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Trinity Church, Newington Butts, Surrey. (Nov. parts of each other, as the productions forget that the service is read from of Mr. Bedford in this neighbourhood: a desk, and not a polpit. An use

The unoccupied Eastern wall is cold less sacrifice is here made to uniforand unornamented, a pediment sur- mity of appearance, at the expence of mounting four slabs, inscribed with propriety. If the profession would conthe decalogue, &c. and a small space descend to look into the older churches railed in, informs us it is intended for of the Metropolis, they might learn an the altar. The window above is arrangement in this respect far supeadorned with fillets of poorly executed rior to their modern ideas. stained glass ; and the usual crimson The font stands in the nare bevelvet covered communion-table stands neath the Western gallery; it is below; but all this is not enough. made of composition in imitation of Architects should know that a distinc- stone, and enriched with honeysuckles tion ought to be made between the and other Grecian mouldings. The altar of a Church, and the upper end design is an antique vase, with han. of a Presbyterian Conventicle. Surely dles. It should have been an imitaa spot where the most solemn rites of tion of veined marble, for as it at preour religion are solemnized, where an sent appears, it resembles both in deEpiscopal communion is administer- sign and composition the vases which ed, to which we have from our in- may be purchased for a few shillings fancy been taught to look up to as of the itinerant Italians, who are met the most sacred part of the building, with in every part of the Metropolis. and which in an architectural point of In this gallery is placed the organ, · view is regarded as the principal ob- in an oak case, with gilt ornaments. ject in the edifice, should be marked A noble chandelier of brass depends by some distinguishing feature. I from the centre of the roof, which could wish our Hierarchy would en- diffuses a brilliant light over the greater force the old and almost disused prac. part of the Church. tice of placing the holy table in a re- The first stone was laid on the ad cess distinct from the rest of the of June, 1823, by his Grace the ArchChurch. At all events, some care, bishop of Canterbury, attended by the some little attention should be paid to Bishop of Worcester, and the Rector, its decorations; it is discreditable to the Trustees, and parochial officers of Establishment to see the altar adorned Newington. The foundations had with such inferior ornament as in the been raised to a level with the present case. The Dissenters always ground, at that time having been in place their pulpit in a situation corre- progress for nearly six months presponding with our altar, in which re- vious. On the 16th of December, spect they are consistent with their 1824, it was consecrated by the same principles, which we are not.

Primate. The service was read by the The uniformity of the building is Rev. C. V. H. Sumner, the first ingreatly broken by the situation of the cumbent. The Rev. A. C. Onslow, portico. A large space on the North M.A. the Rector of the parish, preachside, is oceupied by two deep recesses on ed an able sermon from ihe 93d Psalm, each side a window, which receives a v. 6, “Holiness becometh thine bouse false light from the belfry story of the for ever.” tower. These recesses contain addi- The parish, though situated in the tional galleries for the charity child- diocese of Winchester, is a peculiar of ren, ranging on each side of the the Archbishop, who was attended by steeple; they are consequently hid Sir John Nicholl, knt. as Dean of the from the view of the greater part of Arches. the congregation. This fault is not at- The present is said to be the largest tributable to the architect so much as of the new Churches yet erected. It to the site ; but it is to be lamented, in- contains sittings in pews for 1277 perasmuch as the effect of the interior is sons, free seats 519, seats for charity greatly hurt by this irregular arrange- children 252, making a total of 2048. ment. The pulpit and reading desk are but a far greater number can always counterparts of each other, and stand on be accommodated without inconveopposite sides of the Church, a fashion- nience. able arrangement among architects, The tower contains a peal of eight but nevertheless an absurd one. They powerful bells, from the well-known



1925.] Progress of Discovery, Navigation, and Commerce. 395 foundry of Mr. Mears, of Whitecha- removals from that country to Greece. pel. The tenor weighs 20 cwt. Sidon, as appears from the expressions

The ground on which the Church of Jacob, had already obtained importis built was given by the Corporation ances; the epithet" great” is applied of the Trinity House, who are the to it by Joshua, who also terms Tyre owners of considerable property in the “a strong city6;" and its quiet and vicinity.

security, are expressly stated by the Yours, &c.

