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DR, PAYERNE'S IMPROVED METHODS OF SUPPORTING RESPIRATION IN CONFINED
PLACES, AND OF PURIFYING MINES, FACTORIES, HOSPITALS, ETC.
[Patent dated, June 15, 1843 ; Specification enrolled, December 15, 1843.] When about eighteen months ago Dr. carbonic-acid gas has been absorbed, as Payerne made his well-remembered ex aforesaid, as much oxygen gas as may be hibitions at the Polytechnic Institution, requisite for replacing the oxygen which West India Docks, &c., (see Mech. may have been abstracted from the said Mag., vol. xxxvii., pp. 185 and 260,) air during such breathing or burning, or a patent for England was at the same such evolution or explosion as aforesaid. time taken out (July 7, 1842) on his The absorption of carbonic-acid gas
from behalf by Mr. William Revell Vigers, air in confined places which has become
“mode of keeping the air in contaminated with such acid gas, is efconfined places in a pure or respirable fected by forcing the air to pass in a curstate to enable persons to remain at work rent or currents in contact with an alkali under water, and in other places, without rendered caustic by means of recentlya constant supply of atmospheric air ;" burned quick lime, so as to be capable of which patent was duly specified January absorbing carbonic acid from the air 7, 1843. Since then Dr. Payerne has which is so brought in contact with such made several valuable improvements in caustic alkali and quicklime, which are his invention, which form the subject of to be mixed together in water. Or such a patent taken out in his own name 15th quicklime may be used alone without alJune last, and specified on the 15th of kali, and either in a pulverulent state and last month. All the notices which we slaked, or the quicklime may be mixed have previously given of Dr. Payerne's with water, and the restoration of oxygen labours having been of a very general to air in confined places, which is become and cursory character, and having now deficient thereof, is effected by allowing before us
the specifications of both oxygen gas to escape gradually into such air patents, we propose, with the aid of these from some kind of close vessel into which documents, to trace the Doctor step by a large quantity of oxygen gas has been step through his course of discovery and previously compressed with great force improvements to the point of superior and retained therein under strong compractical efficiency at which he appears pression, or otherwise, by means of potash to have now arrived.
previously prepared in the state of perThe Specification of the first patent oxyde of potassium, that is, potassium (that in Mr. Vigers's name) gives the charged with an additional portion of following statement of the means which oxygen beyond what is contained in causDr. Payerne then considered to be the tic potash, fragments of such peroxyde best for accomplishing the objects he had being put into water will emit, or give in view :
out the said additional portion of oxygen “ The said mode of keeping the air in in the state of gas. Or otherwise, by confined places in a pure or respirable means of chlorate of potash, or of perstate to enable persons to remain, or work oxyde of manganese, or of both those under water and in other places without substances, which, being submitted to a constant supply of fresh atmospheric heat in a suitable apparatus, will (as is air, is performed by absorbing from the well known) emit, or give out a portion air, in confined places, the carbonic-acid of oxygen in the state of gas. And the gas, wherewith such air will always be oxygen gas, whether proceeding directly come more or less contaminated in con from such substances, or from comsequence of the breathing of men and pression in close vessels as aforesaid, by animals, or burning of candles, lamps, mixing with the air in confined places or gas-lights, or burning of fires of wood, which has become deficient in oxygen charcoal, coals, turf, or other fuel, or in (but which is already freed from carbonicconsequence of
evolution of carbonic acid gas) will restore the said air to a acid gas, or any explosion of gunpowder, pure or respirable state. The removal which may take place in the said air in of carbonic-acid gas from the air in conconfined places. And further, in case fined places is the most important part of such air is to be kept in a pure state by the invention, and that alone will be sufsupplying the said air from which the ficient for keeping the air in a respirable
DR. PAYERNE'S IMPROVED METHODS OF SUPPORTING RESPIRATION, ETC.
state, in places which, although they may ingredients may in general be reckoned be confined places, nevertheless, contain at the following rate for each person a large quantity of confined air in pro who is to breathe the air of the confined portion to the number of persons, or ani place in question, viz., four ounces of mals breathing, and of lights or fires the potash of commerce of the best burning in such confined air, such, for quality, and twenty ounces of newly instance, as crowded theatres, courts of burned quicklime, and about twelve justice, and other public places, also the pounds of fresh water. Or otherwise-lower parts of the interior of large ships, two pounds of newly burned quicklime, the cells of prisons, wards of hospitals, and about sixteen pounds of fresh water, and apartments of sick persons, also in without alkali. The said ingredients or extensive excavations of mines, in all ingredient being mixed up in the water which cases the ordinary means of venti in the bucket, or other vessel, and the lation can be practised with some effect. nozzle of the bellows being prolonged by In still more confined places, and where an iron pipe, bended downwards, the end such ventilation is difficult and inefficient, of that pipe is to be immersed in the the restoration of oxygen will be import liquid, so as to descend nearly to the ant, as well as the removal of carbonic bottom of the vessel, and then by blowacid, such for instance, as long and small ing strongly with the bellows, the air of galleries of deep mines, and in diving the place wherein the bellows are situaapparatus, or submarine boats or vessels, ted will, by action thereof, be blown wherein persons are to remain and work downward some depth into the liquid, under water; also in crowded transport nearly to the bottom of the vessel ; and ships, and hospital ships, where the quan by its buoyancy, the air will ascend tity of confined air is small in proportion again through the liquid in bubbles, so to the persons, animals, lights, or fires as to be passed very effectually in conbreathing or burning in such confined tact therewith, and with the caustic alair. Respecting the absorption of carbo- kali and quicklime, (or with the quicknic-acid gas from the air in confined lime,) which is mixed with the water, places, the said air is to be put in motion and which is kept mixed by the agitation by some means which will produce a occasioned by the bubbling of the air current thereof, and such current is to be through the mixture. The lime which passed in contact with the caustic alkali is thus employed having, by its recent and quicklime, or with the quicklime." burning, been deprived of carbonic acid,
A great many contrivances for giving has a strong tendency to absorb carbonic motion to the vitiated air, and bringing acid; and when the lime is mixed, as it into contact with the absorbent and aforesaid, with the potash of commerce, purifying mixtures, are then described ; which contains carbonic acid, the latter but we select the description given of is absorbed by the lime, so as to dewhat is truly termed "the simplest of prive the potash of its carbonic acid, all, as illustrating better than any of the and render it caustic, and the mixture of others the principles of this part of D:. caustic potash and lime and water, will, Payerne's system :
owing to the quantity of lime it contains, 6. The invention may be practised in or the lime, if that alone be used with the simplest manner, with very ordinary water, will have a strong tendency to apparatus; for instance, a common pair absorb carbonic acid from the air which of leathern bellows for domestic use in is brought into contact with it. The kitchens, but strongly made, and in good water acts as a medium for bringing the condition, so as to blow forcibly, will potash and the lime into a state of inti. serve for producing the required motion mate admixture, in order that the lime and current of the air in a confined
may operate on the potash, to absorb the ? place; and an ordinary wooden pail, or carbonic acid therefrom, and render the bucket, or earthen pan, or other like same caustic; and also that the mixture vessel, will serve to contain the caustic of caustic potash and lime, or that the alkali and lime, and the water wherewith lime, if that alone is used, may operate the same is to be mixed, or the quick on the air, which is passed in a current lime and water, and by means of which through the mixture of caustic potash water the ingredients are to be reduced and lime, and water, or through the mixto a liquid state. The quantities of those ure of lime and water, by means of the 1