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Literature and Science.

[Aug taining a careful estimate of all the Parlia- young man cannot be maintained and inmentary parties and interests, the state of structed at Oxford or Cambridge at a less Ireland, the Catholic question, and the charge than 2001, or 250l. per amum : whole business of the Session, &c.

while the expenses of most exceed this sum, Attic Fragments. By the Author of the and nearly five months in the yeas are al“ Modern Athens."

lowed for vacations. The whole expense for

each studert's justruetion at the London Among the collection of two hundred University, will not exceed 25l. or 30l. per Arabic, Persian, and Turkish MSS., which

annum, (this supposes a student to attend have been purchased of M. Rousseau, five or six of the general classes, but the French Consul-general, and Charge des Af- medical education will be necessarily more faires at Tripoli, by the Emperor of Russia, expensive, from the costs of the anatomical for 15,000 francs, are some which will sup- department;) with not more than ten weeks ply deficiencies in the most interesting pe- of vacation. A treaty is now in progress for riods of modern history. There is the His- a suitable piece of ground, in a central situatory of the Arabs in Spain, by Ahmed Al- tion, for the buildings and walks ; and it is magari; the Bark Yainani, or History of expected that the structure will be completed the Conquest of Arabia Felix by the Oth- in August, 1826, and the classes opened in mans; an Arabic translation of the History October following. The vacations will comof the Jews; and a History of the Sultan prise a fortnight at Easter, about six weeks Noureddin; but of which Noureddin we from the middle of August to the end of cannot state. Certain we are, that the Em- September, and a fortnight at Christmas. peror has made a most valuable acquisition The capital (300,0001.) is to be raised by for the Asiatic Museum of St. Petersburgh. 3000 shares of 100l. each, or donations of At Mr. Evans's sale, on the 20th and 21st

501. which will entitle the donor to the same of July, the celebrated Mazarine Bible, privileges for life, as a shareholder of 1001. priated op vellum, was purchased by Mr. Each holder of á 100l. share will receive Perkins, the opulent brewer, for 480 gui- interest at a rate not exceeding four per cent. neas. The Duke of Sussex bought the per annum, payable half-yearly, and be enLatin Bible, in 2 vols. without date, place, titled to present one student for each share. or name of the printer, but undoubtedly from

The shares will be transferable by sale and the press of Ulric Zell

, for 44 guineas; by bequest, and descend to the holders' likewise the Latin Bible printed at ”Nurem- representatives in cases of intestacy. The berg, by Prisner et Sensenschmin, 1475,

money will be called for by instalments, as for 48 pounds. Mr. Thorpe purchased the

wanted; but it is calculated that not more excessively rare Latin Bible, ia 2 vols. with

than two thirds of the amount will be reout signatures, date, place, or name of the quired, and the remaining third will thus be printer, but certainly one of the earliest and iu reserve, to provide for an extension of the noblest productions of the press of Metellin, plan, or any unforeseen contingency. No and printed before 1466, for 180 guineas. person to hold more than ten shares; and a Mr. Thorpe also bought the original draw

donor of 50l. to have all the privileges of a ings by Francis Grose, most of which have shareholder during life, except the receipt of been engraved for the Antiquities, for 100

interest and transfer of his rights. The guineas. The Musée Francais, in 4 vols. interest on the shares will be paid out of the folio, was bought by Arch, the bookseller, surplus revenue of the institution, after de for 1261. The first edition of Martial, in fraying all the expenses of conducting the folio, produced 141. 10s. The first edition

same, and arising from the annual payment of Plutarch, in 2 vols. without date, brought of five guineas by each Student to the Gene21. Mr. Heber gave 91. 12s. for Plinii

ral Fund, exclusive of one guinea per annum Historia Naturalis, 1472. A collection of

to the Library, Museum, and collection of the documents chiefly relative to the Abbey Maps, Charts, Drawings, and Models. The of Culross, one of the most ancient Abbeys rules of this establishment will be submitted in Scotland, was bought by Sir Thomas to a general meeting of shareholders and Phillipps, for 401. 195. The four days' sale

donors ; who it is anticipated will be induced amounted to between two and three thou

to vest its government in a Chancellor, Vicesand pounds.