E.I.C, succeeding annalist?.

The Phænicians, although cooped Note. — New CHURCHES, No. IV. Vol. within a narrow territory, possessed iCiv. ii. p. 489.-Camden Town Chapel some valuable advantages: to an excelwas built by the Parish, unassisted by the lent harbour were added the forests of Commissioners for the building of New Lebanon, and the strong impulse of Churches,

necessity. Their unfortunate brethrens,

in their fight from a conqueror whom Brief Historical Sketch of the Pro, they termed a "robber,” lined the

gress of Discovery, Navigation, and African coast, from Kartha-kadtha (or, Commerce.

in its corrupt but softer form, CarLISBORNE observes, that the pos- thage), to Tangier'. Yet there is a manly speaking, the difference between period between the kindred nations. savage life and civil society'. This The possession of a settlement on that assertion must be received with one side of the Strait was undoubtedly alimportant limitation, that the Chal- luring, though unkind treatment is deans, who are described as expert ar- the traditionary cause ; however, the mourers, were rude in the extreme. Tyrian chief (the Hercules of antiNevertheless, this remark illustrates quity) attacked the infant settlement, one of Montesquieu, that discovery reduced it by blockade, and put Antai, was formerly the result of conquest, as the founder, to death. In the true conquest is now of discovery%.

spirit of a warrior, he married the The latter acute writer has defined woman he had widowed, and, long the history of Commerce to be that of after, the Kings of Mauritania adorned the intercourse of vations, whose cala- their ancestry with his namelo. mities and migrations form a inaterial The Pelasgi, whether Cuthites or part of its

Aborigines, first rendered PeloponAfter the dispersion at Babel, there nesus entirely habitable. About 1820 is no professed notice of Commerce. B.C. Ænotris led the superfluous poThe purchase of a burial-ground by pulation to Italy, and settled in LucaAbraham was made with silver coin, nia ; subsequent establishments were which is particularized as being “cur. made by the Arcadians, Lydians, and rent with the merchanto” (B.C. 1860); Thessalians, and the colonists were so and the descendants of Ishmael are in- nicely blended with the natives, that {roduced about a century after, as deal- their descent became the undisputed ers in spices and slaves. During the property of fabulists and poets". same age, a miraculous famine made Passing along the stream of tradiEgypt the staple and granary of the tion, we arrive at the voyage of the East, while the influence arising Argonauts, B.C. 1263, which derived from its ability to supply other nations its common name from the fleeces exwith corn, occasioned many colonial tended across the rivers to catch the

3 Ibid. c. 5. 4 Genes. xxiii. 15.–St. Augustine remarks (De Civ. 1.4), “ Ut Argentinus Deus diceretur filius Æsculani, quod ærea moneta argentum præcessisset....Jano tribuitur à plerisque origo signandæ pecuniæ, quod in alterâ fronte nummorum adscriberetur ejus caput, in alterå vero fronte, sel navis, vel pons, vel corona. Licet alii velint navim appositam fuisse nummis Italicis, quod Saturnus navi vectus fuisset in Italiam.” Suarez de Nummis, Amst. 1683, pp. 7, 8. 5 Gep.49, 13.

| Natural Theology, p. 98. ? De L'Esprit des Lois, b. xxi. c. 9.

6 Josh, xix. 28, 29. 7 Judges, xvii. 7. 8 Gen. X. 15-19. 9 See Bochart, and the authorities referred to in Horne's Crit. Introd. iv. 32. 10 Plutarch, Vit. Sertor. Strabo, 3. Newton's Chronology, p. 198, 233, et seq.

11 Bryant, Anal. of Myth. iv. 21. D'Hancarville notices liistoriques sur l'origine des Pelasques, &c. apud Ant. Etrusques, vol. V.



