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injudicious severity of his governors, or his own captious perverseness. The cause cannot now be known, but the effect appears in his writings. His scheme of education, inscribed to Hartlib, supersedes all academical instruction, being intended to comprise the whole time which men 5 usually spend in literature, from their entrance upon grammar, till they proceed, as it is called, Masters of Arts. And in his discourse on the likeliest Way to remove Hirelings out of the Church,' he ingeniously proposes that the profits of the lands forfeited by the act for superstitious uses 10 should be applied to such academies all over the land where languages and arts may be taught together; so that youth may be at once brought up to a competency of learning and an honest trade, by which means such of them as had the gift, being enabled to support themselves without 15 tithes) by the latter, may, by the help of the former, become worthy preachers.
One of his objections to academical education, as it was then conducted, is, that men designed for orders in the church were permitted to act plays, 'writhing and un- 30 boning their clergy limbs to all the antic and dishonest gestures of Trincalos, buffoons, and bawds, prostituting the shame of that ministry which they had, or were near having, to the eyes of courtiers and court-ladies, their grooms and mademoiselles.'
25 This is sufficiently peevish in a man, who, when he mentions his exile from the college, relates, with great luxuriance, the compensation which the pleasures of the theatre afford him. Plays were therefore only criminal when they were acted by academics.
30 He went to the university with a design of entering into the church, but in time altered his mind; for he declared, that whoever became a clergyman, must subscribe slave,
and take an oath withal, which, unless he took with a conscience that would retch, he must straight perjure himself. He thought it better to prefer a blameless silence before the office of speaking, bought and begun with ser5 vitude and forswearing.'
These expressions are, I find, applied to the subscription of the Articles; but it seems more probable that they relate to canonical obedience. I know not any of the
Articles which seem to thwart his opinions : but the 10 thoughts of obedience, whether canonical or civil, raised his indignation.
His unwillingness to engage in the ministry, perhaps not yet advanced to a settled resolution of declining it, appears
in a letter to one of his friends, who had reproved his sus15 pended and dilatory life, which he seems to have imputed
to an insatiable curiosity, and fantastic luxury of various knowledge. To this he writes a cool and plausible answer, in which he endeavours to persuade him, that the
delay proceeds not from the delights of desultory study, 20 but from the desire of obtaining more fitness for his task;
and that he goes on, 'not taking thought of being late, so it give advantage to be more fit.'
When he left the University, he returned to his father, then residing at Horton, in Buckinghamshire, with whom 25 he lived five years, in which time he is said to have read
all the Greek and Latin writers. With what limitations this universality is to be understood, who shall inform us?
It might be supposed, that he who read so much should have done nothing else; but Milton found time to write 30 the masque of 'Comus,' which was presented at Ludlow,
then the residence of the Lord President of Wales, in 1634 ; and had the honour of being acted by the Earl of Bridgewater's sons and daughter. The fiction is derived from
Homer's 'Circe'; but we never can refuse to any modern v the liberty of borrowing from Homer :
--a quo ceu fonte perenni
Vatum Pieriis ora rigantur aquis. His next production was 'Lycidas,' an elegy, written in 5 1637, on the death of Mr. King, the son of Sir John King, Secretary for Ireland in the time of Elizabeth, James, and Charles. King was much a favourite at Cambridge, and many of the wits joined to do honour to his memory. Milton's acquaintance with the Italian writers may be dis- 10 covered by a mixture of longer and shorter verses, according to the rules of Tuscan poetry, and his malignity to the church by some lines which are interpreted as threatening its extermination.
He is supposed about this time to have written his 15 Arcades; for while he lived at Horton he used sometimes to steal from his studies a few days, which he spent at Harefield, the house of the Countess Dowager of Derby, where the Arcades made part of a dramatic entertainment.
He began now to grow weary of the country, and had some purpose of taking chambers in the Inns of Court, when the death of his mother set him at liberty to travel, for which he obtained his father's consent, and Sir Henry Wotton's directions; with the celebrated precept of pru- 25 dence, i pensieri strelti, ed il viso sciolto; thoughts close, and looks loose.'
In 1638 he left England, and went first to Paris ; where, by the favour of Lord Scudamore, he had the opportunity of visiting Grotius, then residing at the French court as 30 ambassador from Christina of Sweden. From Paris he hasted into Italy, of which he had with particular diligence studied the language and literature; and, though he seems
to have intended a very quick perambulation of the country, stayed two months at Florence; where he found his way into the academies, and produced his compositions with such applause as appears to have exalted him in his own 5 opinion, and confirmed him in the hope, that, by labour and intense study, which,' says he, 'I take to be my portion in this life, joined with a strong propensity of nature,' he might leave something so written to after-times, as they should not willingly let it die.'
It appears, in all his writings, that he had the usual concomitant of great abilities, a lofty and steady confidence in
himself, perhaps not without some contempt of others; 1
for scarcely any man ever wrote so much, and praised so
few. Of his praise he was very frugal; as he set its 15
value high, and considered his mention of a name as a security against the waste of time, and a certain preservation from oblivion.
At Florence he could not indeed complain that his merit wanted distinction. Carlo Dati presented him with an 20 encomiastic inscription, in the tumid lapidary style; and
Francini wrote him an ode, of which the first stanza is only empty noise ; the rest are perhaps too diffuse on common topics : but the last is natural and beautiful.
From Florence he went to Sienna, and from Sienna to 25 Rome, where he was again received with kindness by the
learned and the great. Holstenius, the keeper of the Vatican library, who had resided three years at Oxford, introduced him to Cardinal Barberini : and he, at
musical entertainment, waited for him at the door, and 30 led him by the hand into the assembly. Here Selvaggi
praised him in a distich, and Salsilli in a tetrastich : neither of them of much value. The Italian were gainers by this literary commerce; for the encomiums with which
Milton repaid Salsilli, though not secure against a stern grammarian, turn the balance indisputably in Milton's favour.
Of these Italian testimonies, poor as they are, he was proud enough to publish them before his poems; though 5 he says, he cannot be suspected but to have known that they were said non tam de se, quam supra se.
At Rome, as at Florence, he stayed only two months : á time indeed sufficient, if he desired only to ramble with an explainer of its antiquities, or to view palaces and count 10 pictures; but certainly too short for the contemplation of learning, policy, or manners.
From Rome he passed on to Naples, in company of a hermit, a companion from whom little could be expected; yet to him Milton owed his introduction to Manso, Marquis 15 of Villa, who had been before the patron of Tasso. Manso was enough delighted with his accomplishments to honour him with a sorry distich, in which he commends him for everything but his religion: and Milton, in return, addressed him in a Latin poem, which must have raised a high opinion 20 of English elegance and literature.
His purpose was now to have visited Sicily and Greece ; but hearing of the differences between the king and parliament, he thought it proper to hasten home, rather than pass his life in foreign amusements while his countrymen 25 were contending for their rights. He therefore came back to Rome, though the merchants informed him of plots laid against him by the Jesuits, for the liberty of his conversations on religion. He had sense enough to judge that there was no danger, and therefore kept on his way, and 30 acted as before, neither obtruding nor shunning controversy. He had perhaps given some offence by visiting Galileo, then a prisoner in the Inquisition for philosophical