Chancellor, and 19 ordinary members of

Council (a proportion of which will go out LONDON UNIVERSITY.

of office annually), to be elected by the There is every prospect of this Institution shareholders and donors, voting either in being soon established and brought into person or by proxy. The Professors will active operation. Its principal object is to have moderate salaries, but their emoluments bring the means of a complete scientific and will principally depend on the fees received literary education home to the inhabitants from students. of the metropolis, who may thus be enabled SINGLE BLOCKS OF STONE. to educate their sons at a moderate expense, The enormous columns of granite destined and under their own immediate superinten- for the portico of the new church now builddence. Under existing circumstances a ing in the Place d'Isacc, at St. Petersburgh,



Literature and Science.

163 are very remarkable. In order to form a 900 carats in the rough. The largest dia, proper estimate of their size, we may give mond ever brought to Europe is one now in the comparative magnitude of the largest the possession of the Sovereign of Russia. blocks known, both ancient and modern. It weighs 195 carats, and was long employed 1. The column of Alexandria, commonly as the eye of a Braminical idol. A French called Pompey's Piller, holds the first rank: soldier discovered the value of the gem; and it is of a single block of red granite, 67 ft. changed his religion, worshipping at the 4 in, 114 lines. 2. The columns of the altar of the god, that he might deprive him Church d'Isacc, just mentioned, in height of his splendid eye. At length he succeeded 56 ft. 3. The columns, whose ruins are in substituting a piece of glass for the diaDear Mount Citoria, at Rome, height 52 ft. mond, and again became a good Christian ! 4 in. 4. Columns of the portico of the After passing through several hands, the Pastheon, height 46 ft. 9 in. 11 lines. 5. Empress Catherine at length fixed it in the Columns of the Cathedral of Casan, at St. possession of the Russian Crown, giving for Petersburgh, height 42 ft. 6. Two columns it 90,0001., and a perpetual annuity of 1000l. of the Church of St. Paul, at Rome, with. It is cut in the rose form, and is the size of out the enclosure, height 38 ft. 4 in. 7. a pigeon's egg. One of the most beautiful The columns near the Baths of Dioclesian, is the Pitt diamond, which is a brilliant, and those of Caracalla, now placed at Flo- and weighs rather more than 136 carats ; it rence, near the Pont Trinité, of the same was brought from India by Governor Pitt, height as the preceding. To these may be and purchased by the Duke of Orleans, who added a beautiful column white marble, placed it in the Crown of France, where it about 40 ft. loog, taken from a quarry on still remains. (See p. 106.) The celebrated the south side of the Simplon road ; it was Pigot diamond is now in the possession of destined by Napoleon for the ornamental Messrs. Rundell and Bridge. improvements of Milan.


Evening Post of July 15) that the bones of

Eng: Feet. a nondescript animal, of an immense size, Pyramid of Gizeh in Egypt


and larger than any bones that have hitherto Steeples of the Cathedral at Cologne 501 been noticed by naturalists, had been discoSteeple of the Minster at Ulm

vered about twenty miles from New Orleans, Steeple of the Cathedral at Antwerp 476

in the alluvial ground formed by the MissisSteeple of the Minster at Strasburg 486 sippi river and the lakes, and but a short Pyratnids of Cheops in Egypt

452 distance from the sea.