396 Progress of Discovery, Navigation, and Commerce. (Nov. particles of gold. Owing to their ig. revive the former commerce, B.C. norance of the sea, or mistrust of a di. 896, but after the loss of one fleet, he rect course, these adventurers visited did not venture on a sccond attempt. Lemnos, Samothrace, Troas, Cyzicus, The fall of continental Tyre opened Bithniæ, and Thrace: after heating a prospect of aggrandisement to Carabout the Euxine, they discovered thage, and peopled it with industrious Mount Caucasus, which served them exiles. Its mariners were familiar with for a landmark, and anchored near the coasts of Albion 16, though their Ea, the capital of Colchis. The con

visits are

more distinctly traced in tradictory accounts of their return in- lerne!?. Their encroachments in Spain dicate that they were tempted by suc- were resisted by the petty princes, who cess to embark in other expeditions. cultivated the friendship of the Pha However, their exploits became so fa- cæang 19; nevertheless, on quitting their mous as to be associated, even to the country, the latter preferred the comname of their vessel '2, with the tradition- modious harbour of Marseilles, where, ary accounts of the Deluge. During the being seldom molested, and generally Trojan War, Eunæus of Leinos, son victorious', they maintained a respeciof Jason, is related to have furnished able station, till reduced by the arms the Grecian camp with wines, for of Cæsar. 'Their geographer, Pytheas, which he received metals, hides, and is celebrated for a voyage, in which it slaves 13.

is said he coasted Spain, France, and The misfortunes which befel most Britain, as far as the northern extreof the Grecian chiefs on their return mity of that island, whence he bore for from Troy, occasioned many emigra- Thule (whatever place be meant by tions. Southern Italy and ihe west- that name) and the Baltic. ern cost of Italy were the principal The Egyptians were averse to ma

The successful wars of David ritime attempts as a nation, but the brought under Hebrew dominion Elath enterprising Necho achieved the first and Gzion-geber, two harbours on the circumnavigation of Africa. He sent Red Sea, but the religious institutions some Phænician vessels from the Red of the Israelites, which obliged them Sea through the straits of Babelmandel, to visit Jerusalem thrice in a year, to discover the coast; and in the third were unfavourable to maritime expe- year they returned by the Mediterraditions; their ships, therefore, were nean : the shadow falling to the South, manned by Phænician sailors, who after they had passed the line; the de brought from the Mediterranean and Jay of stopping to sow and reap grain Ophin'5, precious metals and curious for their subsistence, and the space of animals. Horses were imported froin three years employed in the voyage, Egypt. Jehoshaphat endeavoured to are the proofs on which it rests. In 191878, Argoz.

13 Hom. II. vii. 467–75. 14 Deut. xvi. 16. 15 “ An unknown place, concerning which a great deal has been written, but which appears to have left some traces in Ofor, an Arabian district, at the entrance of the Persian Gulf.” Volney, Ruins of Empires, p. 31, 1. 5. note, where the reference is made to new Researches in Ancient History, vol. I. and Travels in Syria, vol. I.

16. This was the name given collectively by foreigners to the island ; in the Bardic relics it is termed “Ynys Prydain," or, the Beautiful Island, whence Britain : and its divisions Lloegyr, Cymru, aud Alban, or England, Wales, and Scotland. Cambrian Register, 1795,

17 In a Welsh poem composed ai out A.D. 630, and entitled “ Arymes Prydain Vawr," or, the Great Armed Confederacy o Britain, Ireland is termed Iwerddon ; mention is also made of its capital in these lines,

“ A gynhell Dulyn genhyn a savant,

Pan ddyfont i'r gâd nid ymwadant.”
« And the leaders of Dublin will stand firm in our behalf :
When they come into the battle they will not desert the cause."

Camb. Reg. 1796, p. 563. See Cols. Vallancey and Montmorency-Morres.

18 Herod. i. 163.

19 Thucyd. i. 23. Voltaire, in his Posthumous Observations on the French Language, has the following remark: “ There are no words in the French Language derived from the Greek, but those relating to the Arts. This is a sufficient proof that the Greeks established a factory, not a colony, at Marseilles, and that the Celtic language prevailed there." Perhaps it is important with regard to the latter inference,


p. 23.

