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* Buchanan, in Scotland, Algernoon Sidney, in England, have set their Names, and the latter his Blood, to this Doctrine; and the Author of the True-born Englishman is worth quoting in the Cafe.

“ The Government's ungirt when Justice dies,
« And Conftitutions are Non-Entities :
“ The Nation's all a Mob, there's no such Thing
“ As Lords or Commons, Parliament or King:
" A great promiscuous Crowd the Hydra lies,
“ Till Laws revive, and mutual Contract ties;
" A Chaos, free to chuse for their own Share
“What Case of Government they please to wear ;
4. If to a King they do the Reins commit,
6. All Men are bound in Conscience to submit;
4. But then that King must by his Oath assent
6s To Postulata's of the Government ;
" Which, if he breaks, he cuts off the Entail,
" And Power retreats to its Original.

True-born Englishman, P. 74.

This has been the avow'd Doctrine of the Diffenters, and is indeed the truc Sense of the Constitution itself; pursuant to this Doctrine they thought they had a Right to oppose Violence with Force, believing that when Kings break Coronation Oaths, the folemn Compact with their People, and encroach upon their Civil Rights, contrary to the Laws of the Land, by which they are sworn to rule, they cease to be the Lord's Anointed any longer, the Sanction of their Office is vanished, and they become Tyrants and Enemies of Man. kind, and may be treated accordingly.

Now it is no Wonder to find People of these Principles vigorously withstanding their Governors, when they tread upon the tender sore Places of the Constitution ; it is nothing but what they all along pretended to, and declared to be their opinion.

But to find the Church of England Men, whose Loyalty has been the Subject of a thousand learned Authors, and numberless Sermons; whose Character and Mark of Distinction has been chosen more for her steady Adherence and Fidelity to her Prince, than to God Almighty; whose Obedience to her Monarch has been declared to be inviolate and immoveable ; and who pretends to be famous through the whole World for her Faithfulness to Kings ; for her, as soon as ever the King did but, as it were, seem to aim at crushing her Authority, as soon as he did but begin to call her Clergy to an Account, and clap up her golden Candlesticks for Disobedience, for her to winch and kick, fly to Foreign Princes for Protection, and rise in Arms against her Prince, o Pelin! O Brady! O Sherlock ! O Hominem !! O Mores!


Where is the worthy Dr. B- ge's Loyalty now? His immoveable Loyalty, that, after all his absolute Submission, is so far from being a Martyr to his own Doctrine, that he could not lose a small Benefice for it?

Where is the famous Dr. Sak ; who having stood out long in his old antiquated Doctrine of Passive Obedience, and confirmed the Faith of his suffering Brethren, by strong and wonderful Arguments, at last, at the powerful Instigation of a Wife, and a good Salary, bas sold all bis Loyalty for a Mefs of Pottage, solving his Honesty with the wretched Distinction of a Power de Facto, and a Power de Jure; as if the Church of England's Credit could be saved by such an impotent Shift, or as if he could make amends to the Prebendary for his helping him to sacrifice his Brethren, to father his Conversion upon reading honest Dr. Overall, whose Doctrine, it is well known, the Doctor knew before ; but that he was loth Dr. South should have the Honour of bringing him over to such old Phanatick Principles ?.

Behold the Loyalty of the Church of England; now let us examine their Conscience, as to taking Oaths; and if I do not bring them to be all. Whigs, and forty-one Men, or else prove them all perjured, then I do nothing.

The Clergy, all the Magistrates and Officers of the Houshold, of the Ciyil or Military Government, were Members of the Church of England, otherwise they could not be employed; the Sacramental Test has done the Diffenters this Kindness, that it is plain all the managing Hands in the Kingdon were Difciples of the Church ; and as an additional Circumstance, the Oath of Allegiance which they took, and which was (God be praised) of their own making, bound them to that same absolute blind Obedience which they profess, and confin'd it to the King, his Heirs and Successors.

If this Oath be considered literally, I am content to be silenced, when one fair Argument can be brought to evade it. The Declaration followed it, wherein they detest and abhor that devilish Doctrine, that it is lawful, on any Pretence whatsoever, (mark the Emphasis) to take up Arms against the King; this (equal to an Oath) is declared in the Presence of God; and the Particulars being material to our Purpose, are as follows:

Oath were Disciples of the Churcis plain all the managiental. Teft has done in

as I A. B. do declare and believe that it is not lawful, upon any Pretence $ I whatsoever, to take up Arms against the King; and that I do abhor " that traiterous Position of taking Arms by his Authority against those 56 chat are commissioned by him.

