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PART 11.] Review.-Clayton's Sketches of Biography.

609 It would certainly be monstrous, that earnestly advise every youth, who quits that a man could enter himself at a Univer- abode of purity, peace, and delight, his pasity, he carrying on the trade of a ternal home, to acquire a taste for reading horse-dealer (a very common practice and writing. At every place where he may with certain non-graduate Clergymen), reside long, either in England or on the keep three half-terms, and at the end Continent, let him study to make his apartof ten years throw up business, solicit

ments as attractive and comfortable as posHoly Orders from a Bishop, and shine sible, for he will find a little extraordinary forth a Doctor of Divinity. In our

expence so bestowed at the beginning, to

be good economy in the end : let him read judgement, no man onght' to hold a the best books in the language of the place living in England who is not a M.A. in which he lives; and above all, let him of Oxford or Canıbridge in the regular never retire to rest without writing at least way; for it is cerrainly hard that a man a page of original comments on what he who earned his trifling portion of Latin has seen, read, and heard in the day. This and Greek at a day-school of fourpence habit will teach him to observe and discria week, should obtain the same pecu- minate, for a man ceases to read with a deniary benefits, as he whose education sultory and wandering mind, which is utter at school and the University has cost

waste of time, when he knows that an acone thousand pounds.

count of all the information which he has If a necessity of ordaining Non- gained must be written at night. His rule Graduates be indispensable, let it be

of conduct, with regard to society, will then

be good company or none, and he will find an act of favour in the Bishops, con

literature the protector of independence, ferred only on men of eminent talent, the promoter of peace and refinement, and or acquired kvowledge, who can re- the guardian of religion, in principle and turn the honour and kindness by re- practice.” flecting high credit upon the order, “ Of the three great sources of earthly and acting in its support. To claim enjoyment, reading, conversation, and comordination under the ten year statute position, it is remarkable that two are soliis, however, a palpable absurdity; and tary. Over books, it is not uncommon to as that alone is the case before us, we

yawn in languor aud weariness; in convercan only compliment Philotheologus sation with animated and intelligent friends, for his wise and judicious view of the

the hours pass uncounted ; but the most subject.

soothing, the most absorbing, the nuost constantly delightful of all occupations is

composition; for it can euable a man to 115. Sketches of Biography, designed to forget pain, neglect poverty, and every ill of

show the influence of Literature on Cha- life except remorse, and the suffering of near racter and Happiness. By John Clayton, connexions. I therefore advise every one to Esq. Post 8vo. pp. 402.

compose at least a journal, but I do not

advise all my readers to follow my example THIS is a neat and well-written by taking the hazard of publication. If digest, upon the general biography fame or profit be expected, there must be plan, inculcating good principles, anxiety, and there may be disappointment." though founded upon the common

Pref. vi. vij. error of considering negative innocence This statement is too highly coloursuperior to positive excellence. Many ed; for musick and drawing are as of the characters will not, in the esti- much sources of innocent felicity as miation of posterity, exceed the rank composition ; and the process of writof good and worthy men; but the ing Auently having been acquired, paobject of the Author is to show what tient compilation bids fairer to form is happiness, and much of this he very successful authors; but we would no justly places in having literary pursuits. more recommend all young men to He very strongly recommends compo- turn Writers, than to turn Talkers. sition for this purpose, because he ob- “ Old heads cannot be put upon young serves from Middleton, “ that Litera. shoulders,” and it is utterly impossible ture adorns prosperity, and is a refuge for youth to think accurately upon and comfort in adversity.”

subjects connected with the aciual “ In the course of my travels, I have knowledge of life, without which seen many a promising and fine young man knowledge composition upon general gradually led to dissipation, gambling, and subjects is not worth a straw. ruin, merely by the want of means to We shall give one more extract, bemake a solitary evening pass pleasantly. I cause it is extremely interesting. It is Gent. Mag. Suppl. XCV. Part 11.