1925.] Progress of Discovery, Navigation, and Commerce. 397 after times, Eudoxus of Cyzicus, fly- instigated by the measures of his Ining from the rage of Ptolemy Lathy, dian neighbour, Maraja. This morus, is said to have accomplished the narch, who was contemporary with same route. On the other hand, Sa- Hystaspes (father of Darius, and Gotaspes, a Persian who attempted it by vernor of Turkistan), having reduced the straits of Gibraltar, proceeded no Guzerat,“ built a port in that country, further than Sallee, being impeded by where he constructed vessels, and carthe periodical East wind. Hanno, the ried on commerce with all the states Carthaginian, who sailed on a colonis- of Asia 23.” Darius, whose dominions ing expedition about 400 B.C. did not are extended by geographers as far as reach the Cape. Those, observes Mon- Moultan, sent Scylax, a Greek, with tesquieu, whoset out from the Red Sea, a fleet, eastward 24 down the Índus, had this evident advantage, the com- who arrived at the Red Sea after a voyparatire nearness of the Cape; while age of 30 months. Whatever may be others, on quitting the coast of Guinea, thought of this story, its geographicould not reach it without a compass, cal inaccuracy, the coasting of the an invention at that time unknown 20. Gedosian shore, when compared with.

It is now time to advert to the the difficulties encountered' by Alexchanges produced in Asia by the su- ander's mariners, the object appears perfluous population of the North. rather to have been political, and an About 630 B.C. the Massagetæ of acquisition of territory was the result 25. Turkistan moving westward, dislodged The disastrous expedition of Darius the Nomadic Scythians, who crossed to Scythia was attended with beneficial, the Araxes, aud occupied the territo- consequences to geographical knowries of the Cimmerii. These latter, ledge; having crossed the eastern diafter a protracted debate, in which a visions of the Danube, and the Don, considerable number perished, fled he proceeded through Podolia to the along the sea coast; part of them set- banks of the Wolga, whence he was tled on the site of the modern Sinul, led by the retreating inhabitants in the while others possessed themselves of direction of Vologhda. Fortunately Lydia, during the reign of Ardys, by for his army, he returned by the same whose grandson, Alyattes, they were indirect course. Whatever was known expelled. The Scythians missed the of this region, observes the illustrator course of the fugitives, and leaving of Herodotus, was evidently the result Mount Caucasus on the right, entered of this expedition. Media by the Upper route: after an One of the most valuable geographiascendancy of 28 years, in which they cal remains is the Melpomene of Hepenetrated Palestine, having rendered rodotus: this inquisitive and judicious ihemselves odious by their rapacity, historian visited a considerable portion they were destroyed by Cyaxares 2!. of the space be describes, which porIn the poetical relics of Persian his- tion may be comprised within Syrene, tory, this migration may be traced in Italy, the Danube, and Babylon. Euthe various invasions of Afrasiale, or doxus of Cnidus, as a geographer, and the Asiatic Tartar, during the Seventh Pytheas of Marseilles, as a voyager, ilCentury, which were terminated by lustrate the period between Herodotus the illustrious,Rustem, about 600 years and Alexander the Great. before Christ.

Selder remarks, "there never breath. From their veneration of the ele. ed that person to whom mankind was ments, the Persians were

more beholden” than Aristotle; yet maritime expeditions, and the same much of this eulogy belongs to his ensuperstition exists at this day. Darius, terprising pupil. Previous to the batwhose attention to his revenue procur- tle of Gaugamela he had traversed ed him the surname of broker24, seems Egypt and Libya, visited the Red Sea, alone to have turned his thoughts to and explored the countries on the Casa commerce, to which he was probably pian and Sea of Azof. From that 398 Progress of Discovery, Navigation, and Commerce. [Nov. tiine his expedition ought to be con- diterranean, by a canal ; and establishsidered as one of discovery; at the ed a caravan between Egypt and AbysEast of the Penjab his soldiers refused sinia. But the rapid progress of Rome to proceed further, but their return disappointed their exiensive views; the was made beneficial to science, being Carthaginian colonies on the West of conducted by a different route. Hav- Africa perished, or were blended with ing explored the mouth of the Indus, the savage nations ; while the liberty where he was struck with astonish- of Greece languished from the death ment at the tides, he returned through Philopæmen to the capture of Athens Gedrosia (the modern Neckran) to Ba- by Sylla. bylon. The Indian ocean and Persian A survey of the Roman dominions gulf were, in the meanwhile, success- was planned by Julius Cæsar, and fully navigated by Nearchus ; and other finished under Augustus, by Greek voyages were projected, when Alexander geographers. In the reign of the latwas carried off by a fever, which in ter, Arabia was partially, and Ethiothe hands of later writers has been ex- pia