It now appears, Steeple of St. Stephen's at Vienna 442 that these gigantic remains had been disinCupola of St. Peter's at Roine

431 terred by a Mr. W. Schofield, of New OrPyramid of Cephrenes in Egypt 426 leans, who spent about a year in this arduSteeple of St. Martin's at Landshut 422 ous undertaking. A fragment of a cranium Steeple of the Cathedral at Cremona 396 is stated to measure twenty-two feet in Steeple of the Minster at Friburg 395 length; in its broadest part four feet high, Cupola of the Cathedral at Floreuce 384 and perhaps nine inches thick; and it is Steeple of St. Persina in Saxony 382 said to weigh 1,200lbs. The largest exCupola of the Cathedral at Milan 357 tremity of this bone is thought evidently to Steeple of the Cathedral at Utrecht

356 answer to the human scapula; it tapers off Pyramid of Sackkarah in Egypt 356 to a point, and retains a flatness to the Steeples of Notre Dame at Munich

termination. From these facts it is ioCapola of St. Paul's at London

347 ferred, that this bone constituted a fia, of Steeple of St. Ascharius at Bremen

345 fender. One of its edges, from alternate Steeples of the Cathedral at Magdeburg 335

exposures to the tide and atmospherc, has Steeple of St. Mark's at Venice

become spongy or porous, but, generally, it Cupola of the Jesuit's Church at Paris 314 is in a perfect state of ossification. A large Assinelli Tower at Bologna



itself in the supeCupola of the Invalids at Paris


rior portion of this bone, upon the sides of Steeple of St. Mary's at Berlin

which considerable quantities of ambergris DIAMONDS.

may be collected, which appears to have The weight of diamonds is estimated in suffered little or no decomposition or changes carats, 150 of which are equal to one ounce by age. It burns with a beautiful bright troy. The average price of rough diamonds flame, and emits an odoriferous smell while is about 21. per carat. According to this burning; it is of a greasy consistence, simiscale, a wrought diamond, 3 carats, is lar to adipocere. It is evident that there worth 721., and one of 100 carats 80,0001. was a corresponding fin, or fender. The The largest diamond probably ever heard of animal, therefore, must have been fifly feet is one mentioned by Tavernier, who saw it in breadth from one extremity of a fin to in the possession of the Great Mogul. It the other, allowing for wear and tear, as was about as big as a hen's egg, and weighed well as a disproportionate width of the back

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Antiquarian Researches.

[Aug. to the length of the fins. There are sev body of each vertebræ is at least twenty ral of the dorsal vertebræ, and one of the inches in diameter, and as many in length; lumbar, and a bone answering to the cocy- the tube or calibre for containing the spinal gis in our anatomy. The vertebræ are marrow is six inches in diameter ; some of sound, and corresponding in size to the the arterial and nervous indentations, or largest bone; the protuberances of the ver

courses, are yet visible. There is a bone tebræ are three feet in extent; they lead to similar to our os calcis, one foot in length, the supposition that the animal had consi- and eight inches in diameter. derable protuberances on the back; the

ANTIQUARIAN RESEARCHES. An Essay on the Composition of the Ancient sure derived from this investigation was

Earthen Vases, commonly known by the much augmented by some observations name of Etruscan. Read before the Royal which it suggested to me regarding their Society of Gottingen. From the Latin of composition. The little that I have learned Professor Hausmann*.