escape, and


Review.- Report of the African Institution. an account of the private life of the further preventives. In the neighbourexcellent Bishop Porteus.

hood of Sierra Leone, settlements have “ Our hour of breakfast is ten. Imme- been established, where civilization is diately before it, the Bishop calls his family making considerable progress. Now together, prays with them, and gives them this is the very thing desirable. Exhis blessing. The same thing is constantly tend such setilements to the coasts, done after supper, when we part for the where there are marts of slaves. Make night. In the intervals of breakfast, and in them sanctuaries for all slaves who can the evening, when there is no company, his Lordship sometimes reads to us. After

empower their governors to

seize all the pirates and their human breakfast we separate and amuse ourselves as we think proper, till four, the hour of din- cargoes. Make it also a capital felony ner. At six, when the weather is fair, we for any man to purchase a slave, what either walk or make a visit to some of the

ever be his nation. But the Report Clergy or Gentry in the neighbourhood, has some masterly arguments concernand return about eight. We then have ing. the impolicy of the slave system, music, in which I (Dr. Beattie) am almost which shows, that we, as a commercial the only performer; my audience is very people, can have no hopes of opening a willing to be pleased. On Sundays we re- successful trade while the Slave Trade pair at eleven to the small but peat Church, exists. the congregation are exemplary in their de

“ The civilization of Africa never can corum--the prayers are well read by the Curate, and the Bishop preaches. After proceed until the Slave Trade is put down evening service, during the summer months, beyond a hope or possibility of return, for he generally delivers from his pew a cate

the appearance of a slave ship demoralizes chetical lecture addressed to the children, the whole neighbourhood.” P. 52. who for this purpose are drawn up in a line The Portuguese, it seems, a nation before him along the area of the Church. full of convents, crosses, and the vaIn these lectures, he explains to them, in rious theatricals of ultra-religion, authe simplest and clearest manner, yet with thorize the Slave-Trade by Law, and his usual elegance, the fundamental and es

it appears, that they have in more than sential principles of religion and morality;

one instance saved themselves the exand concludes with an address to the more advanced in years.” P. 286.

pense of the purchase-money by attackWell does our Author characterize who resisted, and carrying off the sur

ing towns in the night, killing those this mode of living, as that which con

vivors. P. 54. tains nearly all the elements of human

Upon these facts the Society make happiness, because it implies amiable dispositions, refined society, and time phical, novel, and sound, we hope that

remarks, and as they are very philosoGod, and utility to mankind. We our readers will peruse the extract. would add, that these details of private nations which are in the vicinity of

They will previously recollect, that the life, not only furnish the most interest- the Slave factories, are kept in a contiing but most edifying forms of bio- nual state of warfare, by the profit of graphy, which in our judgment is best making and selling Slaves. composed of such details, anecdotes, and dialogues. Without these we can

“ Men will not sow a field to day, which have no portrait of the The present King of the Soolinas, in his

is to morrow to be the place of battle. distinctive features, no estimate of the peculiar bearings of disposition and frequently to the strong temptation to con

conversations with Captain Laing, recurred habits, and no precise ideas of intellec- tinue the trade in slaves, whilst white men tual powers.

could be found to purchase them; because,

money (he said) was got for them so easily 116. Nineteenth Report of the Directors of and certainly, whilst dew modes were doube

the African Institution. 8vo. pp. 334. ful until tried, and might take much trouble

THE Slave Trade is piracy of the to establish. Here is a great and immediate most nefarious and unnatural kind ; cause of the degradation of Africa, for and, by the common law of sense,

which Europe is mainly accountable, and every man engaged in it ought to be which Europe can remove. It is only when hanged, because his criminality is that

a sufficient period shall have elapsed after & both of murder and robbery. New total suppression of the Slave Trade for its lights are however thrown upon the will have arrived, when, with the least de

last effects to have died away, that the time subject by this Report, which has fure cency or pretence to fairness, any one can nished us with some hopes of adding pronounce a judgment against the capabi



PART 11.] Review.-Boys's Key to the Pralms.

