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Compendium of County History. Wiltshire.




(Continued from p. 230.) At Downton, according to tradition, Bevis, Earl of Southampton, reckoned by the vulgar one of the greatest heroes of England, and King John, had residences. At the borough cross all elections take place, unless a poll is demanded, when they adjourn to a public-house. In front of the publichoose, near this cross, are two busts in niches, said to be portraits of King John and one of his Queens. Underneath are sculptured “ J. R. 1205," but evidently of later extcution. DRAYCOT Church is adorned with helmets, sworgs, Aags, and other military

accoutrements ! At East Everler, Ina, King of Wessex, is supposed to have had a palace.

la the manor house is a portrait of Sir Ralph Sadleir, with a hawk on his left hand. In the drawing-room is a curious picture representing some events in the life of John de Astley, of Pateshull, co. Warwick. The rude wooden roof of the Turret of FisherTON DE LA Mere Church serves

as e pigeon-house. Here is a small monument of singular construction ; the sculpture represents two infants laid on biers, who died 1624. of the beauties of Fonthill, nothing need be said ; the sale of the magnificent furniture, &c. having made them very familiar. (See.vol

. xcn. ii. p. 100, 292.) Of Rector, Archdeacon Coxe, well known for his many valu

able publications. His "History of Monmouthshire" is decorated with plates from the spirited drawings of Sir R. C. Hoare, bart.-In the Hospital Chapel

are said to be deposited the remains of Adelicia, Queen of Henry 1. At HARNISN died, 1805, Christopher Anstey, esq. the celebrated Author of the

“ New Bach Guide.”In the Church is a monument to John Thorpe, Au

thor of “Custumale Roffense,' &c.; also another to David Ricardo, esq. At HARTHAM Park resided Lady James, the friend and correspondent of Sterne,

- In this parish died Edmund Smith, the Poet. At HEDDINGTON Church, N. of izes, is a worm-eaten coffin without date,

suspended from the inside... At HEYTESBURY was seated a branch of the noble family of Hungerford, whose

early distory has been elucidated by Sir R. C. Hoare, bart. The present Lord of the Manor is Sir Williani A'Court, our Ambassador in Spain. The Empress Maud sometimes resided here during her contentions with Stephen.-In the Church is a tablet to the memory of Mr. Wm. Cunnington, “a persevering antiquary and skilful geologisi," whose researches and

collections form the basis of the “ Ancient Wiltshire:” In Hill DevERILL Church is a monumental record of the Ludlow fainily.

of this family was the celebrated republican general, Edmund Ludlow. At HORNINGSHAM 'for many years resided the late Thomas Daris, esq. a well

informed Agriculturist. IDMINSTON deserves notice as having been for many years the residence of Rev.

John Bowle, commonly called Don Bowle, from his attachment to the Spanish language. In lmber Church is a small tablet to the memory of the Rev. John Offer, the much lamented coadjutor of Sir R..C. Hoare, in investigating and collecting

the records of this county. He resided at Imber some years. LITTLECOTT Park, according to tradition, was the scene of a most strange and

mysterious affair (see vol. xciii). Another story of a similar kind was for

merly current at Edinburgh; and was very lately revived in France. LONGFord Castle is mentioned in Sidney's Arcadia, under the title of Amphio

lus's Castle. Queen Elizabeth is supposed to have here visited her maid of honour, the Lady Northampton. The present Chapel is called the Queen's Bed-chamber. The house contains a number of celebrated paintings, by the first masters. Among them are the two much-admired pictures by Claude, of the rise and fall of the Roman Empire, and a portrait of Erasınus by Holbein. Here is also a great curiosity, a steel chair, executed at Augsburg in GENT. Mag. October, 1825.