with regard to this subject, either during The ancient painted vases chiefly dug up my journey, or from subsequent observation in many districts of Lower Italy, have ex- and experiments, I shall endeavour to expose cited much interest among the learned, and in the following essay. the admirers of ancient art. While the Sect. 1. Of the vases, commonly called elegance and diversity of their forms, to- Etruscan, in general.-We shall confine gether with the singularity and boldness of ourselves to the vases commonly called their figures, delight the eye of the be- Etruscan, although the greater part of them holder, the variety of design and subject in are not of Etruscan, but of Grecian origin. the paintings with which they are decorated, The celebrated Winkelmann was the first equally conduce to the illustration of my- who refuted the opinion chiefly supported thology, history, and ancient art. The in- by Gorius and Buonarotti, that these painted vestigation of these paintings has already vases of pottery-ware had been manufactured contributed in po small degree to improve in ancient Etruriat. But although it cannot our knowledge of antiquity; nor has the be denied that the greatest quantity of vases imitation of the forms of those vases been has been dug up in those parts of Italy and less a source of profit as applied to the art Sicily, which were formerly inhabited by of pottery. The famous Wedgwood ware the Greeks, nor that the style of their owes its celebrity as much to the successful paintings and their inscriptions sufficiently imitation of the forms of those vases as to demonstrate their Grecian origin ; yet it is the excellence of its material. In like man- probable, that the art of fabricating painted ner, the beautiful ornaments observed upon vessels of earthen-ware was not confined to these vases, have, in our times, been trans- that portion of Italy, but also extended to ferred to the subjects of many other arts; other districts, since, in many places remote and have been employed for the decoration from it, vases of the same general description of buildings, rooms, furniture, articles of have been dug up, which, however, possess dress, and other works of luxury, insomuch so much diversity of character, with regard that antique forms have become so common to their forms and paintings, as to induce in modern art, that their origin has been the inference, that they had not been transnearly forgotten. Although ancient art mitted to those parts by commerce. Nor has, in this manner, made its way into the was this art confined to ancient Italy alone, shops of potters and other artificers, and but was also practised in Greece I, and even into our drawing-rooms, yet the scien- thence made its way into some of the neightific study of technology, and the history of bouring districts of Pontus §. The painted the mechanical and chemical arts, have vases found in these countries are essentially hitherto been little advanced by the investi- the same as those discovered in Italy. gation of those ancient vases.

The vases found in different parts and In the writings of the ancients we scarcely situations of Italy, differ more or less from find any passages in which positive mention each other, both with respect to the quality is made of them; and noue in so far as I of their material, and to the workmanship know, where their composition is spoken of. and style of painting; the cause of which This point, therefore, can only be ascer- difference is to be sought for in the different tained by an accurate examination of the natural qualities of the materials, or in a vases themselves. During a journey which different degree of perfection in the art. I made last year through Italy, I had opportunities of examining the splendid collec

+ Geschichte der Kunst, p. 193 et seq. tions of those vases which adorn the muscums

Clarke's Travels, vol. iv.-Walpole's of Florence, Rome, and Naples. The piea- Memoirs, 2d edit.--Antiq. of Athens, p.

322.-Ritter's Vorhalle Europäischer Vol* From the Edinburgh Philosophical kergeschichten von Herodotus, p: 232. Journal for April 1825.

& Ritter, as above, po 231.


Antiquarian Researches.

165 For the art of forming vases of pottery- vases may be distinguished from others by rare, and of ornamenting them with paint the inferior quality of their materials, by the ings, may not only have existed in various dulness of their coating, but especially by degrees of perfection in different places at the greater rudeness of their forms and the same time, but the state of this art had painting, as well as by certain characters of also, without doubt, been very different at the representations peculiar to the ancient different periods. And not only bave earthen Etruscar art*. These differences may be vases of very different degrees of fineness very clearly seen in the_Florentine Collecbeen manufactured at the same time and in tion, where authentic Etruscan vases are the same places, but also plain vases, with- placed in the same apartment with others of out any paintings, in all other essential re- Grecian origin. Cu the great collection at spects agreeing with the painted ones, and Naples, I was shown only a single mutilated destined for the same general purposes.