611 lities, either of Africa, for an extended com

А merce, or of its inhabitants for the arts and They provoked him to jealousy institutions of Europe. That the Slaye

B Trade is directly answerable for that alledged With strange gods : inferiority of which it afterwards seeks to

B take such criminal advantage, is proved by With abominations a fact, which has oftev been adverted to,

A and in which Africa is an exception to every

(Provoked they him to anger. other quarter of the globe. Civilization Where a a show two sentences in parallelism, elsewhere, naturally growing out of com- and 'A A and B B clauses in parallelism also. merce, has been first seen on the shore, P. 5. and by the river side ; and has afterwards

Now Mr. Boys finds analogous comcrept on by degrees into the more inland

position in the passage below quoted country. But Park found the interior of

from Velleius Paterculus, and adds, Africa in an advanced condition, compared with the coast; and Captain Laing, in his that the natural order of the words late journey from Sierra Leone to Sooli- may be found by the following rule : mana, a distance less than that between

« First, take the words at one extreYork and London, observed the same suc- mity of the sentence or clause, then those cessive degrees of civilization, approaching at the other; then proceed in the same almost to different stages of society, as he


with the portions that remain, till you receded from the Slave Trade and the sea.

the centre, and the words thus The Soolimas were more intelligent than taken will stand in their natural order. the inhabitants of any country through “ Et Lucullus, summus alioqui vir, prowhich he had passed to reach them; and fusæ hujus in ædificiis, convictibusque et the people of Sangara, who lay in a line apparatibus luxuriæ primus auctor fecit.” more backward still, were proved, by their « Here I begin by taking the words at manufactures and their arts, to be propor- the beginning, Et Lucullus, summus tionably farther advanced. Thus has this alioqui vir. I then take the word at the horrible commerce reversed a law in the end, fuit.' The remaining portion will history of the human race, so that the im- then be, profusæ hujus in ædificiis, conprovement of a nation is measured by the victibusque et apparatibus luxuriæ primus difficulty of its communications. A lawful

auctor.' Here I take the two final words commerce and a pure religion will be alone

primus auctor,' then the two beginning sufficient to remove this anomaly and re

ones, • Profusæ hujus.' We have then only proach." P. 56 seq.

remaining in ædificiis, convictibusque, et Every body knows the remarks of apparatibus luxuriæ.' Here I take the last Gibbon and other philosophers, con

word • luxuriæ,' and nothing now remains

but the central terms in convictibuscerning the intellectual inferiority (as

que et apparatibus.' And by this method presumed) of Africans to Europeans.

I say, I get the words in their natural order,
Et Lucullus, summus alioqui vir—fuit-

primus auctor-profusæ hujus—luxuriæ 117. A Key to the Book of Psalms. By the

in ædificiis convictibusque et apparatibus.'." Rev. Thomas Boys, A. M. of Trinity Col- Pp. 229, 230. lege, Cambridge; Curate of St. Dunstan's in the West, London; Author of Tactica From Cicero's Orations, and other Sacra.” C. 8vo. pp. 328.

works, we think that styles were in WE have before explained the sys- cal rules, which are now lost, and the

part formed mechanically by rhythmitem of parallelism or rhythm (to which words and clauses sorted and pointed in fact the peculiarity of the scriptural Boys's former work the “ Tactica Sa- Mr. Boys gives us a perfect parallelism style is owing), in our review of Mr. according to those rules, for the pur

of producing a poetical effect. cra" (see vol. xciv. i. 619). This is

in Livy. an application of the same principle to the Psalms, but more elaborately ex

a | Brutus Ardeam ecuted. In the Appendix, No. IV. b | Tarquinius Romam venerunt. we have a new discovery, viz. that the b | Tarquinio clausæ portæ, exiliumque in

dictum rhythm, in which the classical prose writers composed, sometimes at least,

a | Liberatorum urbis læta castra accepere. partakes of the nature of that species We mention Livy, because it has of parallelism, which is called the in- been noted that some of his clauses troverted; i. e. where the last portion absolutely fall into hexameters. Such answers to the first, the penultimate to things could not, if repe. A frequently, the second, as in the following verse. be matters of accident



