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dency to produce, and will actually produce, when aided by those circumstances which we liave seen to accompany it in Ireland. If education, as has been abundantly proved, be a powerful remedy for this frightful disease, its necessity in Ireland becomes yet more indispensable, from the absence of manufactures. Manufactures, when introduced into a very populous country, would seem to have an effect on population, the reverse of that which follows their introduction where numbers are few. In the latter instance, they raise the wages of labor, increase the facilities of subsistence, and therefore promote the growth of population. But in the former, there are so many seeking employment, that the wages of labor will continue for a long period at their usual level. Those who want work will flock in crowds to the manufacturing districts, and those who obtain it will be led, in consequence of stated payments, at regular intervals, to estimate their means and income, which they seldom did when drawing their subsistence from the soil. The consequence of improvident unions will therefore be more clearly seen, and they will be avoided. Thus multitudes who, had they remained scattered upon the land, would have added yearly to the numbers of the people, will either die without children, or not marry till they are advanced in life. Population will therefore continue to be checked, precisely in proportion to the spreading of manufactures, until the wages of labor rise to such a height as will again encourage its progression ; and this will not take place until numbers cease to be redundant. In short, the worst of mischiefs will be gradually removed, by the very means which are gradually advancing the general prosperity. Besides, manufactures, both by the ingenuity they elicit, and the activity they excite, and by collecting

numbers together, where mind clashes with mind, and each profits by the knowledge of the other, have an inevitable tendency to inculcate and promote general intelligence. The consequences, likewise, of improvident unions, are more distinctly seen where many families supply instances which present the warnings of actual experience. Ireland, then, a country which is destitute of this great source of relief, requires, in an especial degree, the incessant and persevering exertions of all the patriotism which exists within herself, all the benevolence and politic care of Great Britain, to extend that education, which, though not an immediate remedy, will, in the end, be a sure and effectual corrective of the grand mischief which oppresses her.

Emigration at once suggests itself as an expedient of speedy and certain efficacy. If it be practicable, it ought to be applied, because the first step towards the removal of pernicious habits in society, is to get rid of the circumstances which bring them into action, and to banish the evil agents in order to destroy bad example. To thin the population, would certainly abate the ferment, by subtracting one of its chief causes. But, in the first place, it must be always remembered, that this can be only a tem.porary remedy, if the habits remain. In a very short time, the people would increase to their former numbers ; and if the same habits existed, they would be still trained to disorder, and fresh tumults would arise. When I speak of habits, I mean to refer, not to those of the lower orders merely, but also to that course of conduct in the upper ranks, both in what they do, and in what they neglect, which has contributed to produce and to maintain the bad disposition of the people. In the next place, it is to be feared, that the sudden removal of the mischief, without any trouble on the part of the higher classes, would encourage these to abstain from correcting the habits and the conduct which they have so long followed. The magistrates would continue their neglect and abuses; the landed proprietors their apathy and unconcern ; the landlords their extravagant demands; the tithe proprietors their harassing and vexatious proceedings. In short, things would go on precisely as before. The people who remained would not be much benefited ; and in a very few years, they, in conjunction with the numbers now advancing to man's estate, would break out into the same tumults with all the fury of á half-smothered flame. In fine, the disease is one which rankles in the constitution of society; and temporary relief, if not accompanied by constitutional remedies, will only add virulence to future relapses.

On this, as on the other distempers of Ireland, it may be laid down as a maxim of policy, that cure must be gradual. But the endeavors towards effecting it, though not sudden and violent, must be steady and persevering. The legislature may do much, but it cannot accomplish all. Some evils there are, which parliament, and parliament only, can remove; evils which, while they are suffered to remain, will paralyse all the exertions of the most extensive power guided by the profoundest wisdom. But it is equally true that legislative measures, though they may lay the foundation for amendment, cannot of themselves secure it. Can parliament confine absentees to their country? Can it remove the middleman or check the rapacity of him or of other landlords? Can it infuse into the great landed proprietors a patriotic and paternal care over the people, and an interest in their hapless condition? Can it reform the magistracy and gentry? Can it remove all those causes which render the peasantry regardless or contemptuous of the laws ? Can it drain off all the redundance of an overflowing population, or give the people employment ? Can

it establish manufactures ? Can it, by mere legislative acts, give the people education, teach them the ruinous folly of improvident marriages, or instruct them in the benefit, to themselves, of upholding instead of braving and outraging the laws ? Can a legislature, in short, by the mere exercise of its supreme authority in the framing of laws, remove diseases deep-seated in the frame and constitution of society? Gradually and by repeated trials, in a long course of time ; by a close attention to the peculiar habits of the people and circumstances of the country ; by a strict investigation of abuses, so conducted that punishment shall invariably follow detection; by a union of kindness, mildness, and conciliation, with vigor and severity where these are required ; parliament, in conjunction with the executive, may guide the course of events, which, when something is not radically and obstinately wrong, has always a tendency towards improvement. But Parliament and Government must be seconded by those whose station gives them the power of useful co-operation. For let it never be forgotten, that legislative acts, if not forwarded and aided by the society for which they are framed, are laws written in sand. The gentry of Ireland must learn, that on them chiefly and finally it depends, whether their country shall advance in the progress of civilisation, or whether it shall stand still or move backward, an anomaly in Europe, a disgrace to England, and a torment to themselves. They have called for rigorous measures, and have obtained them. They were justified in the demand by the fearful nature of the crisis. But let not the delusion prevail, that measures of rigor, just and necessary for the immediate repression of crimes that threatened the loss of every thing for preserving which society was formed, will of themselves prevent a recurrence of the evil. This wretched people must suffer; because, though they suffer for misconduct of which others are at least partially or remotely the occasion, the delinquency is also theirs, and must not be encouraged by impunity. But the causes which have led to their

present state, so miserable in moral habits as well as physical existence, must be removed, or property and life will be secure only when guarded by the bayonet. Will the upper ranks in Ireland consider their perilous situation ? will they continue blind to their own obvious interests ? What will become of the property which even the bayonet can protect, when charged with the maintenance of a military police ? and what will become of their lives without it, if the condition of the people remain the same?

Let them leave to the wretched peasant some little interest in the land which he cultivates. Let them expunge from their accounts those arrears which no 66 amendment of the times” can enable the tenant to discharge. Let them encourage some system of


education accommodated to the religious prejudices of the people. If offered in a spirit of fairness and candor, it would be received with warm support by the great body of the Roman Catholic clergy; and the cavils which the ingenuity of a few captious bigots might raise, would be lost in the consciousness of the blessings which such a system must ensure. Let them, by the formation of associations, or some other means, watch the administration of justice by the magistracy, that is, by themselves; and give their countenance, and even lend their assistance, towards investigating abuses, where they are charged. Let them direct their most strenuous exertions to the extinction of quarter-sessions intrigue. Let them, by their influence over their tenantry and dependents, enforce the prosecution of every outrage, and, by encouraging appeals to the ordinary tribunals, and bringing the peasant into frequent contact with the laws, inspire both a fear and a confidence of their steady execution. Above all, let those of large property and high station study the lower orders ; learn to understand their character, and know their real condition ; and endeavor to develope and improve the one, to relieve and ameliorate the other. If they will but do their part, sooner or later the government and the legislature will perform theirs. When these shall have cut out from the heart of the body politic some cancerous sores which spread a poisoning influence through the whole frame ; when the Irish gentry shall heartily second such measures, and shall attend even to the objects which I have here briefly sketched ; some hope may be entertained, that Ireland may at length become an enlightened, civilised, prosperous, and happy nation.

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