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To have sent into the new world two-thirds of the oldest and most inveterate clerical friends of despotism, and to have supplied: the younger men with wives, would have been the true method of interesting a priesthood in the cause of liberty. The province which was least zealous for the constitutional regime in the kingdom of Naples was that of Aquila, which was bordering on, and much connected with, the states of the church ; and it was through these provinces that the Austrians directed their forces to attack General Pepe. And yet neither in these provinces, nor in those of the Roman states, is the influence of the clergy over the people so great as in Spain.
6th Cause. The defects of a complex and inconsistent constitution, attempting to mix up together irreconcilable powers, will be farther seen, when it is remarked that, under difficulties to which these defects gave rise, the members of the Cortes did not act or speak with sufficient decision; three-fourths at least of the deputies on the constitutional side declared that they would do every thing for the country; but that to deviate from a single article of the constitution would be the same as to become revolutionists, and to incur this imputation was what the deputies erroneously (supposing the change of government completely settled) seemed most to have dreaded ; whereas, when it was found that the constitution was in truth of the nature of felo de se, one part doing violence on another, the hand aiming at the heart -was it not imperative on the Cortes to have proclaimed the fact, to have manacled the murderous hand, and to have framed for the nation's acceptance and adoption a constitution harmonising in all its parts with public liberty? It is true, in the last moments of their authority the greater part of the deputies, placed in the hard' necessity of rendering themselves infamous or of being compromised, took some energetic measures ; but it was too late, and their country and themselves were lost. It would, however, be wrong to judge too severely a congress, the members of which, rather than betray their country, have exposed themselves to exile, and to a state of wretchedness, the duration of which cannot even be guessed. They have, however, now leisure: to reflect on the errors of their more early conduct; to try it by the infallible test of those principles on which the science of government is founded ; and it is to be hoped, that should events again call them to assert the liberties of Spain on Spanish ground, it will be done with improved intelligence, and with a consistency of measures cor, respondent to the simplicity of true republican wisdom and virtue,
7th Cause.-Not having attempted, and strained every nerve, to cause France and Italy to rise, and thus to make a diversion of the war from themselves.
The insurrections of Catalonia and Navarre demonstrate, even to men of the smallest discernment, how prudent it would have been to have incapacitated the Bourbons of France, by French and Italian insurrections, from introducing war into the heart of the peninsula. Till within a few months of the invasion of Spain by Louis, King Ferdinand could not in any manner have prevented the Spanish government from adopting some vigorous measures in favor of the independence of the country, so that this government, composed of the Cortes and of the ministry, might effectually have counteracted this perverse and imbecile king, who, though he was conspiring with foreigners in secret, had no influence whatever over the proceedings of the national government. How easy it would have been to have caused France to have risen in the year 1822, is proved by the many conspiracies which took place in that year throughout its vast empire.
The dying-away of these conspiracies without effect does not prove that the French were immature for revolt, but that no propitious circumstances occurred to give strength and consistency to such an attempt. In fact, the French had neither the advantage of being able to unite a body of troops in a favorable position as in Spain, nor had they a general possessed of a large command, who was willing to venture on the responsibility of so great an experiment as in Naples. And if the bold attempt of General Berton failed, we must recollect that he had not the smallest command, that his rank of Field-Marshal gave him but little influence over the French troops, and finally, that it is very certain he could not command a sum of five hundred pounds.
We must consider in this place that General Berton, after attempting nothing less than the overthrow of the Bourbons, refused to pass into Spain, and remained in France, trusting to the weakness of the government, which in fact could only get him into their power after three months' pursuit. And in what manner did they at length succeed? was it by means of their numerous gendarmerie, or of the troops, whose fidelity at that time they distrusted? No, certainly: it was by means of a few soldiers of the royal guard, who, insinuating themselves among the Carbonari, under the mask of pretended patriotism, effected this arrest-an arrest which would never have been obtained by this feeble government, notwithstanding the sums lavished in such cases by terrified despotism.
And it is further to be observed, that at this time the Spaniards might with very limited means have assisted the depressed Italians in resuming their adjourned enterprise in favor of Italian liberty. Those who imagine that the Italians are incapable of effective exertion, shall be answered when we speak hereafter of Naples and
Piedmont. In September, 1822, the Spanish ministers were on the point of embracing the offers of the French and Italians, who, after so many errors and so many opportunities lost by the compromising rulers in Spain, still formed one of the best supports that remained to peninsular liberty. But the foreign ministers, and among them the minister of Russia in particular, the artful Corfiote, penetrating in part the intentions of the Spanish ministry, succeeded in prevailing on them to change their mode of proceeding. The ministers of the allied princes informed the Spanish minister, that they had no cause to apprehend any thing from the congress of Verona, who did not entertain the slightest intention of invading Spain unless the princes who composed it were provoked to decide on such a step, in consequence of Spain becoming the beacon of revolt to other nations. Thus did the unskilful ministry of Spain, and the inexperienced St. Miguel, minister for foreign affairs, neglect an expedient, which together with the peninsula might have saved all the south of Europe.
