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Com the place where the outward Parthe worst Part of was great Abundar
other Paper, and to wrap different from one another for ana of ten, and the
certain, that Numa Pompilius was long before Alexander. The Romans had several Sorts of this Paper; one of them was called Hieratica, as Pliny writes, and only dedicated to religious Books, which afterwards, through Flattery, took Augustus's Name, and was called Augustana, as the second Sort, from his Wife Livia; was called Liviana, as among us there is now Imperial and Royal Paper. There was another Sort called Amphitheatrica, from the Place where it was made, being about the Amphitheatre; and the first that began to make this Paper in Rome was one Fannius, who brought it to such fine.. ness, chat, whereas before it was for common Use, it became equal with the belt, and took his Name, being called Fanniana, whereas that, which was not so curiously prepared, kept its own Name of Amphitheatrica ; and these were the best Sorts of Paper in those Days. Afterwards came the Saitica, so named from a City where it was made, where there was great Abundance of the Papyrus, and this was made of the worst Part of it. There was still another Sort made of the outward Part next the Rhind, and called Teniotica. from the place where it was made, which was sold rather by Weight than by Choice. Lastly, there was the Emporetica, answerable to our Brown or Wrapping-Paper, unfit for writing, and only used to make Covers for the other Paper, and to wrap up Goods, therefore called Shop-Paper: All thefe Sorts of Paper, were very different from one another; for the beft was thirteen Inches broad, the Hieratica two Inches less, the Fanniana of ten, and the Amphitheatrica two narrower; the Saitica still less, and the coarse Emporetica, not above fix. Besides, Augustus's Paper was in great Esteem for its Whiteness, as well as its Smoothness, but was fo thin, it would scarce bear the Pen;. besides that, it suuk, and the Letters appeared through it; and therefore, in the Reign of Claudius Cæfar, ie lost the first Place, and another Sort was made, from him called Claudia, which was preferred before all the others, and the Augufta was reserved for writing of Imperial Letters. The Livian Paper kept its Rank, having nothing of the first, but, in all Respects, like the second. This Sort of Paper, made of Papyrus, the Romans used a long Time, on which many Books were writ; and, as Pliny informs us, there were, in his Times, abundance of Volumes of Caius, and Tiberius Gracchus, of Cicero, of Auguftus, and of Virgil. 'n
That this paper was good and lasting; appears by what was said above of Numa's Books, found in the Consullhip of P. Cornelius, L. F. Cethegus, M. Balbius, and Q. F Pamphilius; and, from the Reign of Numa till their Time, we find there passed five hundred and thirty five Years, it being wonderful they should last fo long without rotting, especially having been alla that While buried under Ground. Authorsi differ. very much about the Number of these Books ; for some, as Livy, say they were two, and found by Lucius Petilius ; of which Opinion 'are Laetantius and Plutarch, in the Life of Numa. Others say, they were fourteen, seven of the Pontifical Laws, and the other feven of the Precepts of Pythagorean- Philosophy; others say, they were twelve, as Varro in his Book of Antiquities...Tuditanus, Lib. ii. writes, they were thirteen of Numa's Decretals, yet Antia affirms, there were
two Latin, one of the Pontifical Rites, and as many Greek of Pythagorean Philosophy, and were therefore burnt by Q. Petulius the Pretor. Certain it is, that the Invention of Paper, made of the Rush Papyrus, continued long among the Romans, and very many Books were writ on it by several Authors, as has been said above.
In the last Place was found out the Paper of our Days, a moft noble Invention, which has afforded the Opportunity of writing and publishing a vast Quanticy of Books. It is made of Linnen Rags beaten to Atoms; and it is wonderful that so mean a Thing should perpetuate and immortalise the memorable Actions of Men. It is made in all Parts of the World, and of several Sorts great and small, and so white and curious, that nothing can exceed it. On this, as the most perfect, are printed so many Volumes as are daily feen, laying aside the Papyrus, the Parchment, and all others, which gave Occasion to the finding out of this in our Forefathers Days.
Political Remarks on the Life and Reign of King Wil
liam III. First, From bis Birth to the Abdication of King James II. Secondly, From his Accession to the Crown of England to bis Death.
Firft. THOUGH Fortune might seem a Step-mother to this Prince, by
i T depriving him of a Father, before scarce a human Soul had been breathed into the Infant, yet the abundantly made Amends for that Unkindness, by the Prudence and Indulgency of his Mother, eldest Daughter of King Charles I. who, by means of the Blood from whence she sprung, not only conveyed to him a Prospect of attaining to three Kingdoms, but also, by the Care she took of his Éducation, she formed his Soul worthy of the Crowns he was destined by Providence to wear.
