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1925.)
Account of the Isle of Man.

101 between 3 and 400 hundred acres. tion. These complicated claims led The grounds are well wooded, and the to disputes, and the 4th and present situation altogetheris delightful. Plants Duke resorted to Parliament to estaand sbrubs grow here most luxuriantly. blish his mutilated rights, and com

The appearance of the country is plained that the sum given to his anbilly, though the hills are tame and cestor was greatly beneath the value rounded, and their altitude low. Sna- of the revenue ceded to the crown, field is the highest, and is 2004 feetabove and prayed for additional compensathe level of the sea. The soil is ge- tion; which complaint, upon enquiry, nerally a light sand, and shallow. In seemed to be well-founded: and in some places are peat mosses. But.the 1802 Parliament voted that one-fourth island principally relies for its fuel on of the gross revenues of the Isle of the Whitehaven coal. The stone most Man, which of late years has varied abundant on the isle is a blue schise from 12 to 20,000l. a year, should be los ; at Castletown and neighbourhood allowed to the Duke and his heirs is excellent lime-stone, whence the for ever. In the Session of Parliaisland is supplied with lime. There ment just now closed (June 1825) a are three lead mines on the moun- Bill was passed granting the Duke tains ; viz. at Brada, Foxdale, and 280,0001. for all his remaining rights Laxey. At Brada also copper ore is and dues on the Island, for the mines found. The horses, cows, and sheep, and minerals, --for the patronage of are all small, and shew that there is the Bishoprick and the Churches, and great room for improvement in the the one-fourth of the revenue as grantbreeds. In 1823, it was found, upon ed to him in 1805 to be done away inquiry, that the Island exported with, and he only to reserve Castle Mona wheat, 7,549 quarters ; barley, 254; and his lands, and hereafter to stand in oats, 1,256.

the capacity of a private gentleman. There are no poor rates on the Isle of The Island is ruled by a Governor, Man. Paupers are maintained, as in which is the Duke of Athol, and in Scotland, by collections in the Churches. his absence by a Lieutenant Governor,

The sovereignty of the Isle of Man who is then invested with all his auformerly belonged to the Earls of Der- thority, and performs all the duties by; but by the death of James 10th belonging to that office. He can call Earl of Derby in 1736, he dying with in the assistance of the two Deemsters out issue, the Estate and Lordship of or Judges, (called Deemsters, or Man devolved to James Murray, 2d Doomsters, from the word doom, to Duke of Athol, as sole heir of James judge); and also his council, which 7th Earl of Derby; whilst the title consists of the following persons. The and earldom passed in the male line Bishop, the Receivers General, the to Sir Edward Stanley.

Water Bailiff, Attorney General, Clerk In 1765 the 3d Duke and Duchess of of the Rolls, and the Archdeacon. Athol finding the English Government And on affairs of polity and legislaresolved to obtain authority and right ture, the House of Keys, so called, as on the Isle of Man, for ihe sake of is supposed, from their being the perpatting, a check to smuggling, and sons that unlock the difficulties and preventing it being a place of refuge mysteries of the law. The House of for debtors, reluctantly complied to Keys consists of 24 of the chief landaccept (being afraid of losing the holders of the Isle. The appointwhole) 70,0001. in lieu of their right ment is for life, except in cases of crito the custom and herring dues; minal conduct, resignation, or the acwhich were then said to amount 10 ceptance of any place that entitles him 6,5471. a year. The Duke and Duch- to a seat in the Council. When a vaess also received 2,000l. per ann. dur- cancy occurs, the others present the ing their natural lives, owing to some names of two gentlemen of landed misunderstanding arising from the property to the Governor, or, in his English Government claiming more abs the Lieutenant Governor, than the Duke asserted it was his in- who nominates one of them to fill the

vacancy. These two, the Governor in In making a sale of the Island, the Council, and the House of Keys, conDuke reserved all his feudal rights as stitute the Legislature, and the laws lord of the soil, with certain other pro- they enact having received the approfits coming under the saine descrip- balion of the King, and having been

pub

tention to grant.

a year.

102
· Account of the Isle of Man.

(Aug. published by proclamation on the Tyn- any ceremony while under examinawald Hill, according to ancient usage, tion. The Deemsters, or Judges, wear become statutes of the land. The neither wigs nor gowns, and every House of Keys have no fixed time for way seem to want that commanding their sittings, but meet as business re- dignity which is so essentially requiquires.

site on the Bench. The Court of GeTynwald Hill is in the village of neral Gaol Delivery is held at CastleSt. John's, three miles from Peel, town twice a year.