" So help me God."

Notwithstanding this, you have taken up Arms against, deposed, and, as far as you were able, put to Death your lawful King, the very King you (woré s llegiance to.

Now pray, Gentlemen, give Commission to some wortby Champion of your Church's Loyalty to bring you fairly off of your Oath and Declaration, if you can; and till you do, be not angry with us for making one of these Conclus fioris from the Premises, and you shall chuse for yourselves,


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First, That this Doctrine of absolute, passive, and non-resistant Obedience, is an Absurdity in itself, contradictory to the Nature of Government and Allegiance, and politically introduced by State Engines into the Church of England, to abuse her, and betray her Members into unforeseen Mischiefs and Inconveniences. . Or, Secondly, That the Members of the Church of England are all Apoftates from the very fundamental Doctrine of their Church, perjured in the Sight of God and Man, notorious Hypocrites and Deceivers ; who having fworn Obedience without Reserve to their Prince, are become Traitors, Rebels, and Murderers of the Lord's Anointed, and their lawful Sovereign, and not having the Fear of God before their Eyes, have deposed and traiterously dethroned their rightful King, God Almighty's Vicegerent, accountable to no earthly Power, Supreme under God, absolute, and from divine Institution, undoubted sole Lord of theni and their Country. · Or, Lastly, That they only are the true Church of England, who according to their avowed Profession, have firmly adhered to their King in all his Sufferings and Solitude, have never blackened their Consciences, nor gone back from their Obedience, forgotten their Oaths, nor fullied their Reputation with the horrid Crimes of Treason and Rebellion, as they think it to be. .

Now, as a fair Disputant, I am willing the Respondent shall chuse which of these three Consequences he will stand by in Behalf of the Church of England's Loyalty; but if they would take Advice of a Friend to the bonest Part of them, I would recommend the first Conclusion to be fittest for them for the following Reasons: : . ii. .

. . . po . · 1. Because fince humane Infalibility is (and with good Reason) disown'd by the Church of England, both for herself and every Body else, it can be no Diminution to her Reputation, which she has found herself mistaken, and imposed upon,' to acknowledge her Error; 4 wife Man will always owen, rather than defend a Mistake.

2. Because it is my Opinion that their Way is hedged up against any other Pretence, Evasion, or Reservation, and therefore it is with me the only Thing that Charity cari say for them, and must remain so, till I find something else said that is more to the Purpose.

But the Mischief of all is, that if this be honestly acknowledg'd (as is doubtless most true) that the Church of England was mistaken, and imposed upon, to espouse a senNess absurd Principle, contrary to the Nature of Government and Allegiance, &c. why then they come over to this Consequence. · That Government and Allegiance are both conditional, and Oaths of Subjects are always to be considered in a constructive Sense, wich Conditions of Protection, and the like ; a Thing which is without Question the real Meaning of all Oaths of Allegiance ; otherwise Subjects may be put under an absolute Necessity of Perjury, or State Martyrdom, by ofren swearing what may be impossible for them to perform. · Vol. III.


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The Town of Aeth in Flanders has been about six Times, and the Town of Rinebergh in Gueldre about 12 Times, taken and retaken; and as often as new Masters had Poffefsion of the Place, so often the poor Inhabitants have sworn to their new Lords : What can the Meaning of such an Oath be, buc that they will be faithful to them so long as they keep Poffefsion of the Place? It would be ridiculous to imagine the Imposers of the Oath required any inore.

Ifour zealous Churchmen worded an Oath contrary to the very Nature of fwearing Allegiance, let them answer for it, who first made it, then took it, then broke it : But the Nature of the Thing can leave Room for no other

nature of the Thing cantik made it, then took

Suggestion that I know

Till then some further Argument is produced, it must rest here, that the Church of England was mistaken, imposed upon, 86, that the finds when the Laws are broken, the Right of the People invaded, the Root of the Government struck at, Church and State undermined, and despotick Tyranny at the Door, the native Right of the People is Superior, and they may assume a Power to right themselves.

