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but the Major-general begged his Pardon, and desired that he might abide at his Poft, till such Time as the City was surrendered up. Immediately then his Excellency sent for Count Schomberg, and three other Commissioners, and gave them Instructions how to treat with the four Commissioners from the Enemy. Just as Marshal Turenne was giving the Commifsioners Instructions, Major-general Morgan faid, That the Enemy were hungry, fo that they would eat any Meat they could have; whereupon his Excellency smiled, and shortened their Instructions, and sent them away. Within half an Hour, the Commiflioners had concluded, That they should have their City-Charter preserved, and that they were to receive a French Garrison in, and the Prince de Ligny was to march out with all his Forces next Morning, at Nine of the Clock, with one Piece of Cannon, Colours flying, Bullet in Mouth, and a Match lighted at both Ends, and to have a Convoy to conduct him into his own Territories. Marshal Turenne was, in the Morning berimes, with several Noblemen and Officers of the Army, and Major-general Morgan, attending near the Gare for the Prince de Ligny's Coming out. The Prince, having Notice that Marshal Turenne was there, came out of his Coach. Marshal Turenne, being alighted off from his Horse, and the Major-general Morgan, at both their Meeting there was a great Acclamation, and embracing one another. After a little Time, Marshal Turenne told the Prince, He very much admired, that he would expose his Perfon to a Garrison before a conquering Army: The Prince de Ligny replied, That, if Marshal Turenne had left his English in England, he durft have exposed his Person into the weakest Garrison the King of Spain had in Flanders, and so they parted, and his Excellency marched into the

Town with a French Garison, and the Major-general with him. So foon as the Garrifon was settled, Marshal Turenne writ his Letters to the French King, and his Eminence the Cardinal, how that the City of Ypres was reduced to the Obedience of his Majesty, and that he was possessed of it; and that Major-general Morgan was instrumental in that Service, and that the English did Wonders; and sent the Intendant of the Army with his Letters to the King and Cardinal. Monsieur Tallon, the Intendant, returned back from the King and Cardinal to the Army within eight Days, and brought a Compliment to Major-general Morgan, that the King and his Eminence the Cardinal did expect to see him at Paris, when he came to his Winter Quarters, where there would be a Cupboard of Plate to attend him. Major-general Morgan, instead of going for his Cupboard of Plate, went for England, and his Majesty of France had never the Kindness to send him his Cupboard of Plate : So that this is the Reward that Major-general Morgan hath had from the French King for all his Service in France and Flanders.

af of his Maional, how the writ his Lar with hina

· Killed at the Battle of Dunkirk, Lieutenant-colonel Fenwick, two Captains, one Lieutenant, two Ensigns, two Serjeants, thirty-two Soldiers; and about twenty wounded.

Killed

Killed at the Storming of Ypres, One Captain, one Serjeant, eight private Soldiers, about twenty-five Officers of thirty-five; and about fix Soldiers flightly wounded, after they were lodged upon the Counterscarp; Sir Thomas Morgan himself nightly hurt, by a Shot in the Calf of his Leg.

An Account of the Original of Writing and Paper, out

of a Book, intitled, La Libraria Vaticana, written by
Mutio Pansa, Keeper of the said Library. Printed
at Rome.
ift, Of the Use of Books, and Invention of Letters.

- DISCOURSE I.

M

which after warnted by Adam, hind were after pre

H AT the Use of Books and Libraries is very ancient, appears by 1 many Authors, both Christian and Heatben, from whom it may in some Measure be gathered, that they have been in Use ever since the World began ; for we read, that Jude the Apostle, in one of his Epistles, quotes the Book of Enoch, which was before the Flood. (The Words of the Epistle are: And Enoch also, the Seventh from Adam, propbefied of these, &c. So that here is a Prophecy, but nothing expresy of a Book of his Writing, whence a Debate may arise, whether this Prophecy was not left by oral Tradition, without more positive Proof; but to return to our Author.) And tho’ Authors differ very much concerning the Invention of Letters, of which afterwards Books were composed; yet we take it for granted, that they were invented by Adam, his Sons, and Grandsons, in the first Age of the World, before the Flood, and were after preserved by Noah and his Progeny, till they came to Abraham, and so to Moses; and of this Opinion was St. Augustin, lib. xv. de Civitate Dei, and Josephus, a Jewish Writer of great Credit, who, in the first Book of his Antiquities, writes, That Adam's Grandsons, the Sons of Seth, erected two Pillars, the one of Stone, and the other of Brick, on which they left written, and engraved, all the Arts discovered by them, and he affirms he saw one of these Pillars in Syria; from the which, I am of Opinion, the Egyptians afterwards learnt the Way of Writing, and expressing their Mysteries with those Characters called Hieroglyphicks, on several Obelisks, wherein Egypt formerly so much abounded, that some of them are still to be seen in Rome, whither they were transported by the first Emperors. This is the more credible, because we read, that Adam was by God created in so great a State of Perfection, of Knowledge, and of Wisdom, that he gave Names to all Things, according