12mo. PP

612 REVIEW.Campbell's Fruits of Faith.

[xcv. may like to improve upon these hints, think such females as thrust themselves will find great use in Mr. Boys's work. among mobs to be kissed, to be for

Buonaparte (speaking of business) ward misses, and more deserving of said, “there is no telling what women reprehension than compliment. will do;" and we shall make a parallelism by saying, “ there is no telling 119. The Semi-sceptic, or the Common Sense what blockheads will think;" a remark

of Religion considered. By the Rev. I T. we make, because it seems“ some such

James, M.A. 8vo. pp. 398. persons have found danger" in these

THIS is a masterly work, and proScriptural investigations! (see p; 3.). ceeds upon the evident principle ihat Others have thought very highly of man can, in fact, prove nothing as to Mr. Boys's work, and so do we. The demonstration, because he must ebabook is very instructive and curious, racterize every thing according to his as a key of knowledge hitherto locked

senses ; and in short, that metaphysics up from the world at large.

merely amount to what a particular 118. The Fruits of Faith, or Musing Sinner,

person thinks upon particular subjects. with Elegies, and other moral Poems. By that man is incapable of analysing his

For our parts we seriously think, Hugh Campbell, of the Middle Temple, Illustrator of Ossian's Poems.

own faculties; and that metaphysics 170.

are, with regard to such an analysis,

what the Aristotelian was to the BacoA VILLAGE Schoolmaster, who had written a poem upon the Redemp

nian philosophy, mere arbitrary, astion, complained bitterly of one Milton sumption. Our reason for so think(as he stiled him); for when he went ing is, that our senses are too defective to solicit subscriptions, he was repri- difficult intangible topics ; and that a

for the satisfactory elucidation of certain manded for his presumption in attempt. ing such a subject, after the said Mil- be an astronomer without a telescope.

metaphysician is one who sets up to ton; which rebuke he thought hard, No man can pursue the infinite divisibecause upon borrowing and examining the Paradise Lost, he found that it bility of matter to its primary atom,

much more dissect the principles and did not contain so many books and lines as his own poem. We think, powers which actuate it, so deeply as

io inform us in what their essences that many modern poets entertain the

consist. same opinions concerning religious poetry as the schoolmaster, viz. that is composed of an aggregate of parti

According to experiment, all matter the matter is not the main point; but

cles, none of which appear to be in we on the contrary have been taught

absolute contact; and could we pursue to think, that sublimity is the indis

the enquiry to the minutest atom of pensable characteristic of religious

each particle, that would probably be poetry, and we know that Dr. John

only another similar congeries. Whaison lays down the same position.

ever properties, therefore, matter posMr. Campbell, who has written

sesses, must be derived from a pervadsome works of reputation in prose, will therefore attribute to our prejudices nai are of that medium, we can never

ing medium, and until we know the any apparent neglect of his religious explain with philosophical accuracy poein. We do not deny animation,

the causes of action. Upon these generous feelings, and a moral and

grounds it is, that we consider metaamiable character to his muse; but on lofty subjects we want thoughts that physics to be fallacious; and the fol. breathe, and words that burn; " the lowing extract from the works of the Master's hand and Prophet's fire." that very strong intellects coincide

powerful author of Hudibras, will show The rest of the poems are chiefly sugar- with us. plumbs for spinsters. One of these

“ The Metaphysick's but a puppet motion, fair-ones had, it seems, the honour of

with screws, the notion of a being kissed by the King of France on

notion, his public entry into London, and ex

The copy of a copy and lame draugbe pressed a wish to accompany the Du- Unnaturally taken from a thought; chess d'Angoulême. Our author says, That counterfeits all pantomimick tricks, that had he been the King of France, And turns the eyes, like an old crucifix ; he should not have been contented That counterchanges whatso'er it calls with one kiss. Very likely ; but we B' another name, and makes it true or false,


That goes

P. 127.

PART 11.]
REVIEW --James's Semi-sceptic.