And so we are brought back to Whiggism and 41 ; 'and, Gentlemen, there is no Remedy for it, help it if ye can, Irun


! . Where now is the Difference between Church Loyalty and Whiggish. Loyalty, Roundhead or Chavalier, Churchman or Dissenter, Whig or Tory; all are alike, they are pleased, when legally governed ;. quarrelfome and unruly if oppreft, and will defend themselves if assaulted, tho'; it be by their Kings, or any Body else. i ;'

Why then is the Difference kept up? Methinks they might be all Friends together, for they are all alike; the Diflenters have been in their Times as loyal, and the Church of England in their Time as dispyal as one another. Vice versa ;; the Diffenţers have, been; as disoyal, and the Churchmen as loyal as one another upon the fame Occasion; they have been boch Sufferers, and have submitted to the Government ; ay, and to the Oppressions and Persecutions of their Superiors andSovereigns. And again, upon the like Occasions, they have both of them been Rebels, if their own Language may be to far used; they have both of them, in their Turn, taken Arms against, and deposed their rightful and lawful Kings :: '

So that in my Opinion, with a Latitude to all that think as they please, the Church of England, and their Neighbours the Diffenters, have nothing to quarrel with one another about, as to Loyalty ; as to other Matters I have nothing to say to them, nor shall not mingle it with this Discourse.

Nor do I think I am writing a Satyr against the Church of England, nor is it all intended to be so ; and to stop all Pretences that Way, I take the Freedom to say here has been no Crime, the Church of England has been in the Right of it; not in taking Ara:s, but the Error was in espousing, crying up, and pretending to a blind abfolute Obedience to Princes, be theirCommands never so absolute, tyrannical or illegal; this neither the Doctrine nor Practice of the Church of England, nor of any Church or People in the Christian World, ever pretended to ; and therefore the Fault lay in those

.: People, - People, who being themselves Members of the Church of England, fuffered themselves to be deluded by State Ministers, to foster a Tenent upon the . Church, which her original Constitution never pretended to, and then call it the Doctrine of the Church of England.

The first Beginning of their pretended Doctrine was found in Manwaring's and Sibthorp's Libels, in the Days of King Charles I. cajoling the King; and then to please him, endeavouring to wheedle the People into a Belief of the divine Right of kingly Government, and affirming, that the King was not obliged by the Laws in the Administration of the Government.

Upon this prepoftercus Foundation they built the illegitimate Structure of absolute undisputed Obedience; for if kingly Power were once proved to be immediately derived from divine Authority, absolute Obedience would be a Conséquence no: Body could dispute, since the fame Obedience without Reserve would be due to the delegated Power, as to the Power delegating. - And tho' this is a Point easily enough confuted, yet being willing to keep the present Dispute within as small a Compass as we can, I think our Argument has nothing at all to do with it. . Whether Government be of divine Original or not, seems not the Question here ; for if it be not so, then, as before, the Church of England have been mistaken, and imposed upon; and if it be so, then the Church of England has trampled under Foot their own Doctrine, turned Rebels to God, and Apoftates from the Faith they have profest, have sacrilegiously and traiterously taken up Arms against their Prince, assaulted the Lord's Anointed, resisted the Powers which are the Ordinance of God, deposed their lawful Sovereign, broken their- Allegiance, and consequently are a Parcel of perjured Rebels ; every Joc as bad as the worst Roundhead Regicide, and Rebel of the Year forty-one.

What more or less can be said I profess I know not, and am in great Expectation of something in the Matter, for I cannot find in all the Writings I have met with any thing to contradict it. · The bringing Government and Obedience to the proper Circumstances of mutual Compact between King and People, seems to me to be the only Method to unravel this Skein of entangled Principles; the Nature of Government has made it the necessary Consequence of all Argument relating to Power; and I could give Instances in all the Nations in the World, and some Time or other, even the Right of Succession to Government, which must be as sacred as the Power, has been interrupted and limited by the People, in Case of Tyranny and illegal Governing; and every Nation, and this among the rest, has oftentimes deposed their Princes for the Preservation of the State, when either Incapacity for Government, tyrannical Usurpation, or other Male Administration, has been the Case.

But this I think also, needless here ; every one that is vers'd in History can read the numerous Examples in the Roman, Grecian and Perfan Histories, even sacred Hiftories, where Kings were more particularly of Divine Right than any where, are full of them; the Histories of Spain, Portugal, France, Lombardy, the Empires of Germany and Muscovy, even the Papal Chair, have suffer'd Convulsions and Revolutions, the deposing and displacing their

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Expectation on ihany thing to contraddience to the proper the only Method

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