Compendium of County History.-Wiltshire. [Oct. 1575; divided into more than 130.compartments representing the history of Rome from the landing of Eneas to the time of the Emperor Rodolphus II.

for whom it was executed. Of the Thynnes of LONGLEAT, was Thomas Thynne, esq. whose melancholy

death is commemorated by a monument in Westminster Abbey.--At this house Mrs. Singer, the famous western muse, spent much of her time; as did also the venerable Bp. Ken. The Baronial Hall is most appropriately decorated with armorial escutcheons, hunting pieces, and stag's horns. The gallery, contains numerous portraits of the Thynne family, and many other

distinguished characters. LYDIARD TREGOZE Church contains many memorials of the house of St. John. In Maiden Bradley Church is the tomb of the celebrated Sir Edward Sey

mour, bart. Speaker of the House of Commons in 1678. The inscription is

very spirited. In MALMSBURY Abbey was interred King Athelstan. The celebrated William

of Malmesbury was Librarian to the Abbey.- The White Lion Inn was formerly an hospitium belonging to the Abbey. Near the entrance is a small stone vase, fixed in the wall, probably a receptacle for holy water. The workhouse was also an hospitium. Here, according to tradition, Henry VIII. and his retinue were entertained by Mr. Stumpe the clothier, on their return from hunting in Bredon Forest. It is probable that here Charles I. rested in 1643 on his march to Cirencester.-Amongst the Abbots may be mentioned St. Aldhelin, Athelard, and Ælfric.-Oliver, a monk of Malmesbury, and a mathematician, having affixed wings to his hands and feet, ascended a lofty tower, from whence he took his Hight, and was borne upon the air for the space of a furlong, when owing to the violence of the wind or his own fear,

he fell to the ground and broke both his legs. In the neighbourhood of MarlBOROUGH Castle the poet Thomson, while on a

visit to the Earl of Hertford, composed a portion of his inimitable Seasons.Every person formerly, on admission into the Corporation, presented the Mayor two greyhounds, two white capons, and a white bull, which custom is plainly alluded to in the arms of the town.-In the Free School was edu. caied Harte the poet and historian. At the Free Grammar School were educated Sir M. Foster, eminent Judge, and Dr. Mapleton, Chancellor of the

diocese of Hereford. In Melchet park was erected in 1800 a beautiful Hindoo Temple as a tribute

to the memory of Warren Hastings, esq. In it is a pedestal surmounted by a bust of Mr. Hastings, who is characterized thereon as “ the Saviour of India

to the British Empire.” In Mere Church are the remains of some old wooden seats and stalls, richly

carved ; and a very fine and perfect effigy engraved in brass of Johannes Bettesthorne, 1390. In the beliry of the turret is a singular and beautiful cieling

of carved oak, of a great variety of patterns. Monkton DeveriLL has acquired celebrity from its clergyman Mr. John

White, ejected by the Parliamentarians.—Against a dwelling-house, occupied by a wheelwright, is a very handsome escutcheon of arms engraved with

a rich border, of the Ludlow fainily. At Monkton Farley died Bp. Jewel, Sept. 22, 1571. Or Old Sarom the great Earl of Chatham was first elected M.P. At PITMEAD, near Warminster, in 1786, were discovered some interesting re

mains of Roman Antiquities. The subsequent discoveries of Mr. Cunnington

in 1800, prove Pitmead to have been the site of a magnificent Roman villa. RODDENBURY Hill was the scene of a most barbarous murder, Dec. 28, 1812. SALISBURY Cathedral is the most uniform, regular, and systematic edifice of the

kind in England. The spire has never been equalled in height, being just double that of the Monument, and 70 feet higher than the top of St. Paul's. The interior of the Chapter House is decorated with a very curious series of historical carvings, representing the history of the Old Testament from the Creation to the overthrow of the Egyptians in the Red Sea. The windows are said to correspond in number with the days of the year; the pillars to the weeks, and the gates or doors to the months. The first person buried here was Wm. Longspee, Earl of Salisbury, in 1226. In the Morning Chapel is


1825.) Compendium of County History.--Wiltshire.