All felons are near the centre of the Island, and here tried by a Jury.' The Governor, where the roads from Castletown to Council, Deemsters, and the 24 memRamsey, and that from Douglas to bers of the House of Keys, sit as Peel meet. It is a green, circular, Judges; but their judgment is subartificial mound, about three yards in ject to Royal confirmation. height. The diameter of the top is The revenue is of two kinds, viz. seven feet. About a yard below, and that which arises from the duties on round this, is a step or resting place, Imports and Exports, which of late four feet wide. Below this is ano- years has been from 12 to 20,000/. ther step or resting-place six feet

After paying therefrom wide; and below this, another still the Custom-house Officers, and the wider. The circumference of the outer Duke of Athol one fourth of the net circle is nearly 80 yards. Laws pass. revenue, as a compensation for the ed by the Legislature of this Island sale of the sovereignty of the Island, are called Acts of Tynwald. Refore as agreed in Parliament in 1805, the they become binding upon the peo- remainder is remitted to the Lords of ple they must be read from this place, the

Treasury in London. which is generally done on St. John The second kind is what is imthe Baptist's day. Some think the posed by the Manks Legislature on word Tynwald is taken from the Da- wheeled carriages, dogs, and public nish word “Tin, or Ting," a Courthouses;, this amounts to something of Justice, and “wald," a field, or more than 2,0001. a year, and is place fenced. Others derive it from solely expended in keeping the tumthe old British words Tyng and val, pike - roads and bridges in repair. signifying the juridical hill.

Here are no toll-bars, and the roads, The two Deemsters, that is the generally speaking, are good. Judges for the northern and southern A person may live as well on the districts of the Island, are appointed Isle of Man with 2001. a year, as he by the Crown of England, with a sa- could with 3001. in England, Whitelary of 8001. a year each, and preclud- haven coals are from 20 to 22s. a ton. ed from taking fees. They hold singly Butchers meat and four are about the their Courts once a week, at some same as in any country village in Enge Court-house in their respective dis- land. A variety of fish cheap. Port trict. They have full power to de- wine from 18s. to 24s. a dozen. The termine all claims for debts to any duty on brandy is 4s. 6d. a gallon, and amount, and decide all disputes re- is here sold at 10s. a gallon. The duty specting lands, contracts, and engage- on rum is 38. a gallon, and is here sold ments, and also respecting defama- at 6s. a gallon. The duty on black tion, slander, or simple breach of the tea is 6d. a Ib. and is here sold from peace. The frequency of these Courts, 3s. 9d. to 6s. a lb. The duty on green and the petty offences they take cog- tea is 1s. a lb. and is here sold from nizance of, create continual litigation 6s. to gs. a lb. Every description of and bad neighbourhood. The busi- groceries are at the like reduced scale ness of Attorney and of Counsellor of prices. are here vested in the same person.

The name of “Man," as given to There appears a great want of order the Island, is generally supposed to be and decorum at the Manx bar. Three derived from the Saxon word “mang," or four of these Attorneys, or Coun- or “among,and was used in reference sellors, may be seen standing up to- to its situation among surrounding gether, arguing and contradicting one kingdoms. But Bp. Wilson supposed another in the most rude and inde- it to be an abreviation of the Manks corous manner. The parties at issue, word " manning," which signifies and their witnesses, will also exclaim among, i.e. among other nations. and contradict one another without The arms of the Isle of Man are

three

1625.) On the Conquest of England by William I.

103 three legs, uniting at the upper part queror *.'. On the subject in question, of the thigh, clothed and spurred, I propose to advance two seemingly dewith the mouto, “Stabit quocunque cisive arguments, (at least, as I conjeceris," i. e. which ever way you ceive,) till invalidated by more subtle ihrow it, it will stand. The three disputants than myself, against Eng. legs refer to the relative situation of land's having been totally overcome the Island with respect to the neigh- and subdued by the Normans; t and bouring nations of England, Scot- to wbich, without further cominent, land, and Ireland, previous to their I request to direct the attention of the union. The legs are armed, which readers of your interesting Journal. denotes self-defence. The spurs de- To proceed then, in the first place note speed ; and while in whatever we are given to understand that immeposition they are placed, two of them diately after the Battle of Hastings,' fall into the attitude of supplication, he marched directly to London : but the third, which will be upward and on the way was met by a large body of behind, appears to be kicking at the Kentish nien ; each with a bough, or assailant, against whom the other two branch of a tree in his hand. This army are imploring protection. The vis of was headed by Stigand, the Archbithe symbol is, that if England should shop, who made a speech to the Conseek to oppress it, it would soon en- queror, in which he boldly demanded gage Ireland or Scotland to afford pro- the preservation of their liberties; and tection; and if either of these should let him know that they were resolved assail it, that it would hasten to call rather to die than to part with their England to its defence. G. H. laws, and live in bondage. William

thought proper to grant their demands; Mr. URBAN,

he agreed to govern them by the laws Aug. 3.

