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1625.) England not conquered by King William I.
223 and under the alleged will of Edward nated himself
, nor was he so called the Confessor, with the accompanied until after his death. In his charters asserion, that Harold had by oath to and records he styled himself “Wil. bim personally renounced his claims, lielmus, Rex Anglorum, &c. and Whether the Confessor really did make sometimes " Willielmus, Cognomento a will in favour of his illegitimate re. Bastardus, Rex Anglorum, &c. In latire William, is doubted by histo- fact, it may be most strongly doubted rians; the presumption is, that he did whether this title was given him in not, as it was never produced, which the modern acceptation of it; the would probably have been eagerly word Conqueror is in reality derived done, if it had existence: he may, from the Latin verb conquiro, and prihowever, have been orally named by marily signified one who came into him as his successor,. The death o possession by contract or gift. Thus Edward took place during the extreme Sir Henry Spelman, in his Glossary, youth of Edgar Atheling, his great expressly says, “Willielmus Primus, nephew and rightful heir;
but the peo. Conquestor, quid Angliam conquisivit, ple set him aside, and, under the in- non quod subegit.” And Harold, the Huence of the power and abilities of predecessor of William, who came to Harold, elected him as their King, al- the throne by the choice of the people, though possessing no hereditary right was yet denominated “Conqueror" by to the throne.
an ancient author, “ Heraldus, stie. In this situation of affairs the Duke nuus Dux, Conquestor Angliæ." of Normandy appealed to the Pope,
For the further satisfaction of your who, flattered by the reference made Correspondent, J. D. I beg leave to to him, decided in favour of his claim, refer him to a scarce work on this very and sanctioned his subsequent inva- subject, which is attributed, and I sion. The accidental death of Harold think duly so, to the illustrious Sir impressed the minds of the English, Bulstrode "Whitlocke. It is a small superstitious as they were in those 8vo of 164 pages, marked with Roearly ages, that the designs of his rival man numerals, and is dated “ London, was favoured by Divine Providence, printed by John Darby, 1682." It is and they were the more reluctant to adorned with a curious frontispiece ; uphold a vigorous opposition. Wil- in the distance is depicted the battle liam, pursuing a wily policy, ap- between the English and Normans, proached London, and by his conduct and the death of Harold; in the foreintimated his intention of besieging it, ground is represented the Coronation justly concluding that the possession of of William. 'He is seated on a chair the capital, whether by siege or volun- surmounted on two steps ; the Archtary surrender, would be followed by bishop of York is in the act of placing the submission of the whole kingdom, the Crown on his head, while the Bis The cautious fear by which he was ac- shop of Constance tenders to him the tuated, was balanced by a similar cau. Coronation (atb, and he at the same tious and prudent timidity in the op- instant is receiving the code of King posite party. The result was, that the Edward's laws from the hands of Bri, Citizens of London, upsanctioned by tannia, surmounted on a still higher the State, proffered him the Crown, seat. You will permit me, Mr. Ur. which he accepted as a gift, and the ban, to quote the title-page, and then example of the Metropolis was follow- the conclusion, to which, after a laed by a general and silent submission. boured research and discussion, the The Coronation of William took place author arrives. The title-page runs shortly afterwards; and, so far from thus: “Argumentum Anti-Normantaking on himself, as a victor, to dis- nicum; or an Argument proving from pense with the accustomed oaths, or, ancient Histories and Records, that on the other hand, binding himself to William, Duke of Normandy, made govern his newly-organized possessions no absolute Conquest of England by by the laws of his own country, he the Sword in the sense of our modern confirmed the laws then in existence, Writers, being an answer to these the code of Edward the Confessor. four Questions, viz. 1. Whether William It is very true we call hiin, by way of the First made an absolute conquest of contra-distinction, William the Con- this nation at his first entrance ; 2. queror, and for ages he has borne that Whether he cancelled and abolished appellation; but he never so denomi- all the Confessor's Laws ; 3. Whether
England not conquered by King William I. (Sept. he divided all our estates and fortunes historians. Indeed in his recorded hisbetween himself and nobles ; 4. When tory it is difficult to separate truth ther it be not a grand error to affirm from error and purposed misrepresentathat there were no Englishmen in the tion; the more early writers pepued Common Council of the whole king- their memorials under the influence of dom.”—The conclusion to which he prejudice, they were usually descendarrives respectively as to these ques. ants of the Anglo-Saxons, and were tions are these, that
not disinclined to lower the character
of William in the eyes of posterity, to “i, William the First, vulgarly called attribute to him arbitrary actions, of William the Conqueror, did not get the Im- which he was never guilty, and to perial Crown of England by the sword, vor made an absolute Conquest of the nation at
give even to his good deeds the semhis first entrance. 2. Nor that he abolished blance of evil. In illustration of this all the English Laws, or changed the whole remark, you will permit me, Sir, to reframe and constitution of the Saxon Govern- vert to the origin of the New Forest, ment; but, 3. That the English had still and the institution of the Curfew. It estates aud fortunes continued to them; has been generally represented by hisand that it was a great mistake in any to torians, and as generally believed, that affirm, that the Kiug and his Normans di- William, passionately fond of hunting, vided and shared them all among them; as depopulated a whole district for the likewise, 4. In the fourth place, it has been formation of the New Forest, having a grand error to ascertain that there were destroyed numerous churches, and disthe whole kingdom in the reign of William possessed the inhabitants of their lands the Conqueror.”