true Etruscan vase. Of the painted earthen vases, dug up in No vestiges of ancient painted vases have, different parts of Italy, those found in Lower in so far as I know, been found in Italy to Italy and Sicily are the finest. The best of the North of the Appenines. Those which all, however, are those found at Nola, both are preserved in the Museum of Bononia, in respect to the excellence of their mate- Turin, and other cities of Northern Italy, rials, and the elegance of their forms, to- have migrateu into those parts from southern gether with the beauty of the paintings and Italy. the lustre of their varnish-like coating. It is not my design, in this treatise, to Many of them are so perfectly preserved, institute any inquiry into the periods at that you might imagine them newly made. which these vases were inanufactured, not Next to the Nola vases, are those of Locria only because investigations bave already been and Agrigentum. Many vases have also made with respect to this point by many been found near Pæstum, the ancient Capua authors of great learning, but especially now S. Maria di Capua), Sancta Agatha also because the settlement of it would inSothorum, Trebbia, Aversa, Avella, Taren- volve an examination, entirely foreign to tem, and in some other places of Apulia, my views, of the various inscriptions oband of the Neapolitan province named served on those vases, as well as of the subAinazo, the greatest number of which are jects and characters of the paintings. It is remarkable for their beauty. Of late years, undoubtedly more easy to discover the nases have also been dug up in the vicinity period up to which these vases may have of the cities of Angi and Pomarico in Cala- been fabricated, than the time at which the bria. The largest and best collection of art, commonly considered as of Grecian invases found in these and other places of vention, but assuredly possessed of claims to Lower Italy and Sicily, arranged most ele- a much higher antiquity t, took its origin. gantly and in the best order, is preserved in It seems not improbable, that the latest ihe Royal Museum of Naples ; this collec- period at which these vases were manufaction has, of late, been much enlarged by the tured in Italy, was the time of the civil purchase of the extensive one made at Nola, wars I. The Roman vases, of latter periods, belonging to the family of Vicenzio. Of the dug up in many parts of Italy, as at Nola, private collections at Naples, the most re- Pompeii, and Rome, have a very different markable is that of the Archbishop of Ta- character. They have no paintings, but rentum, which is preserved at his seat near are frequently ornamented with raised figures, Portici, elegantly adorned with choicest and usually have a red coating ; characters works of ancient and modern art; and what which are also observed in the Roman vases renders this collection still more deserving dug up in some parts of Germany and France. of attention is, that it is illustrated by a To a later period also belongs the vases a learned description drawn up by its ac- dug up in great quantity near Aretium, so complished proprietor bimself. A great

far down as the tiine of Vasarius ß, many of sumber of vases, dog up in Lower Italy, which are preserved in the Florentine Mu• bave also been deposited in the Vatican Li- seum. These vases have a red or blackish brary at Rome, and the public Museum of coating, and, in other respects, are of similar Florence.

composition with the oldest Etruscan vases || In the middle part of Italy painted vascs have been found much more rarely. In

ische Vasengemalge, i. ii. p. 5, 20.—Peinsome places of ancient Etruria, as for ex

tures de vases antiques vulgairement apample, near Voltena and the cities of Chinsi, pellés Etrusques, gravées par A. Clener; Viterio, and Corneto, a few were formerly accomp. d'Explications par A. L. Millin, dug op, some of which are preserved in the

1808, vol. i. p. 6, note 34. Plorentine Museum f. The true Etruscan

* Lanzi de vasi antichi dipuiti, volgar

mente chiamati Etruschi. Dissertazioni Millingen, Peintures ant. et ined. de tre, p. 23. Vases Grecs, p. vü.

+ Ritter, i. cit.

P. † Flea ad Winkelmannum, t. i. p. 215.- Millingen, Peintures antiques, p. 8. Meyer in Boettiger's work, entitled, Griech- § Lanzi, l. c. p. 39.

11 Ibid.




Antiquarian Researches.

(Aug. with which they are sometimes confounded. concealed beneath the surface of the ground, It seems not improbable, that they belong and constructed of stone in a rectangular to the Aretine vases, so highly esteemed in form, placed near the remains of the dead ancient times, which have been praised by body, and sometimes also suspended upoo Martial*, and taken notice of by Pliny the walls, as is clearly shewn by the exceland Isidorus, although it is difficult to lent representations delineated by Knipius, arrive at any certainty with regard to this added to Teischbein's plates of vases, as point I.