323 the tomb of Bp. Poore, the venerable founder. In the restry several curious relics are preserved. Near the West door is the tomb of a boy-bishop, who is represented clerically robed and mitred, a crosier in his hand, and a dragon at his feet. In the great transept repose the remains of the celebrated author of “ Hermes.”—of this See were Bishops, Dr. Jewel, author of the learned and justly-celebrated “ A pology for the Church of England;" a book so much approved of, that Elizabeth, James, and Charles I. ordered it to be read and chained up in every parish church; Brian Duppa, supposed to have assisted in the Einwy Basilxn; J. Earle, the preceptor of Charles II. ; GILBERT BURNET, who converted the Earl of Rochesier; and HoAdly the polemist, -In St. Edmund's Church was formerly a very singular painted glass window, representing in a very absurd manner the Creation. It was destroyed in the time of Abp. Laud, by the enthusiastic Sherfield. The tower fell down Sunday, June 26, 1653, without doing harm to the congregation.-On the outer wall, West end of St. Thomas's Church, is a curious wooden monument, ornamented with rude representations of Scripture history in altorelievo. It was executed by Humphrey Beckham, whom it commemorates. He died in 1671, aged 88. Over the altar is a large painting of the Transfiguration by Guest, 1810.- In the Council House, among several others, is the portrait of Qucen Anne, by Dahl, which formerly belonged to the October Club.—The Poultry Cross had its origin in a very curious circumstance connected with the Lollards. (See vol. Lxxxviii. i. 393.)—At the City School were educated Forman the astrologer, and Lord Chief Baron Eyre. In the Close School was educated the author of “Hermes."'-At the Granimar School the celebrated Mr. Addison acquired the rudiments of learning.

-Of this town was member the patriotic Sír Stephen Fox. At SHREWTON, in a small public house, was formerly a curious alabaster sculp

tore, designed to represent the Trinity. (See vol. xx11.) SPIE PARK was the occasional residence of the profligate and witty Earl of

Rochester, and the late Colonel Thornton of sporting celebrity. In Stockton Church is a piece of iron fraine work, with some remains of

faded ribbon depending from it. It is the last memorial of a custom now quite disused in this part of the country, that of carrying a garland decorated with ribbons before the corpse of a young unmarried woman, and afterwards suspending it in the church. This custom was revived at the particular request of a person about 20 years ago, and the faded garland still remains

where originally placed. At STOURHEAD, the magnificent seat of Sir R. C. Hoare, bart. are two ancient

Gothic crosses, removed from Bristol. The Pantheon is the most magnificent building perhaps that ever decorated the grounds of an English individual. In it is an antique statue of Livia Augusta, that cost 2000 guineas ; a statue of Hercules, the chef d'auvre of Rysbrach; and a beautiful Flora by the same artist. The turret to the memory of Alfred was noticed under “Somersetshire." There is also an obelisk of stone surmounted by a representation of the Sun, and built of the same proportions as one of the Egyptian obelisks at Rome. On this obelisk is an elegant classical inscription to the memory of Henry Hoare, esq. who improved and embellished the demesnes.-The mansion contains many portraits of the highly-respectable family of Hoare, and a most spirited bust of Pope by Roubiliac, which is generally admired. In the entrance hall is a collection of family portraits, and some good specimens, on a small scale, of the modern school of painting. The Music-room is principally occupied by a pleasing selection of fancy paintings by modern artists of the British school, and such as both now and hereafter will do credit to them. In the Dining room are some very fine specimens of painting in crayons, a style quite unfashionable. The South apartment is devoted to a fine collection of drawings in bistre, collected by its present worthy, possessor during his travels in Italy. The library contains a valuable assemblage of books, especially classical, antiquarian, and topographical. The cabinet room contains a very splendid cabinet (whence its name), embellished with precious stones, marbles, agates, &c. of every description. It formerly belonged to Pope Sixtus the Fifth, whose portrait and those of his family, Peretti, are beautifully modelled in wax, and placed in medallions round the base of this exquisite



Compendium of County History.--Wiltshire. (Oct: piece of workmanship. It also contains some fine landscapes from the pencils of Claude, Teniers, Canaletti, Wilson, &c. The picture gallery is 45 feet by 25. This spacious apartment is thickly covered with pictures by the old masters, among which is Rembrandt's celebrated painting of Elijah restoring the dead child to life, the most impressive in the whole collection. There are also two admirable specimens of the modern school, by H. Thompson, R. A. re

presenting distress by sea and land. Near STRATFORD Church, under an old tree, is :he spot where the Members

for Old Sarum are elected. TIDWORTH was the residence of the eccentric Edw. Poore, esg, and the Manor