Oiboniel governederand therefore in

to their Nature and Qualities; and that none ever so well understood the Revolutions of the Heavens, the Mocions of the Stars and Planets, and so thoroughly knew the Nature of Herbs, Plants, Animals, and all other Things in the World, as he did. It is therefore to be believed, that he found out the Method for preserving the Memory hereof to Posterity. Pliny, in his Nat. Hift. lib. vii. Cap. ult. confirms this Opinion; for there, after delivering the Sentiments of many concerning the Invention of Letters, as that some pretend they were invented in Syria by the Asyrians, and others in Egypt by Mercury; that they were brought into Italy by the Pelasgi, and into Greece by the Phænicians, and Cadmus their Leader; that Palamedis, during the Trojan War, added four more; he concludes, it is his Opinion, that Letters were eternal, which is almost the same as to say, they began with the World. Hence it follows, that their Opinion is vain, who say the Egyptians were the Inventors of Letters and Arts, as Diodorus Siculus holds, Lib. i. where he says, that Mercury found them out in Egypt ; though, in his fourth Book, he writes, that others think the Æthiopians had Letters before, and the Egyptians from them. Hence we may further infer, that Moses was not the first Inventor of Letters, as some Jews and Christians affirm, because he was ancienter than any one of those by whom they are said to have been first found ; as Cadmus, who lived in the Days when Othoniel governed Ifrael, which was forty-seven Years after the written Law was given to Moses ; and therefore the Egyptians learnt the Letters of him, and they communicated them to the Phoenicians, whence Cadmus carried them into Greece. True , it is, that Attabanus and Eupolemus, Heathen Authors, say, that Mofes was by the Egyptians called Mercury, and the same that taught them Letters. Thus, we see, the Invention of Letters was ancienter than Philo the Jew believes it, who says, that Abraham first found them; for, as has been said, they were in Being even in the Days of Adam and his Children, and afterwards preferved by Noah, who was a Man of Learning and Letters; and it is to be believed, that he saved them with him in the Ark; though, after the Confusion of Tongues at the Tower of Babel, most Nations might lose the Letters, and the Knowledge of them might only remain in the Family of Heber, from whom the Hebrews afterwards descended, who lost not their first Language, as St. Augustin, Eusebius, and most learned Men of our Time affirm. Philo, and the rest, who thought that Mofes had been the Inventor of Letters, were the more easily deceived, because it is manifeft, that the Books and History writ by Mojes are the ancientest in the World, or than the Wisdom of the Egyptians, or the Philosophy of the Greeks, as is made out by St. Augustin and Josephus, writing against Appion the Grammarian, as also by Eusebius and Yustin Martyr : And that there were Letters before Mofes is visible, because we find it written, that he learnt in Egypt unto Pbarach the Arts and Wisdom of the Egyptians ; nor do I know how this could be, unless they had Letters before, though, it is true, we know they had fome Characters called Hiero. glyphicks, by which they taught most of their Sciences. Howsoever it was Vol. III,

Z .

che

Phoenicians, whence

the Invention of Letters is certainly divine, as being those that preserve and secure all other Invention, for without them none can sublift ; and they are of such Worth, that they make Men immortal, rendering chose Things present which happened a thousand Years ago, and joining those which are distant, communicating them, as if they were not asunder. By them are known and learnt all sorts of Sciences, teaching those in being all that part Ages knew, and preferving for Posterity, all that chose now living found out. In short, the Benefit of them is almost infinite and inexpressible, and therefore their Invention may deservedly be called rather divine than buman. What Order was observed in the Characters of ancient Times, methinks is not to be fought after, as depending on the Will and Pleasure of the Inventor ; as we daily fee is done by those who frame Cyphers or Characters, and other Sorts. of common Letters, who observe no Order. It is true, they were, in Process of Time, for the more Distinction, put into that Order we now see them: And, because many afterwards successively added other Letters, or made new Characters, therefore many were thought the Inventors of them ; of whom we shall speak to the Purpose hereafter, when we come to discourse of the Pictures in the Vatican Library, among which are those of all such as were famous in the World for the Invention of Letters, or for adding any co them.