Cause. In order to be impartial, it is necessary to allow, that towards the end of May, 1823, the affairs of Spain had taken so bad a' turn, after the many errors, military and political, which had been committed, that clear-sighted men entertained but little hope. But if any probability of preserving the liberty of Spain existed, that probability ceased from the moment of the counter-revolution in Portugal. In fact the Spanish government, instead of the zealous and promised assistance of the Portuguese army, saw that this army would soon be united to the French for:
And it is sufficient to cast an eye over the map of the peninsula to perceive that the French, in alliance with the Portuguese as auxiliaries, would cut off every communication with the Portuguese between the northern and southern provinces of Spain. And though, in a military point of view, the fall of Portugal was a cruel stroke upon Spain, it was not less fatal, politically speaking, to the public feeling of that nation : on one hand, the most zealous and declared assertors of liberty found themselves exposed to the probability of suffering as traitors; and on the other hand might be seen the perplexity, the stupor, the astonishment, which even the strongest minds experienced on hearing of the unexampled treachery, not only of the troops, but of the officers of the Portuguese army, of whom not one was heard to say, “I will exempt myself from this infamy, I will be distinguished as the only man unwilling to co-operate in such wicked and disgraceful perfidy.”
9th Cause.-Men of all parties, interested in the-dast events of the peninsula, did not seek to analyse the military operations of the French army, because they looked upon this war as rather political than military. In fact the war was conducted on both sides
without any attention to the rules of military science. But if the French dispensed with rules and acted with so much audacity, they did so because they saw sufficient reason for their conduct, and adapted their operations to the circumstances of the moment.
But the Spaniards (God forgive them) consulted in their plans of defence neither their political or military position, nor the principal and invariable rules of tactics. We cannot, however, enter these details, because they would lead us into too long a discussion, and because it is our object to speak of the public feeling with regard to liberty rather than of military transactions. Perhaps the time is not far distant, when we shall publish a small tract entitled “ General rules for the use of a nation, who with few if any regular troops, is obliged to defend its liberty against the disciplined armies of despotism."
The tenth and last cause of Spain's unhappy failure, was her extreme deficiency in the knowledge of that part of the political science on which liberty depends : namely, that, excluding all the arbitrary dictation of hereditary power, the people shall make and administer their oron laws through their representatives, and universally béar arms for self-preservation. Liberty being the end of government, it is not to be obtained by those who are grossly ignorant of the means. This undeniable proposition shows, that, before the European patriots can hope, in any future attempts, to establish the freedom of their respective countries, they must qualify themselves to disseminate the necessary knowledge. Latent seeds in the earth, which, smothered with moss or heath, or overshadowed by forests, have remained dormant for ages, on being laid open to the vivifying rays of the sun, suddenly vegetate in all the luxuriance of a delightful verdure. In like manner the suppressed seeds of intellect and liberty in the hearts of enslaved nations, on the removal of despotism, instantly send forth all the gay flowers and delicious fruits of freedom. How glorious, how transcendant the liberty of Anglo-America! Was it not called into existence by the fructifying sunshine of reason, applied to the aforesaid three principles in political science ?
These assiduously impressed on the minds of the people, inspiring unanimity, enthusiasm and invincible heroism, free constitutions everywhere spontaneously sprang up! Be then a knowledge of those few fundamental principles diffused, not only by the patriots of Spain, but by those likewise of Portugal, of Italy, of France, of Germany, and of Greece: then, in the fairest portions of Europe soon shall divine liberty be triumphant !
Conclusion drawn from the foregoing remarks on the fall
of liberty in Spain. These are the true, the acknowledged, and principal causes which have for the present destroyed not only Spanish liberty, but cruelly damped the hopes of all enlightened Europe ;--an event most fatal to the interests of humanity, which ought to open the eyes of all those nations who pant for true liberty. These reasons ought also to excite the attention of reflecting minds, since they have produced the infidelity and weakness of the most distinguished generals, they have occasioned the taking of the strongest places without any resistance, have caused whole bodies of armed men and large columns to lay down their arms at the first appearance of a few French recruits. Finally, these reasons show why the nation which opposed the French, when they only sought a change of dynasty," became at a later period either cold spectators of what passed, or even allies of those very French when they sought to reconduct the nation into its ancient slavery.
Machiavelli, that deeply-reflecting philosopher, maintains, with reason, that a suppressed revolution always contains the germ of another which follows it; and it doubtless may be suspected, that, when the Spaniards shall again attempt a restoration of their liberty, they may consider the task of bringing a Bourbon dynasty under the wholesome limitations of a free constitution so hopeless, that they may be provoked to abolish it altogether : especially when they may recollect that their late king, as well as the most splendid and powerful of their monarchs, the imperial Charles the Vth, ultimately found so little personal happiness in the exercise of despotic power, that, like other potentates sated with dominion, they voluntarily abdicated the throne for their repose.
Nor, considering what they have suffered from the odious conduct of a bigotted, or rather of a profligate and hypocritical priesthood, who, as instruments of their misery, have been as malignant, cruel and blood-thirsty, as they have been busy and intriguing, could it be surprising should they wholly divest such monsters, as religion's worst enemies, of the means of being any longer mischievous.
And may it not, likewise, be farther imagined, that all the na. tions which compose the south of Europe may be disposed to banish from their minds, as a delusion, all hope of good under any modification of hereditary power, as contrary to nature ? For, with reference to those nations, may it not also be apprehended as likely, that they should respectively consider themselves in such a re