House is reported to have been haunted by an invisible drummer, which story forms the plot of Addison's “ Drummer, or the Haunted House.” The carvings and ornaments which embellish Tisbury Church, bear a strong

resemblance to those that support the roof at Westminster Hall. In Tollard Royal is a farm-house bearing decided marks of antiquity, called

King John's hunting seat. (See vol. Lxxxi. ii. p. 217.) At TOTTENHAM Park House is the beautiful genealogical pedigree of the Ayles

bury family. In the library is the curious horn described by Dean Milles in vol. in. of the Archæologia. At Wolfe-hall, a little distance from the park, the marriage of Henry VIII. to Lady Jane Seymour was solemnized, and the wedding dinner was served up in a part of this building, then hung with

tapestry, of which there are some remains. TYTHERTON CALLOWAYS Village deserves notice, from the peculiar circum

stances attending its origin and progressive improvement. (See Beauties of

Wilts, vol. 11. 638, also vol. 111.) At TYTHERINGTON, Chapel service is performed four times in the year. Sir

Richard Hoare was informed, on authority which he had no reason to doubt, that a dog, accidentally left behind and shut up in the chapel on one of these

days, was found alive ten weeks afterwards, and liberated. Of Upton Lovel was Rector Thomas Hickman, who raised a troop of horse

for Chas. I. for which he endured 14 years suffering. At Upton SCUDAMORE lived the Rev. Thomas Owen, distinguished Orientalist. The first Lord Arundel of WARDOUR Castle, at the Battle of Gran, took the

sacred Ottoman standard with his own hands, for which he was created Count of the Holy Roman Empire, 1595. Among the portraits are the heroic Lady Blanch, by Angelica Kauffman; and Sir Thos. More, after Holbein. In the Study is an exquisite piece of workmanship in ivory, by Michael Angelo, of our Saviour on the Cross. In Lady Arundel's Cabinet is the cross worn by Cardinal Pole, &c. In the dining parlour is a curious specimen of ancient carved oak, the Grace cup or Wassel bowle, brought from Glastonbury Abbey. It is considered of true Sason origin. In the Red room is a very rich state bed, in which Kings Charles I. and II. and James II. lay when at Wardour. The chapel internally is the most beautiful private chapel in England. Near the altar is a monument to the memory of the heroic Lady

Blanch and her husband. In West Dean Church are several memorials of the Evelyn family. Of West KNOYLE was Richard Willoughby, supposed to be the “ Justice Wil.

loughby of Knoyle,” in Fielding's Tom Jones. At Wilton was manufactured the first English carpet by Anthony Duffosy,

brought from France by the Herbert family; who also established a manufactory of marble cloth here.-In 1299 Sir Osborne Gifford of Fonthill stole from the Nunnery two fair nuns, and run off. Godwin and Weaver contain the curious penances for this offence. - The House, says Mr. Britton, partakes more of the Roman palace than the English villa. Here is a most splendid collection of works of art. The busts amount to 175. Among the statues is a Venus sleeping, as curious as any in the collection. Among the relievos is one singularly beautiful, of mosaic work, composed of marble of various colours, representing Hercules in the Hesperides. Here is an ancient painting of Richard II. when a youth, at his devotions, on two tablets. It was painted in 1377, and is an extremely interesting and valuable painting, Of Zeals was Hugh Grove, who espoused the cause of Charles II.; and who was beheaded A. D. 1655; “pro lege et rege.”

S, T.