613 Turns truth to falsehood, falsehood into several parts of the animal frame, in those, truth,

for instance, which are void of sensation, as By virtue of the Babylonian's tooth.” the sinews, nails, &c.; these have the tone

Butler's Remains, i. 225. of life, for they have a power of resisting The interference of Metaphysicks with

certain chemical agencies, while so living,

which ceases when vitality is removed.” Religion, is however the more especial bearing of the book before us; and that a more empirical quack never

The fætus in utero, which is animate meddled with medicine, than this im

ed, but does not think, is another postor with religion, is self-evident. happy illustration, used by our author. Physicks are a real science, but Meta- He then proceeds to attack the strong physicks are the mere construction put fortress of the materialists, viz. that upon physical subjects by a particular the powers of mind cease to exist upon person. In short, it seems, that our

the decease of the animal frame, by incapability of comprehending the

showing that the said fortress is a mere laws of our Being, was one instigating

house of cards: cause of Revelation; and he who sets “ The thinking power, it is true, seems up to prove it unfounded, takes upon never to take its residence in any body, exhimself to determine the possible ac- cept while it is in that state which is fitted tions of God, and in the words of our for its agency. But this is all which can author (p. 261), “ to build up another be said ; aud though our breath is thus Babel to storm the heavens."

connected with this thinking power, yet Before we proceed to that part of thinking is not breathing; a man can hold the work from which we shall extract,

his breath at will, but cannot stop his power we beg to enter our protest against the is not to be dismissed even for an instant,

of thiabing-bis consciousness of existence jargon of Kant being made "


by any exertion of his will." P. 130.
parcel" of sound philosophy, because
we believe that it is nothing more

The physical truth seems to be, that than a nomenclature of sesquipedalia

both animation and the thinking prinverba, founded upon a mere truism,

ciple are divine elementary properties, viz. that we cannot think but accord which, as being divine, are indestrucing to the modes and forms which

tible by man, for though we may dea Nature has prescribed; i. e. we can

stroy instruments of sound, we cannot not walk, but upon our legs, nor see,

destroy sound itself, nor anyone known but with our eyes.

law of nature. The basis of the Kantian system is

Some positions of our Author, we feel inclined to doubt, viz. that no

similarity is observable between the “ The mind only perceives and thinks external object creating an impression upon the objects that are without, accord

on the mind, and the internal impresing to a certain law, or rather certain laws,

sion itself (p. 136). From the experiexisting within itself; and which laws may

ments made in optics, upon the retina or may not be, as far as human nature has the power of judging, wholly independent

of the eye, this remark is not just with of the objects themselves." P. 181.

regard to visible subjects; and it has

been mooted whether it is possible to The inferences deducible from this

have an abstract idea of an object, truism, are however very important. without the intrusion of a representaThey inform us that we are able to tion of it. The dispute however is of understand nothing except so far as

no moment, for the well-known inconcerns ourselves ; and, of course,

stance of a shadlow proves that there cannot see the real intention of nature

may be, notwithstanding the Hyberniin created objects, further than that

cism, existence without actual being. limited boundary.

It appears from Dr. Hibbert's admirable We think our Author peculiarly fe

work upon apparitions, that the exhiJicitous in his illustrations of the prin- bition and exercise of the thinking ciples of " animal or mortal life,” and principle are only affected by organs, the "thinking power," as in themselves

not the principle itself, which seems separate and distinct. P. 127.

to be unassailable. “ Life exists in the vegetable kingdom

Mr. James is a strong and well-inclearly apart from the thinking power : the

formed writer; and his work does him same sort of life, too, is seen to exist in much credit.

120. Characters

this :

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