of Edward the Confessor, and to sufN referring to the "History of Eng. fer them to retain their ancient cusnated the 'Norman Conquest,' we per- membered, previous to the ceremony eeise it to be there represented that ihis of Coronation, and upon these condiCountry, became entirely subjugated, tions only, was he acknowledged King: and ‘laid at the proud foot of a Con- indeed, Stigand $, the Primate, upon

Shakspeare, King John, Act 5th, Scene the last, says,

“This England never did, (nor never shall,)

Lie at the proud foot of a Conqueror,

But when it first did help to wound itself.” + “The Ecclesiastics in particular,” says Hume," whose influence was great over the perple, began to declare in his favour ; and as most of the Bishops and dignified Clergymen were even then Frenchmen or Normans, the Pope's bull, by which his enterprise was avoved and hallowed, was now openly insisted on as a reason for general submission. The superior learning of those Prelates, which, during the Confessor's reigo, had raised them above the ignorant Saxons, made their opinions be received with implicit faith; and a young prince like Edgar, whose capacity was deemed so mean, was but ill-qualified to resist the impression which they made on the minds of the people.” P. 230.–From the above passage, cited at length, it must be incontrovertibly apparent, that the people were so much under priest-government, or to use our more modernized phrase, “priest-ridden," as well as overawed by popish superstition and artifice, as to be utterly incapacitated from taking up arms, at least for any lengthened period, and consequently of regaining, or endeavouring to regain, the ancient rites and privileges they had previously enjoyed, under Saxon Monarchs ; that much of the arbitrary power exercised by these ruthless and inhuman spoilers, over bis favoured land, may, with the utmost propriety, be attributed to the swe in which they held the absurdities of relics, and supposed preternatural interpositions. Aty person, therefore, who surveys the above passage with the most moderate attention, must perceive that, (should they allege that he carried, and surmounted all obstacles to the Throne by force of arms,) the present argument entirely overthrows that opinion, and Calies us consequently to ipfer that this kingdom was obtained far more by artifice than conquest.

i Vide Cooper's “History of England," 12mo, pp. 14, 15. c. 1.

He was in fact crowned by Aildred, Archbishop of York; Stigand, Archbishop of Canterbury, refusing to perform the ceremony. Harleian Miscellany. Moss's Hastings. • pp. 51, &c. Some, however, say he did, which was most probably the case.

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104

Pronunciation of Heard." - Shenstone. [Ang. ang others, refused peremptorily to per- Mr. URBAN, Chelsea, Aug. 11.

THEorregarkese inteligent attribute his concession of the above- Correspondent "J. S. H.” Supmentioned privileges to any other mo- plement, First part, 1825, p.583, aptives than those of fear, and for the rea- pear to my miud niost acute, masson here assigned. Had he proceeded terly, and conclusive. They evince as a direct and determined Conqueror, sounddess of judgment with delicacy would he not, to complete his victory, of criticat taste, and certainly require have negatived privileges and rights (of not the authority of an avtoseda, the nature of which he knew nothing, “ the master said it,” to confirm their and which might, for ought he could validity. But, Dtr. Urban, should tell, be utterly inimical to the system that be deemed important ; should of government he intended to intro- the image and superscription of Cæsar duce,) wrested from him, as it were, be sought for on the coin before its by actual compulsion, and have push- general currency be allowed, I am ed forward his title, as a 'Conqueror, happy in the power of satisfying your by the sword? I doduce the inference readers with reference to Samuel Johnfrom his being (as History relates) a son himself. In his very entertaining cruel, vindictive, and rapacious tyrant. and instructive Life of Dr. Johnson, This, I conceive, to be one argument in quarto, 1794, vol. 11. p. 171, Mr. exceedingly derogatory to the misap Boswell writes thus : "1 perceived plied epithet of Conqueror:' and in that he pronounced the word keard, the next and last place, I will observe, as if spelt with a double e, heerd, that it is a notorious fact, that part of instead of sounding it herd, as is most Kent, to this very day, bears for its usually done. He said, his reason was, arms, a rampant white horse, the motto that if it were pronounced herd, there « Invicta," subscribed. I proceed, would be a single exception from the then to propose the following import- English pronunciation of the syllable ant question in relation to William's ear, and he thought it better not to being strictly and appropriatelyendowed have that exception:" Conceiving it with the appellation of • Conqueror t,' the duty of every one who is improved and would state my arguments thus: hy your work, to aid your views, I If part of Kent, being part of England, have made this extract: and remain, remain unconquered,

how is it possible your obliged humble servant. *B. that England, in a distributed sense, can be said to have been conquered ? or perhaps the question might be more Mr. URBAN, Salop, Aug. 13. manner, viz. For England to be sub THE following inscription on

, dued, the whole must be conquered. co. Warwick, may be acceptable (at Part of England was unsubdued ; therea least) to your Shenstonian friends. fore England was not conquered.

Yours, &c.