well as by the accurately executed inodels The painted earthen vessels of Grecian exposed in the royal collection of vases at origin, which have been found in Lower Naples. Many vases are often found in the Italy, seem to be of different ages. Accord- same sepulehre, of various sizes and qualities. ing to the opinion of the celebrated Millingen, Some of these sepulchres which are small, and some other antiquaries, an opinion and constructed of rough stones, usually which seems to be well grounded, the vases contain a smaller number of a coarse kind. commonly, but incorrectly, called Egyptian, In other sepulchres of larger size, conwhose paintings are of a dusky red colour structed of hewn stones, and covered over upon a yellow ground, in which condition with slabs like the roof of a house, some of some vases have also been dug up in Greece, which I have seen before the gates of the are the most ancient s. The vases, commonly ancient Pæstum, vases of superior quality called Sicilian, which have black paintings are found in greater number*. Sometimes upon a reddish yellow ground, are, accord- they occur in their original position, and in ing to the same opinion, less ancient, but a perfect state of preservation; at other more so than the vases with reddish yellow times, however, they are crushed and defigures and ornaments upon a black ground, stroyed. Some of them have retained in a which are the most common of all Il. This surprising degree their polish and original opinion has indeed been lately opposed by colours ; others, especially those dug up in the celebrated Rossi, who has shown the moist places, are slightly'incrusted with a vases with black figures to be of the same white calcareous substance, easily soluble in age with the rest : his arguments, how- acids, which has probably been precipitated ever, do not seem to invalidate the former upon them from the water that had peneopinion **

trated through the walls of the sepulchre. Many vases, either having no paintings at This preservation of vases, constructed at so all, or, instead of figures, having other sin- remote a period, of such frail materials, and gular ornaments, have been dug up, both with so thin a coating, is a subject of much along with painted vases and by themselves, interest, and not less than the perfection of not only in Lower Italy, but also in ancient the art as practised by the ancients, invites Etruria, which have either the natural

to the investigation of their mode of formacolour of burned clay, or a black coating, tion. or have been manufactured of clay evidently We shall endeavour to distribute the most mixed with some black matter. The orna- ancient earthenware vases, whether Greek ments upon the black vases are very fre- or Etruscan, according to their mode of quently of a white colour, sometimes yellow composition, into classes, for the purpose or red. Not only the forms, but also the of obtaining a more distinct perception of colours of the black coating and ornaments, their varieties, as well as the other circumstances, corre- We shall place in the first class those spond with those which are observed in vases in which the colour of the clay is navases adorned with more perfect and more tural, without glaze, or other coating or complex paintings ; from which it may be painting. Of this kind are some vases which supposed that these rude and less elegant were dug up at Cumæ, as well as near S. vases are of the same age and manufacture Agatha Sothorum, along with others of a with those more beautiful productions of black colourt. art, which, without doubt, were more highly In the second class, we shall place those esteemed in ancient, as they are in modern in which the natural colour of the clay is times.

somewhat heightened by their having a very The vases dug up in Lower Italy are thin glaze or coatiug I. found in Grecian sepulchres more or less To the third class belong those vases

which have been manufactured of clay in* Lib. xiv. Ep. 98.

termixed with black matter. These vases + Hist. Nat. Lib. xxxv. cap. 12,

are found, either simple, that is, without * Origen, l. xx. cap. 4.

ornaments, either impressed or in relief; § Mezer in Boetlinger's work, Griechische or they are painted with a white or yellowish Vasengemälde, 1. 2.

Il Mengen, Peintures Antiques de Vases Hamilton in Boettiger's Work, cited Grecs, p. iv. v.

above, 1. I. p. 34. [Ibid. Third letter addressed to M.Mil. + Sul metodo degli Antichi nel dipingere lingen by the Chev. Rossi.

i vasi. Due Lettere del Canonico Andrea ** Gottingische gelehrte Auzeigt, 1820, de Jorio al. Sig. Cav. M. Galdi, p. 4.

1 Jorio, loc. cit. p. 8.


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