We read a Story of Sempronius, that he caught two Snakes. ingendering, and that, being surprized at the Novelty, he consulted the Oracle what the unlucky Omen meant : The Priests returned an Answer, that either himself or his Wife must die ; and that it was at his Elc&tion, whether he would submit to Death himfelf, or doom the Partner of his Bed to that Misfortune: That, upon his killing the Male Snake, it was his Turn to die ; and that, uipe on the Death of the Female, his Wife must undergo the same. Destiny. This generous Roman, unterrified with the Apprehensions of another World, caufed the Snake to die, whose Fate. was twisted with his, confiding in the known Piety and Prudence of his Lady, and believing her Life more necefsary to the common Good of his Family than his own. The Oracle and his uxorious Confidence were juft; he died according to the Prediction of
che the first, and his Family, by the Conduct of his Widow, found themselves. Jittle prejudiced in the Loss of so eminent an Example of Tenderness. .
I shall not insist upon the Truth of this Story, we have some good Auchors to vouch it; but certainly, if the Prince of Orange, Father to the late King William, had been permitted such an unhappy Choice, he might, without a Blemish to his Character, have followed the Steps of that illustri. ous Roman, and spared his Lady, whose Wisdom, Courage, and Civility laid the first Foundation of that Grandeur, which her warlike Son, in succeeding Ages, attained to
The States of the Seven Provinces stood his Godfachers.; nor did his Mother, though fo 'nearly allied to the Crown of England, think it beneath her Quality to implore the Protection of Perfons meanly bo n, in Comparison, of her illustrious Offspring, nor: were the Methods the undertook unagreeable to sound Policy. The princely Widow understood, her Interest very well, and the Godson of those High and Mighty Potentates received, both in his own Person, and in the Respect was paid his Mother, the greatest Arguments of their fincere Friendship and Esteem.
No blazing Star preceded his Birth, and, with its prophetick Beams, prefaged his future Grandeur. "The Dutch Astrologers could not see fo clearTy as the Englise, who affirmed, that a Star of fuch a Nature was feen just before the Nativity of King Charles II. In this his Country-men acted unhandsomely, in depriving his Birth of so glorious and remarkable an Ac.cident.
And it must be acknowledged, as more reasonable in itself, if those Ce. lestial Luminaries attend our Actions here below, that the brightest of them fhould rather have waited on the Nativity of King William, who restored the Glory of the English, than upon King Charles II. who, by the Supinepess of his Conduct, had near lost the Reputation of his Country, and the Balance of Europe.
This Humility of the Princess of Orange was as much commended by some as censured by others; but whoever weighs it, must acknowledge it a Piece of refined Policy, and that her Consideration was both just and rational : By this Step, and others of the like Nature, the entirely rooted out those Ideas, and that Umbrage the States had conceived at the Greatness of the House of Orange, and shewed herself rather a Grand-daughter of King James I. than a Sister of King James II.
His Education was consistent with the Manners of the Country where he was educated ; che Methods prescribed him by those that had the Honour of his Tuition, were solid and severe ; nothing gay or glittering was seen in his Court, or the Conversation of those Persons who were intruited with the Management of his tender Years: His Mind adjusted itself to the Admonitions of his Tutors, and produced a Temper serious and thoughtful, quite averse from the usual Gallantries practised in the more refined and polite Courts, as they stiled themselves, of Europe.
He was never a mighty Scholar himself, nor did he much affect Learning, or the Charms of a witty Conversation, such as were Masters of those happy Qualities were seldom employed by him, unless some of the first in the Affairs of the Church ; and if ever he made Use of Persons so distinguished in his fecular Concerns, it was rather to please others than himself, and to acquire a Reputation to his Councils, more than for any Pleasure he took in their Harangues or Conversation ; and this may be truly faid of him, without Injustice to his Memory, That he was a much greater King, but nothing fo fine a Gentleman as his Uncle. · Though he was no great Friend to polite Learning, yet he took Care to acquire the French and English Languages, which, afterwards, were of the highest Importance to his Management of several Treaties of the last Conse. quence to himself and his Allies.
He never had many Favourites, and it was well for England that he had no more than two: The first of these was Monsieur Bentinck, now Earl of Portland, who obtained his Efteem and Friendship by one of the most generous Actions imaginable.