A, II. I have troubled you by inserting the foregoing remarks, in hopes that they

“Ah, Musæ perfidae! may attract the attention of some in- Ah, Naindes, Dryadesque !

malè tenuistis genious reader or readers, and beg to close them by subscribing inyself,

nostram prædilectum Yours, &c. J. D. Oxon.

G. SAENSTONE."

an

“ Invicta.” If this motto be considered as no proof of England's not having been absolutely conquered; I should feel much obliged to any of your Correspondents to prove in what sense it may properly be applied ? and consequently to overthrow the syllogism subscribed.

+ “Some writers," says the above-mentioned Historian, “have been desirous of refusing to this prince the title of Conqueror in the sepse which that term commonly bears ; and, on pretence that the word is sometimes in old books applied to such as make an acquisition of territory by any means, they are willing to reject William's title by right of war to the crown of England. It is needless, he further adds, to enter into a controversy, which, by the terms of it, must necessarily degenerate into a form of words." This Historian is far from being an impartial one, and the arguments before submitted, in my opinion, are far, very fas, from • degenerating into a form of words.”

Mr.

1825) Governor Pitt's Account of his celebrated Diamond. 105 MR. URBAN, Bath, Aug. 15. one, I did not think of meddling with HAVE much pleasure in commu. it, when he left it with me for some

nicating to you Governor Pitt's days, and then came and took it away own account of his purchase of the again ; and did so several times, not celebrated Diamond,'both from the insisting upon less than 200,000 pa. personal interest I feel in vindicating godas; and, as I best remember, I did his character, and as I shall be glad to not bid him above 30,000, and had see his candid and plain statement of little thoughts of buying it for that. I the fact recorded in your valuable Ma- considered there were many and great gazine. It is dated July 29, 1710, risques to be run, not only in curting and is as follows:

it, but also whether it would prove “Since my coming into this me- foul or clear, or the water good; beJancholy place of Bergeu, I have been sides, I thought it too great an amount often thinking of the most unparalleled to be advenured home on one bottom. villainy of William Fraser, Thomas But Jaurchund resolved to return Frederick, and Smapa, a black mer- speedily to his own country; so that I chant, who brought a paper before best remenaber it was in February folGovernor Addison in Council

, insi- lowing he came again to me (with nating tha: I had unfairly got pos- Vincatee Chittee, who was always session of a large Diamond, which with him,) when I discoursed with him tended so much to the prejudice of my about it, and pressed me to know, reputation and the rain of my estate, whether I resolved 10 buy it, when he that I thought it necessary to keep by came down to 100,000 pagodas, and be the true relation how I purchased something under before we parted, it in all respects, that so, in case of when we agreed upon a day to meet, sudden mortality, my children and and make a final end thereof one way friends may be apprised of the whole or other, which I believe was the latter butter, and so be enabled thereby to end of the aforesaid month, or the bepot to silence, and confound those, ginning of March); when we accordand all other villains in their base at- ingly met in the Consultation Room, tempts against either. Not having where, after a great deal of talk Í got my books by me at present, I can- brought bim down to 55,000 pagodas, not be positive as to the time, but for and advanced to 45,000, resolving to the manner of purchasing it I do here give no more, and he likewise resolvdeclare and assert, under my hand, in ing not to abate, I delivered him up the presence of God Almighty, as I the stone, and we took a friendly leave hope for salvation throngh the merits of one another. Mr. Benyon was then and intercession of our Saviour. Jesus writing in my closet, with whom I Christ, that this is ibe truth, and if it discoursed on what had passed, and told be not, let God deny it to me and my him now I was clear of it; when about children for ever, which I would be an hour after, my servant brought me 80 far from saying, much less leave it word that Jaurchund and Vincatee under my hand, that I would not be Chittee were at the door, who being guilty of the least untruth in the rela- called in, they used a great many ex. 2100 of it for the riches and honour of pressions in praise of the stone, and the whole world.

told me he had rather I should buy it “ About two or three years after my than any body, and to give an instance arrival at Madras, which was in July thereof, offered it for 50,000; so be1098, I heard there were large Diamonds - believing it must be a pennyworth, if in the country to be sold, which I en- it proved good, I offered to part the couraged to be brought down, pro- 5000 pagodas that was then between nising to be their chapman, if they · us, which he would not hearken to, would be reasonable therein ; upon and' was going out of the room again, which Jaorchund, one of the most when he turned back and told me eminent diamond merchants in those that I should have it for 49,000, but I parts, came down about December still adhered to what I had before 1701, and brought with him a large offered him, when presently he came rough stone, about 305 mangelius, to 48,000, and made a solemn vow he and some small ones, which myself would not part with it a pagoda under, and others bought; but he asking a when I went again into the closet to Fery extravagant price for the great Mr. Benyon, and told him what had Gext. Mag. August, 1825.

passed,

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