averse to

20 B. xxi. c. 10.

21 Herod. i. 15, 16, 103. iv, 11, 12. There is some confusion in his narrative with regard to the two continents; but his account of the massacre of the Scythians is confirmed by the policy of Shah Abbas, who took off the Curdish chiefs at a feasi. 2 Herod. üi. 89. 93 Dow's History of Hindostan, i, 8. 71 The course of the Indus is South-west. 95 Herod. ii. 44.


successfully explored. aggerated into debauchery.

Reverting to the West, we leam The motives of Alexander were as from Diodorus, that tin was carried honourable as his views were liberal; from Cornwall to St. Michael's Mount but his successors degenerated while at low water, and thence to the northhis empire decayed : “ thus (says an ern coast of France, and transported on eloquent historian) did the growing horses to Marseilles, being a journey dishonesty of the Greeks, the proud of 30 days. The same author mentions tyranny of the Romans, the barbarous Orcas as the northern extremity of the despotism of the Parthians, and all island, which was first circumnavigatsucceeding Asiatic dynasties, conspire ed by Agricola. to defeat the sanguine hopes concern

While Justinian possessed a numering the improvement of the Eastern ous fleet, and effected maritime conworld, that had been entertained by quests, the naval history of the West Alexander, and by him partly realised. presents little but piracy. The advenIn his military chlamys Pompey de- tures of the Saxons and Normans are lighted to triumph: Augustus spared well known. The Welsh triads menAlexandria for the sake of its founder: tion several heroic freebooters, and one his life was read by Trajan, as his sta- of them named Coroi (who was slain tue had been contemplated by Cæsar, in a sea-fight with another called Cuwith a sigh of humbled ambition. All chullin), is celebrated in an elegy by conquerors admired Alexander ; but Taliessin. Llywarch, the bard, de none ever united the will and the scribes Rodri, son of Owain Gwynpower to imitate his example 26.". nedd, as going “on the steeds of the

Of Alexander's generals, Seleucus torrent," and hints that he perished inherited the greater portion of his in an engagement. The Triads also spirit, but the wars in which he was mention Ysgewyn in Gwent (Ysgeengaged thwarted his designs. Thatwydd in Monmouthshire), Gwygwr valuable portion of territory which he in Môn (Beaumaris) and Gwydd no possessed between the Indus and the in the North (?) as the three princiGanges, was wrested from him by the pal ports of Britain 7. usurper Chandragupta, whose alliance Alfred devoted his attention to nahe preferred to hostilities in a quarter val affairs, and has left behind him a so remote from his capital. Under bis geographical description of the North successors, this vast empire dwindled of Europe. Athelstan passed an ento the province of Commagene, which lightened law, that every merchant retained a nominal independence : who should perform three voyages the migration and invasion of the with his own manufactores, should Gauls, the conquests of the Roinans, enjoy the privileges of a Thane. and the Parthian and Jewish revolis, The capture of Alexandria by the are the principal events which mark Saracens, A.D.640, threw the Oriental its decay. Under the Ptolemies, Alex- trade into the hands of the Venetians, ander succeeded to the traffic of impo- from whom it dropped on the discorery verished Tyre and declining Carthage. of the Cape. The same age "gare a They united the Red Sea to the Me. new world to Castile and Leon," as 26 Gillies, Hist, of Greece, part 2. iv. 552.

37 Camb. Reg. 1793, p. 317.


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