists, geneticists and archaeologists held at Cambridge in 2004.
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Johanna Nichols Arne Rohl
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Africa Albanian algorithm Anatolian archaeological assumptions Bantu languages Bantu trees Bastin Bayesian binary Biology borrowing branch lengths clade cladistics classification coded cognate cognate class cognate sets computational correspondences data set data-cognate dating dialects distribution divergence Dyen East Bantu edge English estimates evidence evolutionary example Figure genetic Germanic glottochronology Gray & Atkinson Greek guages Historical Linguistics Hittite Holden homoplasy Indo-European languages Indo-Iranian inference innovations islands language evolution language family lexical characters lexical evolution lexical replacement lexical type lexicostatistics likelihood Malagasy manuscripts maximum parsimony McDonald Institute McMahon MCMC meaning Molecular morphological Mycenaean nodes non-homoplastic Pagel parameters phonological phonological characters phylogenetic analysis phylogenetic methods phylogenetic trees phylogeny possible posterior probability probability problem rates of lexical reconstruction relationships Renfrew root sample similar split splits graph statistical subgroup Swadesh Swadesh list telic tion Tocharian vocabulary Warnow West Bantu languages word lists zone