and houses. So far from this being
the case, we have every reason to beTo the foregoing conclusions I can- lieve that the site of the New Forest nut but cordially assent; and I think was primevally a woody region, known there is no doubt but that William under the appellation of Ytene, ever gained the throne, not from absolute very thinly inhabited ; and that being conquest, but by mutual compact, aris- first afforested by William, it then, by ing from mutual fear. On the part of way of contradistinction alone, received the English, they had set Edgar Athel- the name of New Forest.-With reing, the rightful heir, aside, on account gard to the Curfew, the assertion that of his youth and slender mental abili- at the sound of a certain bell in every ties. Harold himself, although elected district at eight o'clock in the evening, by them, had no hereditary right. all the inhabitants were under the obThis circumstance, united with their ligation of putting out their lights and Aight into Ireland, precluded them of covering their
fires. Intermixed as from turning their attention to his the inhabitants of both countries must sons. The invader, although illegiti- have becume, both as to residence and mate, was yet connected by relation- intercourse, the execution of this manship to the Confessor; and a want of date must have been of general inconunanimity pervaded their domestic venience. It is no where asserted that councils, as the Clergy, who bore a the order was restricted to the Enggreat sway, were in favour of the lish. It was assuredly the interest and Duke of Normandy, he having receiv- policy of William to produce an amaled the sanction of the Pope to his in- gamation of national manners and cus. vasion. On the other hand, William, toms; and it is hardly to be supposed by the proffer of the Crown, must that he would have hazarded a general have fell pleased at the probably un- insurrection against him by the instiexpected and easy success after only tution of an arbitrary and useless meaone battle, and prudently resolved to sure levelled at the English, and at accept the conditions of the English, the same time oppressive to the Norrather than to continue a contest un- mans. The Curfew was in use on the certain in its issue, and calamitous in Continent prior to the vera of William, its failure.
and may have had its origin in reliThe authenticity of the anecdote gious influence. Many barbarous nareferred to by your Correspondent, re- tions even now hail the rising of the Jative to the meeting between William Sun, and in like manner, by some exand the Men of Kent, the latter hav- pression of their feelings, deplore the ing each a bough in his hand, has departure of the light of Heaven; and been strongly doubted by the best it seems to me that Gray thus ele
1$25.] Effigy of Bp. Shepey discovered at Rochester.
225 gantly alludes to this religious memo- imitation of nature, supposing the Tial:
efligy to be a likeness. 'I'he Prelate “The Curfew tolls the knell of j-rting day.” may be imagined to have been a man
abont forty, with a dark complexion, In the prevalence of superstition, the and handsome features. He held the extinguishinent of artificial light may sce about eight years. In the aile, have been superadded, from the supposi- North of the choir, there is a monution that it was irreligious to supply that ment affixed in the wall, which sepalight which the God of Nature had rates it from the choir; it has a loftg withdrawn. The etymology of the single-arched canopy, in which may be word Curfew, which is a corruption seen the remains of foliage closely refrom Couvre-feu, proves it to be of sembling the mouldings discovered ; Normanic origin; and I am strongly and though this monument has sufferinclined to think that William intro- ed very much from wilful dilapidaduced it as an usage incumbent on both tions, still the remaining carvings are Normans and English to observe, and of the most elegant description. An that it was tortured by the subsequent angel on the wall at the back, in high Monkish historians into an arbitrary relief, is nearly perfect, and from the Dandate, with the view of harassing uneven surface of the wall
appears the English, although they none of have formed part of a group. The althein assert that its practice was not of tar tonib has been broken ; the pregeneral injunction.