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61. A Critical Enquiry regarding the real

1. That he was an Englishman, - 2. That Author of the Letters of Junius, proving he was a man of rank, and of independent them to have been written by Lord Viscount fortune.-3. That he was a man of highly Sackville. By George Coventry. Printed cultivated talents, and of superior education; ly G. Woodfall. 8vo. Pp. 382.

that he had successfully studied the language,

the law, the constitution, and the UMEROUS as have been the history of his native country; but that he

conjectures respecting the Writer was neither a lawyer nor a clergyman.-4. of these celebrated Letters, not one of That be either was, at the time of writing them has produced conviction. How the Letters, or had previously beeo in the far Mr. Coventry may have succeeded, army, is evident from his practical knowledge remains to be proved. If he fail, it is of military affairs.-5. That he moved in not from deficiency of taste, or of mul- the immediate circle of the Court.-6. That tifarious research,

he was a member of the Established Church. In a neat prefatory address, Mr. Co-7. That he was a Member of the House

of Commons.—8. That from the early inventry thus clears the field from all formation Junius obtained on Government preceding attempts.

affairs, it is evident he was connected with “I have carefully perused the whole of some persons in administratiou.--9. That the voluminous controversy that has taken he was a firm friend to Sir Jeffery [afterplace at different periods on this interesting wards Lord] Amherst.-10. That he was a subject, wherein the claims of Thomas Hol friend to Colonel Cunninghame.-11. That lis, Wiliam Henry Cavendish Bentinck, he was an admirer of Mr. Grenville.-12. John Roberts, J. P. de Lolme, John Horne That he was a strong advocate for the Stamp Tooke, Charles Lloyd, Dr. Wilmot, Lord Act in America.-13. That he was in favour Shelburne, Samuel Dyer, Colonel Barrè, of repealing the duty on tea in America. Bishop Butler, Edmund Burke, Dr. Gilbert

14. That he was an advocate for triennial Stuart, Hugh Macauley Boyd, Counsellor parliaments.-15. That he considered the Danning, William Greatreakes, Richard impeachment of Lord Mansfield as indispenGlover, W. G. Hamilton, Rev. P. Rosen- sable.-16. That from the manner in which hagen, Sir William Jones, General Lee, he upholds rotten boroughs, it is highly John Wilkes, Edward Gibbon, and Sir probable they either constituted part of his Philip Francis have been brought forward property, or that he was in some way conand critically examined. On behalf of some

nected with them.–17. That he considered of these individuals strong presumptive evi- a strict regard should be paid to the public dence has been adduced, but which evidence expenditure, that the national debt might has ultimately failed in many of the most

not be increased.-18. That he was against material points. I shall therefore pass them disbanding the army, although a firm friend over in silence, except the name of Sir Phi

to the marching regiments; he was also in lip Francis, which I shall have occasion to favour of impressing seamen.-19. That he notice further in the first Chapter.

must have had an antipathy to Sir Fletcher “There are also two other poble charac- Norton, the Speaker of the House of Comters who have at times excited suspicion, mons, from the contempt with which he but whose names are not inserted in the speaks of him.-20. That he was necessaforegoing catalogue. I allude to the Earl rily a friend to his printer, Mr. Woodfall.of Chesterfield and Horace Walpole, Earl of 21. That he must have resided almost wholly Orford."

in London, from his correspondence with

Mr. Woodfall, to whom he gives notice The claims of the last-named Noble when he occasionally goes into the country. Authors are candidly considered; and One of his letters being dated Pall Mall, we those of Sir Philip Francis, the most may fairly presume his town house was in plausible of all that have heretofore that street.–22. That from his remembrance been named, are ably examined, and of the Walpolean battles, his seeing the Jeconsidered in a distinct chapter.

suitical books burnt in Paris, and his avowal

of a long experience of the world, as well as “The Reader who may still be biassed in from other circumstances mentioned in bis favour of any of the foregoing names, can correspondence with Mr. Wilkes, he could compare such pretensions with the result of not be less than fifty years of age at the my enquiry, on an attentive perusal of the time of writing these Letters.--23. That Letters: from which I deduce this opinion; from the hints given to his printer, Mr. That no one has any claim to the author- Woodfall, we may infer arrangements had ship of the Letters of Junius, of whom the been made for his coming into office; which following testimonials cannot be produced: though not accepted by him at the time,


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