Of the paper of the Ancients, of the Papyrus of the Romans, of

the several Sorts of it, and of the Paper of our Times.

DISCOURS E IL

of Palm Trees, the fine Bark of the plane,

ITAVING hitherto discoursed of the Letters, it will now be convenient

M to say something of Paper, as the Matter on which they are made ;and, to speak the Truth, it is no small Difficulty to decide what they writ on in former Ages, because we have no Account in History what they did write on before the Flood, but what we faid before, that Adam's Grandchildren, the Sons of Seth, writ an Account of Arts on chofe two Pillars abovementioned. After the Flood, all Authors agree, that Men had no Paper, but writ on the Leaves of Palm Trees, whence, to this Day, those of Books are called Leaves. Next they writ on the fine Bark of Trees, and particularly on that Sort which slips off easiest, such as the Elder, the Plane, the Afh, and the Elm; and these were the inward Films, which grow between the Bark and the Wood, which, being curiously taken off, were joined together, and Books made of them; and, because this Film in Latin is called Liber, thence the same Name was given to a Book, though now they are not made of that Substance. The Wit of Man, which still improved, after this found out a Way of writing on the thinnest Sheets of Lead, of

which

which private People made Books and Pillars. Next, the Ancients found the Way of Writing on Linnen-Cloths Nicked and waxed, on which they writ, not with a Pen, but with a small Cane or Reed, as some write to this Day. And, as Pliny tells us, we find in Homer, that these waxed Clochs were used before the Time of the Trojans, and Mutianus, whọ, as he writes himself, was thrice Consul, that, when he was President in Lycia, he read there, in a Temple, a Letter writ on one of these Cloths by Sarpedon, King of Lycia, then at Troy, where he assisted Priam in his. War against the Greeks, and was at last killed by Patroclus. In Process of Time, the Method was found out of writing on Parchment made of Sheep-, Skins, mentioned by Herodotus, Lib. vii. the Invention whereof Varro asligns to the People of Pergamus, a City in Asia, on the Banks of the River Caicus, whereof Eumenes was King, and from that City it was called Pergamenum, which we have corrupted to Parchment, Pliny says, this Eumenes first sent, it to Rome ; but Elianus says it was Attalus, King of the same Country, who firft sent it. Jofepbus, the Jew, makes the writing on Parchment ancienter, and says, the Books of the Jews, so much ancienter than Eumenes, and the rest of that Sort, were wriț upon Skins ; and relates, that when Eleazer, the High Priest, sent the Books of the Holy Scripture to Ptolemy by the Sepiuagint, to be translated out of Hebrew into Greek, King Ptolemy Philadelphus was much amazed at the Fineness of those Skins or Parchment; so that writing on them was easier, and more lasting than the ancienter Use of Barks. and Leaves of Trees ; and it is to be believed, this Invention was not yet in Egypt, since Ptolemy wondered at it. After this, there was found a Sort of Paper made of a Rush, or Plant, called Papyrus, growing in the Marshes, about the River Nile, though Pliny says there are some of them in Syria, near the River Euphrates. These Rushes bear small Leaves betwixt the outward Rhind and the Pith, which, being neatly opened with the Point of a Needle, and then prepared with fine Flour and other Ingredients, served to write on and made Paper, the innermost Parç making the finest, and according to the several Sorts it had several Names, and was put to sundry Uses; being from this Rush called Papyrus, which Name has continued to our Days, and is given to our Paper, though made of Rags, because this serves for the same Uses as that did. I saw one of these Rushes at Rome, which was shewed me by that worthy Gentleman Caftor Durante, of happy Memory, my Master in the College, who told me it came from Egypt; and he had it from Padua, sent him by Signșor Cortufo, a Man excellently learned in Simples, of whom he had got other more (trange and rare Things, as į have several Times seen myself, and particularly a Sheet of this papyrus, of Paper, made of that Rush.

The first Invention of making Paper of this Rush, Varro affirms, was in the Days of Alexander the Great, when Alexandria was founded, but Pliny proves it was ancienter, by the Books which Gn. Tarentinus found in his Vineyard in a Marble Chest on the Hill Janiculus, in which were also the Bones of Numa Pompilius. These Books were of the Papyrus, and it is 2 2

certain,

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