sent covering is quite rough and unYours, &c. EDWARD DUKE. There is little doubt an effigy
was once laid upon it. This tomb Nr. URBAN,
Sept. 17. was pointed out to me by the verger, you have already recorded (Part i. and I think there is great probability
p. 76) the discovery in Rochester in his conjecture, that the effigy be. Cathedral, of the Eligy of Bishop longed to it. John de Shepey, who died in 1360. The triple stalls in the South side of Splendid indeed must have been the the altar have been assigned as a mo. monument to tvhich the effigy and the nument to this prelate. They are posdisjointed fragments discovered with it terior, in point of date, by inany years; belonged (though I entertain great and our increased knowledge will at doubts whether the last-inentioned are this time inform us that they were at all connected with the esligy). There never intended for a sepulchral monu. is a finely preserved statue of Moses ment. The fragments of sculpture now holding the tables of the law, on which discovered probably formed the deare singularly enough inscribed the coration of a splendid altar in some one of the law.giver himself- part of the Cathedral. The old and Moyses. The remains of the group ugly oaken altar-screen is removed for next this statue appear to have been ever, and with it a picture of iwo anformed for a holy family, containing gels bearing their message to the shepreliefs of the Virgin, Joseph, St. Anne, herds on pieces of paper in their hands, and an angel crowning the former; the work, I believe, of Benjamin West. the whole of this group dreadfully One of the angels appears to be of the mutilated. Some beautiful moulding's masculine, the other of the feminine in frieze, &c. semain in high preserva- gender; an absurdity too common in tion, and the care taken of them re- angelic representations. It was worflects the highest credit on the Dean thy of the screen it decorated, and it and Chapter. The tomb on which will, I trust, in future occupy an hum. this effigy now lies, is of inferior work- bler place. The wall which was conmanship, and differs in length from cealed by the old altar, shows three
. habiliments of the prelate are superbly lumns in relief attached to the wall, coloured, and afford a splendid 'speci- and sustaining a gallery even with the men of the state of the fine aris in sill of the upper East window fronted that magnificent æra, the 14th cen- with a parapet of pierced quatrefoils. tury. The discoveries at St. Stephen's In the intercolumniations are windows, Chapel are alone worthy 10 coinpete and below each is a cross in a circle with it. The face is fively coloured; painted on the wall. The windows the close shaved beard a most correct are re-glazed in plain glass, the design Gent. Mag. September, 1825.
Effigy of Bp. Shepey discovered at Rochester, (Sept. of which is taken from the Mosaic feet (great part of which had been pavement of an altar in St. William's broken off) rested on two dogs, both Chapel. The removal of the old pan- damaged, the head of one being wantnelling in the choir allows the columns ing. The external robe, called the which support the groined roof and Dalmatica vestis, or dalmatic, was detheir carved corbels to be seen to per- cidedly of a pink colour, and reprefection; on the walls of the choir, sented as lined with some other cobrought to light by removing the lour which was scarcely visible: on wainscot, are a series of painted niches, the robe were figures of a diamond with columns and entablature, in the within a square, the collar being most taste of the seventeenth century. beautifully ornamented Underneath
The spire, built in 1749, is taken the dalmatic is the stola, but the eledown, and it is in contemplation to gantly figured and painted border at case the tower on which it stood with the bottom is only seen. Under the Bath stone, and raise it twelve feet left arm is the stad of the crozier, the higher, with attached pinnacles at the head of which was gone. Round it a angles. I think the loss of the spire, napkin beautifully bordered was wrappoor as it was, will not be compen- ped, and to this staff the curved part sated by any additions of that descrip- of the crozier was fastened by an iron tion. The tower is not grand enough or brass pin, as the hole appeared in to stand alone as a decoration of a ca- which the pin was riveted; ihe mani. thedral. As a pinnacled tower, it will plc, adorned with jewels, hangs froin be scarcely grander than a parish the left wrist. The following inscripchurch; it could have been rendered 'tion is round the effigy: an object of eminence only by the
“Hic jacet d’ns Joh'nes Cheppeie epi's spire being rebuilt on a loftier and ini
istius eccl'ie." proved plan. From the appearance of height such an object always pose
Two drawings were made by a persesses, there can be lille doubt but son of the name of Harris, employed that the city would then possess an ob- by Mr. Coutingham the architíct, ject far superior to the present tower,
one of which represents the effigy as in the most improved state in which it was found, and the other as Mr. as a tower it can be placed.