This young Gentleman was Page to the Prince of Orange, and much of the fame Age with his Master. It happened, that the Prince was taken ill of the Small-pox, which not rising kindly upon him, his Phyficians judged it necessary that some young Person Thould lie in the fame Bed with the Prince, imagining, that the natural Hear of another would drive out the Difease, and expel it from the nobler Parts : No-body of Quality could be found in all the Court to make this Experiment; at last, Monsieur Bentinck, though he had never had the Small-pox, resolved to run the Risque ; he did fo, the Prince recovered, his Page fell ill, and, in a little Time, had the Happiness to find himself in a healthy Condition, and as well as his Master. Ever after this Action of Monsieur Bentinck's, which was truly great and noble, the Prince had an entire Affection for so faithful a Servant, and parcicularly trusted him in Affairs of the highest Confequence. It was my Lord Portland that transacted the Peace of Refwick, and the same Nobleman managed the Negotiations that were set on Foot betwixt the then Prince of Orange and the English Nobility, who had Recourse to his Highness before his Accession to these Realms. If the Favours of the King had stopped here, and his faithful Minister had received no other Arguments of his Master's Esteem, than reasonable Gifts and Honours, perchance the Character of the deceased Monarch might have been something greater ; but Things were pushed too far, and, when the Parliament put a Stop to some Concesions intended for my Lord, it was a plain Discovery of a Weakness which had been better omitted.
Though his Highness commanded the Army of the States very young, when he was scarcely Seventeen, an Age when some Noblemen are hardly exempt from the Tuition of a Pedant, yet he behaved himself with greater Vigilance, Prudence, and Conduct, than could be reasonably expected of him at that Time of Day.
But The Face of the Helm, and who opposed the Principal Secretary as such
But though his Conduct was surprizing when he entered upon those high Employments of Stadt-holder and General, yet he seems rather indebted to Chance and the Miseries of his Country for those Posts, than to any personal Merits of his own, or the Atchievements of his Ancestors.
The French had near over-run all Holland, their Armies had poffefied themselves of Utrecht, and most of the rest of the Frontier-Towns belong. ing to the States had submitted themselves to that invincible Deluge, which their Troops could not resist, nor their Prudence or Negotiations avoid. The Faction of Barnevelt, well known by that Name in the Low-Countries. were then at the Helm, and the two Brothers, the De Wits, were looked upon as Chiefs of a Party who opposed the Grandeur of the House of Orange. One of these was Pensionary, which is Principal Secretary of State, and was either, in Reality, a Traytor to his Country, or esteemed as such by the Boors and common People, whose Misfortunes fowred their Humours, and made them ripe for Tumults and Rebellions. Upon the constant Series of their ill Success, the Populace arose, tore in Pieces the two unhappy Brothers, and wrested the Government from the Hands of those who were averse to the House of Orange. They continued their Resentments, and obliged the States to restore his Highness to all the ancient Honours of his Family. Yet, though this young Gentleman was made General by a Tu. mult, yet, once poffeffed of that high Command, he behaved himself not like a tumultuary General ; he soon repulsed the French out of their new Conquefts, with a greater Chain of Success than ever afterwards attended his military Actions.
Though severe and reserved in the Cabinet, yet, in the Camp, he was fiery to a Fault, and often exposed himself, and the Cause he defended, with a Rashness, blameable in an Officer of his Dignity.
Yet one Thing is very observable in his Conduct, though he had the Spirit and Gallantry of a Hero, yet he wanted the Passion of Love to make that Character compleat; neither before, at the Time of his Marriage, or afterwards, was he ever noted for any extraordinary Tenderness; nor could the Beauty of his Queen, nor the Address of any other Lady, raise in him extraordinary Transports; his Soul was free from these Weaknesses, or he had the Art to conceal them. i · But notwithstanding his whole Life was an Instance of his Prudence in Affairs of this Nature (one Case only excepted) yet he never shewed so great a Reservedness, nor, indeed, a greater Piece of Wisdom, than upon his Marriage with the Lady Mary, eldest Daughter of the late King James : She was a Princess, who, for her Beauty, good Humour, Sense and Piety, had no Equal in Europe : Her Zeal for the Protestant Religion was surprising in a Lady of her Youth, and what did not a little add to her shining Qualities, was her being prefumptive Heiress to three Kingdoms. The People of England were infinitely desirous chis Match should take Effect ; and King Char les para quaded the World he had the same Inclinations, but privately insinuated to the Prince, that his making a Peace with France, and his inducing the Spaniards to do the same, upon such Terms as his Britannick Majesty proposed (which