Cottingham supposed it to have been, I have mentioned the chief altera- with the features perfect, and the fie tions in this Cathedral; the other re
gure highly coloured. After this, Mr. pairs are merely substantial: when the Cottingham resolved on restoring the whole is finished I may have again to
colours on the figure, in conforinity address you.
E. 1. C.
with the latter drawing, which was
accordingly done. A more minute description of Bp. fingers
, the feet, and one of the dogs'
The top of the mitre, nearly all the Shepey's figure has been furnished by heads, have been subsequently found, “An Admirer of Ancient Effigies,
and joined to the effigy; the mitre is who was present at the discovery. The Bishop lies in a recumbent pos- beard is also an addition, as it was not
therefore now complete. The painted ture under an elliptical arch in the North wall of the choir, which wall there when first discovered. The daldivides the choir from St. William's matic, instead of being a pink, is now Chapel. A large piece of the maitre and the shoes are painted yellow.
of a dull scarlet, with a green lining, had been broken off, and the nose, upper lip, and chin, greatly mutilated, evidently by a sword or other sharp
Sept. 19. instrumented and extremely beaniel W most Nintboe last afer weeks ago adorned with an imitation of precious taken place in Westminster Abbey by stones, encircles the forehead. The the uncovering of a new altar-piece, head reposes on two superb cushions which has been for some time past in with tassels, the face painted of a fesh a state of preparation. colour, the hair of the eye-brows dis- The front of the new screen (exetinctly marked, and the pupils of the cuted by Bernasconi) presents a pretty eyes coloured. The hands of the Bi- faithful copy of its back, which forms shop, which had lost the fingers, are the West side of the Confessor's Chaclosed in the act of prayer, and the pel, with the exception of the cele
1825.) Altar Piece in Westminster Abbey County History. brated biographical sculptures, the The original altar-piece was exactly omission of which leaves an unplea- similar, as may be seen in the represant blank. It consists of a series of sentation of Abbot Islip's funeral, in shrines, or rather ornamented niches, the possession of the Society of Anticanopied with a profusion of delicate quaries, and published by them in the tabernacle work, and divided by two Vetusta Monumenta. The altar, howside-doors within squares, the pannel- ever, was then surmounted by a lofty ings of which being of glass, admit a rood and images, as well as either a view of the choir from the enclosure pinnacle or niche, which hroke a cerbehind. In front is placed a stone tain dull and unpleasant effect arising altar of elegant workmanship. from a plain surface. F.L. B.
COMPENDIUM OF COUNTY HISTORY-WILTSHIRE.
Christ. ingenious author of the “ New Bath Guide,” Harden Huish, 1724.
of the age, Chilmarke (flourished thirteenth ceutury). Chubb, Thomas, noted deistical writer, Salisbury, 1679. Clarendon, Roger de, illegitimate son of Edward the Black Prince, Clarendon. Collinson, Rev Jubn, historian of co. Somerset, Bromham (ob. 1796). Corderoy, Jeremy, celebrated divine in the seventeenth century, Chute. Coryate, George, Latin poet, Salisbury (ob. 1606). Cottington, Francis Lord, celebrated statesman, Mere (ob. 1651). Danvers, Henry, Earl of Danhy, brave warrior, Dantsey, 1573. Davies, Sir John, eminent lawyer, poet and politician, Chisgrove in Tisbury, about 1570.
Lady Eleanor, mystical writer, wife of Sir John Davies, and daughter of Lord
James, Lord Chief Justice of Court of Common Pleas, 1734.
William, D. D. eminent historian and biographer, Salisbury, 1720.